Gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma: Review of the literature

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.
Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 4.52). 04/2010; 45(4). DOI: 10.1007/s00535-009-0182-z
Source: PubMed


Gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma (GI-FL) is a relatively rare disease, accounting for only 1%-3.6% of gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although the duodenum and terminal ileum are considered to be the most common sites of origin, the development of wireless capsule endoscopy and double-balloon enteroscopy has increased the detection of GI-FL in every part of the small intestine. Approximately 70% of patients with GI-FL are estimated to have multiple lesions throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. FL is a low-grade lymphoma that usually develops very slowly. If the lymphoma causes no symptoms, immediate treatment may not be necessary. Standard therapy has not yet been established for GI-FL, but chemotherapy, radiotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, or a combination of these therapies, is sometimes performed based on the therapeutic regimens for nodal FL. Regimens including conventional chemotherapy with rituximab, which achieve high response rates in nodal FL, are commonly used for GI-FL. The long-term clinical outcome of GI-FL is unclear. The results of a few series on the long-term outcomes of patients with GI-FL treated with conventional therapy indicate a median relapse-free time ranging from 31 to 45 months. On the other hand, in patients with GI-FL who were followed without treatment, the median time to disease progression was 37.5 months. Thus, whether to initiate aggressive therapy or whether to continue watchful waiting in patients with GI-FL is a critically important decision. Ongoing research on biomarkers to guide individualized GI-FL therapy may provide invaluable information that will lead to the establishment of a standard therapeutic regimen.

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Available from: Hiroshi Nakase
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    • "Primary intestinal follicular lymphoma is a distinct subcategory of follicular lymphomas that was established within the last decade [1]. A wide variety of treatment options are available for patients with primary intestinal follicular lymphoma, including watch-and-wait, single-agent alkylating therapy, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and rituximab with various possible combinations [2]. Although there is insufficient evidence to identify the best or appropriate treatment, the watch-and-wait policy is considered an acceptable approach for intestinal follicular lymphomas, because in follicular lymphomas of nodal origin, delayed therapy has been reported to be associated with outcomes similar to those observed in treated patients [3–5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A 62-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed with primary intestinal follicular lymphoma involving the duodenum, jejunum, and rectum without lymph node involvement. The patient was classified as low risk by the follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) system. Treatment was deferred because he had no symptoms. Eleven months after the diagnosis, his soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels had risen from 383 to 617 U/mL. Lymphoma progression involving an enlarged perigastric lymph node was also documented. This report illustrates a case of rapidly progressed intestinal follicular lymphoma, suggesting the possible usefulness of sIL-2R levels as an indicator of lymphoma progression.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
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    • "In contrast, MALT lymphoma is negative for CD10 and only occasionally positive for BCL2 [4]. In addition, mantle cell lymphoma expresses cyclin D1 and BCL2 but negative for CD10 [2, 4]. Immunohistochemical findings were useful for distinguishing our case from MALT lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma [2, 4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The duodenum is infrequently affected by malignant lymphoma, and follicular lymphomas of the duodenum are rare histological subtypes. There are no reported cases of collision of follicular lymphoma and other tumors in the ampulla of Vater. A 57-year-old Japanese man presented with jaundice, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor of the ampulla of Vater invading the pancreatic head with biliary dilatation and a thickened duodenal wall. The patient underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen revealed lymphoid follicular formations with small-to-medium-sized centrocyte-like cells and some centroblast-like cells. The atypical lymphoid cells were immunohistochemically positive for CD10, CD20, and CD79a but negative for CD5 and cyclin D1. BCL2 protein was highly expressed in the follicle centers. The diagnosis was duodenal follicular lymphoma, Grade 1. The follicular lymphoma, 40 mm in diameter, involved duodenal submucosa and regional lymph nodes without distant metastasis. This duodenal follicular lymphoma was partially overlapped by adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater, measuring 25 × 20 mm, which involved the lower common bile duct, pancreas, and duodenum. We report the first case of a surgically treated collision tumor composed of a rare mass-forming follicular lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    • "This entity is widely noticed among endoscopists, and its incidence is increasing. The duodenum is the most frequently involved site of intestinal FL, and the representative endoscopic feature is well known to be small whitish polypoid nodules up to 2 mm in diameter.6,7 In the presented patient, the duodenal lesions were visualized as confluent whitish granules, rather than nodules or polyps. "
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    ABSTRACT: The representative endoscopic features of primary intestinal follicular lymphoma are well known as small whitish polypoid nodules, but a magnified view has only been described in a few case reports. Herein, we report a case with intestinal follicular lymphoma in which magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging was helpful for prompt diagnosis. A 57-year-old Japanese woman underwent surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The endoscopic examination revealed confluent whitish granules in the duodenum, distinct from the nodules or polyps that are typical findings of intestinal follicular lymphoma. Magnifying endoscopy visualized whitish enlarged villi, and narrow band imaging emphasized an elongated and coiled vascular pattern. Based on these features, intestinal follicular lymphoma was highly suspected, and subsequent histological study confirmed the diagnosis. This case demonstrates that magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging was useful for the detection and prompt diagnosis of intestinal follicular lymphoma. The pathological features of intestinal follicular lymphoma are also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Gut and liver
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