Changes in Weight, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Estimated Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Following Smoking Cessation in Japanese Male Workers: HIPOP-OHP Study
Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
(Impact Factor: 2.73).
02/2010; 17(1):12-20. DOI: 10.5551/jat.1800
It is well established that people gain weight after smoking cessation; however, changes in cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated risk of coronary heart disease following smoking cessation have yet to be fully clarified.
The participants were 1,995 Japanese male workers at 11 workplaces who participated continuously in the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOPOHP) study. Participants with a smoking habit had cardiovascular risk factors measured at baseline and over a 4-yr period. Their estimated incidence risk of coronary heart disease was calculated by a formula based on a previous cohort study.
Successful abstainers who had stopped smoking for at least 6 months at the end of the follow-up period had weight gains of approximately 2 kg. These subjects had significant worsening of the following factors compared to continuing smokers: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting blood sugar levels. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol levels improved significantly. When the overall instantaneous incidence risk of coronary heart disease prior to smoking cessation was assumed to be 1.00, the estimated risk was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.68-0.85) in successful abstainers due mainly to smoking cessation, despite weight gain.
Although smoking cessation leads to weight gain, the estimated risk of coronary heart disease was decreased markedly by smoking cessation.
Available from: Seung Wook Lee
- "In our study, the mean TC, LDL-C, HDL-C values were higher in the normal control group than those in the PAD or CAD group. The results from a Japanese male worker study,18) a Korean study,19) and a U.S. adult study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys20) are consistent with the high TC, LDL-C, HDL-C values that we found in our normal control group. "
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to analyze and compare risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD).
The sample included 7936 Korean patients aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized from 1994 to 2004. Of the 7936 subjects, PAD (n=415), CAD (n=3686), and normal controls (Control) (n=3835) were examined at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center.
The mean age (years) of PAD subjects was 64.4 (±9.3), while CAD subjects was 61.2 (±9.9), and Control subjects was 59.9 (±9.1) (p<0.01). The proportion of males was 90.6% for PAD, 71.4% for CAD, and 75.5% for Control subjects (p<0.01). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease were significantly higher in subjects with PAD or CAD compared to those in Control. However, the ORs for high density lipoprotein, being overweight, and being obese were significantly lower in PAD subjects compared to those in Control.
We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.
Available from: Junko Tamaki
- "Each company had 500-1,000 employees. Researchers followed the data of CVD risk factors, lifestyle and consciousness about health based on nutrition, physical activity and smoking for four years [13-16]. This study was performed as part of the management of safety and health with the approval of the Safety Hygiene Committee at each company. "
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ABSTRACT: Prevalence of men with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) is increasing in Japan. Few studies have comprehensively examined the relation between lifestyles and CMRF.
We examined the baseline data from 3,498 male workers ages 19 to 69 years who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study at 12 large-scale companies throughout Japan. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Dietary intake was surveyed by a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. We defined four CMRF in this study as follows: 1) high blood pressure (BP): systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2) dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration < 40 mg/dl, or triglycerides concentration ≥ 150 mg/dl, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3) impaired glucose tolerance: fasting blood sugar concentration ≥110 mg/dl; 4) obese: a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2.
Those who had 0 to 4 CMRF accounted for 1,597 (45.7%), 1,032 (29.5%), 587 (16.8%), 236 (6.7%), and 44 (1.3%) participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors that contributed to the number of CMRF were age (b = 0.020, P < 0.01), IPAQ (b = -0.091, P < 0.01), alcohol intake (ml/day) (b = 0.001, P = 0.03), percentage of protein intake (b = 0.059, P = 0.01), and total energy intake (kcal)(b = 0.0001, P < 0.01). Furthermore, alcohol intake and its frequency had differential effects.
Alcohol intake, percent protein and total energy intake were positively associated, whereas drinking frequency and IPAQ were inversely associated, with the number of CMRF.
Available from: healtheiron.com
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ABSTRACT: Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), regarded as a marker of excessive alcohol consumption or liver disturbances, is an enzyme catalyzing the first step in the extracellular degradation of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and may take part in atherogenesis. The marked relationship between GGT and the atherosclerotic process has shifted attention to the issue of whether its serum levels can aid in the detection of individuals at high risk for incident cardiovascular events. It is likely that the process entails the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein through GSH/GGT-dependent iron reduction within the plaque. In this context, oxidative stress is a probable mediator. Recent insights into the pathophysiological background of GGT in the precipitation and progression of atherosclerosis appear to be supported by relevant epidemiological observations as a cardiovascular risk predictor. Further understanding is, nevertheless, warranted to ameliorate the prognostic stratification of patients through GGT.
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