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Gender Differences in Gratitude: Examining Appraisals, Narratives, the Willingness to Express Emotions, and Changes in Psychological Needs

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Abstract

Previous work suggests women might possess an advantage over men in experiencing and benefiting from gratitude. We examined whether women perceive and react to gratitude differently than men. In Study 1, women, compared with men, evaluated gratitude expression to be less complex, uncertain, conflicting, and more interesting and exciting. In Study 2, college students and older adults described and evaluated a recent episode when they received a gift. Women, compared with men, reported less burden and obligation and greater gratitude. Upon gift receipt, older men reported the least positive affect when their benefactors were men. In Studies 2 and 3, women endorsed higher trait gratitude compared with men. In Study 3, over 3 months, women with greater gratitude were more likely to satisfy needs to belong and feel autonomous; gratitude had the opposite effect in men. The willingness to openly express emotions partially mediated gender differences, and effects could not be attributed to global trait affect. Results demonstrated that men were less likely to feel and express gratitude, made more critical evaluations of gratitude, and derived fewer benefits. Implications for the study and therapeutic enhancement of gratitude are discussed.

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... Yet most of what we know about gratitude has primarily come from work with adults. A review conducted by Wood, Froh, and Geraghty (2010) encompassed gratitude, social relationships, and well-being, though only a handful of articles included children (e.g., Froh, Kashdan et al., 2009;Froh, Sefick, & Emmons, 2008;Froh, 2009). A subsequent meta-analysis conducted by Renshaw and Olinger Steeves (2016) more specifically focused on children's gratitude and well-being. ...
... Yet most of what we know about gratitude has primarily come from work with adults. A review conducted by Wood, Froh, and Geraghty (2010) encompassed gratitude, social relationships, and well-being, though only a handful of articles included children (e.g., Froh, Kashdan et al., 2009;Froh, Sefick, & Emmons, 2008;Froh, 2009). A subsequent meta-analysis conducted by Renshaw and Olinger Steeves (2016) more specifically focused on children's gratitude and well-being. ...
... They found that some of the positive associations between children's gratitude and life satisfaction indicators remained significant even after controlling for PA whereas others did not. Although studies with adults provide evidence that gratitude is uniquely related to well-being when controlling for PA (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2006;Kashdan et al., 2009), construct specificity remains an area to for further investigation with child samples. ...
Article
Positive psychology has highlighted the importance of personal positive qualities such as gratitude for human thriving. Reviews of research on gratitude are predominantly based on work with adults. We address this gap by considering the familial roots and well-being implications of gratitude in children. We conducted two systematic reviews examining children’s gratitude as it relates to parent–child relationships (N = 10) and children’s gratitude and well-being (N = 38). Children’s gratitude was higher when parents modeled gratitude, there was a more secure parent–child attachment, and parents employed more supportive, autonomy granting, and warm parenting. These findings align with attachment theory, social learning and emotion socialization theories, and the find-remind-and-bind theory. Additionally, children’s gratitude was positively related to greater life satisfaction, positive affect, and mental well-being in cross-sectional and intervention studies. These findings provide some support for the broaden-and-build theory, the adaptive cycle model, and the schematic hypothesis. The reviewed theoretical frameworks and empirical findings formed the basis of our proposed model whereby children’s gratitude is posited to mediate the relation between parent–child relationship factors and children’s well-being. Further, we identified several testable mechanisms that might explain why gratitude is related to well-being. Our proposed model is an important contribution to the current literature because it provides a novel, overarching synthesis of existing work on children’s gratitude that is intended to be a framework for future research to test potential mechanisms relevant to children’s gratitude development and well-being outcomes.
... Second, the potential benefits of gratitude may differ due to gender differences (Kashdan et al., 2009) and age-related changes in social relationships (Chopik et al., 2019). Although emerging evidence supports the beneficial associations of gratitude with social relationships and emotional well-being (Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Ma et al., 2017), potential gender and age differences in these benefits have been less examined (Chopik et al., 2019). ...
... Data from 11 European countries, however, show that women in general reported being lonelier than men and the gender difference in loneliness was more pronounced in late life (Hansen & Slagsvold, 2015). For gender differences in gratitude, women tend to be higher in trait gratitude and derive more benefits from the experience and expression of gratitude than men (Kashdan et al., 2009). Specifically, in a young adult sample, women reported greater gratitude and associated their experience of receiving gifts with more benefits and fewer costs than men (Kashdan et al., 2009). ...
... For gender differences in gratitude, women tend to be higher in trait gratitude and derive more benefits from the experience and expression of gratitude than men (Kashdan et al., 2009). Specifically, in a young adult sample, women reported greater gratitude and associated their experience of receiving gifts with more benefits and fewer costs than men (Kashdan et al., 2009). In addition, in a sample of young (n = 214, M age = 20.5 years, 72.4% women) and older adults (n = 77, M age = 69.6 years, 61.8% women), a significant Age × Gender interaction indicated that older men experienced substantially less pleasure when they received a gift from another man as opposed to from a woman (Kashdan et al., 2009). ...
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This study examined the association between gratitude and loneliness across the adult lifespan using a seven-day daily diary study design. The sample consisted of young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 128; age M = 56.7 years; SD = 18.7 years; range = 24.2–90.2 years; 46% women). A significant Age × Gender × Gratitude interaction effect on loneliness indicated that gratitude and loneliness were negatively associated in general. Results of simple slopes analyses showed that gender differences in loneliness were significant in young adults who were more grateful and in older adults who were less grateful. Women were less lonely than men, on average, and the gender difference was significant for those younger and more grateful, or older and less grateful. Thus, the beneficial effect of gratitude on loneliness differed across age and gender. These findings suggest that the potential benefits of gratitude on social relationships and emotional well-being, such as loneliness, should be examined differentially for men and women and in the context of changing social relationships in the aging process.
... The moral affect theory presents that gratitude can powerfully promote the prosocial motivation and behaviors of individuals, while individuals with stronger prosocial inclination tend to have better human relations (which meets the relatedness need). The achievement motivation theory points out that gratitude can stimulate the struggle for and the pursuit of goals and, thereby, strengthen the social engagement of individuals, leading to the establishment of a successful social relation (competence need, autonomy need, and relatedness need) (Kashdan et al., 2009;Lee, Tong, & Sim, 2015;Peng, Feng, et al., 2019;Tian, Pi, Huebner, & Du, 2016). Tian et al. (2016) documented that BPN satisfaction can, in part, mediate the effects of gratitude on SWB. ...
... When the prisoners responded to the received favors from a gratitude perspective, they were able to form better interpersonal relations, which compensated for the inability to fully satisfy in-prison environmental relatedness needs. The core of gratitude is to detect the sources of goodwill in life, accept external existence, and focus on the realization of personal values to better reward others and society (Kashdan et al., 2009). Such cognitive style and life orientation will promote the sense of control, which further help to improve the basic need satisfaction . ...
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Counting blessings is one of the gratitude intervention methods to promote gratitude and subjective well-being (SWB). This study aimed to examine whether counting blessings could effectively promote SWB in prisoners and test whether the effect was mediated by gratitude and satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN). A total of 124 male prisoners wrote either grateful things or a control topic. The results demonstrated that counting blessings were associated with significant increase in gratitude, partially increases in satisfaction of BPN, and slightly increase SWB at the post-intervention assessment. Additionally, gratitude and satisfaction of BPN mediated the effect of counting blessings on SWB.
... Positive affect (PA) has been widely studied in various types of work [4,18]. It is the emotion or feeling in responding to the environment positively [8,10,20] and generally associated with positive results, including high job satisfaction [2,25,30] and low turnover rates [29]. Several research on emotion management argued that women are better at managing their emotions than men [9,11], despite showing inconsistent results of the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention moderated by positive affect. ...
... Hypothesis 1b: Job satisfaction has a negative effect on turnover intention (Female) c. Hypothesis 1c: Job satisfaction has a negative effect on turnover intention (Male) Positive Affect Moderates the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention Positive affect is the emotion or feeling to positively respond the environment [8,10,20]. Employees with high positive affect tend not to leave the organization despite low job satisfaction, and vice versa [24,29]. In connection with gender, women could manage their emotions better than men do [9,11]. ...
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This study seeks to investigate the effect of positive affect moderation on the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention based on gender. A total of 102 employees working for motorcycle dealers were involved in this survey. The effective rate of return in this study was 82%. A hierarchical regression analysis was used in this study. The results showed that positive affect based on gender, particularly female gender, strengthened the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention compared to male gender. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed in this study.
... Gratitude is included as a signature strength in the VIA classification and refers to the capacity to recognise and appreciate benefits from others and to reciprocate with positive actions (Wissing, Potgieter, Guse, Khumalo & Nel, 2014). Gratitude has been extensively studied and is positively associated with a constellation of spiritual, physical and emotional benefits (Emmons & Stern, 2013;Kashdan, Mishra, Breen & Froh, 2009;Ma, Kibler & Sly, 2013). Additionally, gratitude is related to cognitive benefits, such as broadening and building people's perspectives and skill sets (Froh et al., 2010). ...
... In the case where gratitude is directed towards other persons, it can be described as a form of reciprocal altruism, and it aims to foster mutually beneficial relationships (Emmons & Mishra, 2011). Data suggest that gratitude is connected positively to a variety of prosocial outcomes, for example, well-being, positive youth development, and quality of life (Kashdan et al., 2009;Ma et al., 2013). Correspondingly, gratitude is negatively related to indicators of psychological distress, such as anxiety and depression (Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
Article
Signature strengths, such as gratitude, can assist students in navigating the demanding first-year experience. However, more research is needed to explore the role of gratitude in relation to cognitive benefits for students. This article reports on a constructivist grounded theory study that explored South African students' conceptions and enactments of gratitude with regard to their learning efforts. Qualitative data were collected in individual open-ended interviews (n = 22, age-range = 18-23) and analysed using three interdependent coding phases (initial coding, focused coding and theoretical coding). The resultant grounded theory was titled "˜Thanks: Gratitude and learning resilience amongst first-year university students". The findings revealed that gratitude could take many forms and has a positive qualitative impact on students' learning resilience, and that gratitude and learning resilience are emancipatory in nature. Limitations and areas for further research conclude the discussion.
... That is, the social roles of women and men are based to a large extent on gender-role stereotypes about properties and traits attributed to men and women by socially are created and perpetuated through societal expectations towards men and women. For example, across many cultures, women are expected to express more moral emotions (e.g., guilt, shame), and empathy more often than men (Kashdan, Mishra, Breen, & Froh, 2009). On the other hand, however, a growing number of neuropsychological studies also confirm a female advantage in empathy at the neurophysiological level (Huetter et al., 2016). ...
... Moreover, females have reported that they receive more personal gains in terms of emotional benefit from being grateful to others . For example, Kashdan et al. (2009) showed that compared to females, males were less likely to feel and express gratitude, were more likely to be critical of gratitude, and reported receiving fewer benefits. Such findings could perhaps suggest that some males may learn to believe that showing gratitude and other moral, prosocial emotions such as compassion and empathy may often be interpreted by others as evidence of emotional weaknesses and thus possibly threaten their masculinity and social position (Yarnell et al. 2019). ...
Article
Past research shows most women report higher levels of empathy and gratitude than men. Although studies show relations among resilience, gratitude, and empathy, little is known on the influence of gender on the links among. The present study examined the individual differences and relations among adults’ levels of empathy, gratitude, and resilience, particularly how gender influences such relations. Secondly the mediation role of resilience was tested on the associations between empathy and gratitude. Participants were 214 Polish (104 women) self-identified adults, aged from 18 to 55 years old (M = 28.29 years, SD = 11.19), who completed online self-report measures of empathy (QCAE scale), gratitude (GRAT scale), and resilience (SPP-25 scale). The cross-sectional study was used to get the data. The results show that females scored higher in empathy and gratitude than males, but males reported higher levels of resilience than females. Openness to new life experiences (resilience dimension) emerged as the strongest predictor for gratitude in both groups. Resilience also served as a mediator between empathy and gratitude and this differed according to self-identified gender. Implications for gendered developmental research in positive psychology are discussed.
... Gratitude can be experienced through several different means such as recognition of a sacrifice, giving, compliments, showing appreciation, and acknowledgement of skills and talents and so on. Kashdan et al., (2009) point out that although on the whole women and girls tend to benefit more than men and boys from receiving gratitude and find it easier to show gratitude, in some contexts (e.g. male communities, teams), the men concerned may derive similar advantages. ...
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‘Upskirting’ is the action or practice of surreptitiously taking photographs or videos up a female’s skirt or dress. In the UK it is an offence. However, internationally, laws are uneven. Understanding how perpetrators account for their actions becomes an important question. Here we present the findings of our thematic analysis of posts on the ‘upskirting’ website, The Candid Zone. Our analysis shows that posters and respondents frame this activity as artistic and technical, providing each other with advice and guidance on where, and how to get the ‘best’ shots. We conceptualize this as form of abuse as homosociality and craftsmanship.
... Hence, prestige quality as manifested in the social media influencers' content would be more relevant in fostering the parasocial relationships for men. In addition, as women are in general more generous, kind, and socially-oriented (Eagly & Crowley, 1986;Kashdan, Mishra, Breen, & Froh, 2009), they are more likely to tolerate social media influencers' self-serving motives, especially if they perceive them as close friends. Moreover, women tend to ponder on their decisions longer than men do (Meyers-Levy & Maheswaran, 1991). ...
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The unprecedented interactivity of social media has empowered social media influencers to develop close relationships with their followers, and such relationships carry important marketing implications for social media influencers and brands. The present study examines the antecedents and outcomes of followers' parasocial relationships with social media influencers. Drawing upon the theoretical lens of parasocial interaction theory, influence framework, and attribution framework, the study proposes and empirically tests the effects of social media influencers' influence attempts on parasocial relationships, and the subsequent downstream outcomes of perceived endorser motives and consumer purchase intentions. Using a survey-based approach, the study collected 361 usable responses, and data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The study found that (1) influence attempts (i.e., attractiveness, prestige, and expertise) positively influence parasocial relationships, whereas (2) parasocial relationships negatively influence perceived endorser motive (self-serving), which in turn (3) reduces purchase intention, and (4) self-discrepancy moderates the relationships between influence attempts and parasocial relationships. Two post-hoc exploratory analyses uncovers the impacts of number of followers and gender in the proposed relationships. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Furthermore, while population based, this study was conducted in Minnesota, only those with driver's licenses or state identification cards were included, and primarily captured non-Hispanic White individuals, and therefore may not be generalizable to all melanoma survivors. The self-reported data may be prone to gender bias with regard to social desirability, i.e., women might be more inclined than men to admit being fearful or to express feelings of gratitude because of gendered differences in socialization; however, information on gender identity was unavailable and therefore, these results are limited to biologic sex [17,45,46]. Future studies considering gender identity would be greatly beneficial to expand on these findings. ...
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Purpose A cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment can have a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life. Differences in quality of life by sex among long-term melanoma survivors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to describe sex differences in cancer-specific psychosocial quality of life of long-term melanoma survivors. Methods Melanoma survivors 7–10 years post-diagnosis from a previously conducted population-based case-control study were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Validated measures of psychosocial quality of life related to melanoma diagnosis were assessed. Outcomes were compared by sex using linear regression models adjusting for age, education, income, and marital status. Results The survey response rate was 62% (433 females, 291 males; 86% stage I disease). Females were more likely to report changes in their appearance (p = 0.006) and being more fearful of recurrence (p = 0.001) or a second melanoma (p = 0.001) than males but were also more likely to report that melanoma had a positive impact on their lives (p < 0.0001). Males were more likely to agree with statements that emphasized that life’s duration is limited (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Long-term melanoma survivors reported generally favorable measures of psychosocial quality of life related to their diagnosis. Females and males reported unique quality of life concerns and may require varied methods of support following a melanoma diagnosis.
... Naito et al. (2005) used hypothetical helping situations to explore cross-cultural similarities and differences in gratitude across university students in Japan and Thailand. Naito et al. noted that the helping scenarios evoked feelings of indebtedness in respondents, and across both countries indebtedness was more marked in males than females (in keeping with the wider literature on gender differences in gratitude; Kashdan et al., 2009). ...
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Examinations of the influence of culture on how gratitude is experienced are sparse, as are studies that simultaneously explore developmental differences in understandings of gratitude. This paper presents three studies that examine whether perceptions and experiences of gratitude differ across children, adolescents and adults in two individualistic, WEIRD and Commonwealth cultures—Australia and the UK. Studies 1a ( N = 88, ages 17–39) and 1b ( N = 77, ages 17–25) provide initial insights into “features of gratitude” in Australia through two stages of a prototype analysis. These features are compared to a previous prototype study of gratitude in the UK, alongside a further comparison to the US. Study 2 employs vignettes to examine how perceptions of the benefactor, benefit and mixed emotions influence the degree of gratitude experienced across adolescents and adults in Australia ( N = 1937, ages 11–85), with a comparison to the UK ( N = 398, ages 12–65). In Study 3, factors examined in Study 2 are adapted into accessible story workbooks for younger children (Australia N=135, ages 9–11; UK N=62, ages 9–11). Results across these studies demonstrate similarities and differences in understandings and experiences of gratitude across cultures. While adults across Australia and the UK responded similarly to gratitude scenarios, cross-cultural differences are observed between children and adolescents in these two countries. Developmental differences are noted in relation to more sophisticated reasoning around gratitude, such as recognition of ulterior motives. These findings highlight the need for gratitude research and interventions to be cross-culturally, and developmentally, responsive.
... In addition, some previous studies have shown gender differences in gratitude: females are usually more likely to experience and express gratitude than males Kashdan et al., 2009). However, when measuring gender differences, these studies did not guarantee that the GQ-5 measures the same underlying structure between different gender groups. ...
Article
The 5-item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-5) is one of the most commonly used instruments to measure dispositional gratitude in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to verify the longitudinal measurement invariance (LMI) and gender measurement invariance (GMI) of the GQ-5 that was administered to an adolescent sample twice over the course of 18 months ( N = 669). Single-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was adopted to examine the LMI and multiple-group CFA was conducted to assess the GMI. The results showed that the GQ-5 had strong invariance (i.e., equality of factor patterns, loadings, and intercepts) across time and gender. Validation of latent factor mean differences showed that females had higher gratitude scores than males. In addition, the GQ-5 exhibited good internal consistency indices across time and a moderate stability coefficient was also found across an 18-month time interval in adolescents. In summary, our study showed that LMI and GMI of the GQ-5 are satisfactory and the GQ-5 is a reliable instrument for measuring gratitude in adolescents.
... In Study 1, we examined the factorial validity of this instrument via exploratory factor analysis and cross-validated it via confirmatory factor analysis. We also tested for gender invariance, as Kashdan et al. (2009) found that women reacted differently to gratitude and endorsed higher trait gratitude compared with men. Heintz et al. (2019) also reported that women scored higher compared to men in gratitude. ...
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The purpose of this study was to provide a reliable and valid instrument in Hindi for measuring gratitude in the Indian context. Psychometric properties of the translated Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) were analyzed in two studies. In the first study, 448 adults (Mage = 36.47) completed the Hindi version of GQ-6 with demographic questions. Participants were split into two groups for conducting exploratory (EEA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), respectively. The EFA indicated a one-factor solution (α = .74) with five items. The CFA showed the five-item version (GQ-5) fit the data better than the original instrument (GQ-6). Measurement invariance was investigated across gender using the whole dataset. Configural and scalar invariance were supported. In the second study, participants were 211 adults who completed the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), Gratitude Adjective Checklist (GAC), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) along with previous instruments. The CFA replicated a one-factor structure with five-items. The instrument showed adequate evidence of convergent validity with GAC, discriminant validity with life satisfaction and joy, and nomological validity. In conclusion, the Hindi GQ-5 is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing gratitude in Hindi speaking population in India.
... Research by Mestre et al. (2009) also contributes information on women's greater empathic disposition in comparision with men by means of a longitudinal design in an adolescent population. Kashdan et al. (2009) found that women express more pro-social emotions such as gratitude which act as a catalyst to have more happiness. The data in Table 6 portrays the correlation of socio-personal variables of adolescents with empathy and happiness. ...
Article
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The study investigates the profile and relationship of happiness and empathy among adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of 120 senior secondary students, 60 girls and 60 boys, residing in the Ludhiana district of Punjab was taken. Research tools used were Happiness Scale by Rastogi and Moorjani (2016) and Empathy Scale developed by Dubey and Tandon (2014). To find out the gender difference across different variables, descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and t-test were used. To identify the relationship between empathy and happiness the Pearson Correlation Coefficient was applied. Results showed gender differences exist in happiness and empathy with girls having a higher level of happiness and empathy with better mean scores as compared to their counterparts. The correlation analysis showed a significantly positive relationship between happiness and empathy of adolescents.
... Interpersonal practices like shout outs, appreciations in circle work, and gratitude walls have public expression components that can activate threats to social identity and prevent safe access. For example, males may be discouraged from expressing gratitude or other feelings publicly to others (Kashdan et al., 2009). Or a language learner may be reluctant to speak out loud. ...
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Schools can use gratitude practices to help students build social and self-awareness skills to connect with and succeed in school. Recent efforts focus on improving equity to achieve wider, sustainable effects. Here we present a way for students and staff to practice gratitude that promotes equity and highlight ways school counselors can work with teachers and students to better support a positive school culture.
... Interestingly, we found that across all religious/spiritual groups, male athletes tended to report higher levels of sport-state gratitude than females. Previous studies have been somewhat inconclusive about gender differences, but researchers purport that women tend to score higher on trait gratitude (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2009) because gratitude is a "softer" emotion and may be avoided by men who fear being perceived as "weak" Kong et al., 2015). It seems possible that Note. ...
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A holistic, multicultural approach to student-athlete mental health, well-being, and performance promotes the consideration of spiritual and religious identities in counseling and consultation. Preliminary research supports the interconnectedness of spirituality, religiosity, and gratitude in athletes; thus, this study sought to replicate Gabana, D’Addario, Luzzeri, and Soendergaard's study (2020) and extend the literature by examining a larger, independently sampled, more diverse data set and multiple types of gratitude. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I–III student-athletes ( N = 596) were surveyed to better understand how religious and spiritual identity related to trait, general-state, and sport-state gratitude. Results supported past research; athletes who self-identified as being both spiritual and religious reported greater dispositional (trait) gratitude than those who self-identified as spiritual/nonreligious or nonspiritual/nonreligious. Between group differences were not found when comparing general-state and sport-state gratitude. Findings strengthen and extend the understanding of spirituality, religion, and gratitude in sport. Limitations, practical implications, and future directions are discussed.
... Studies have demonstrated the relational benefits of these dispositional factors in organizational contexts (Chancellor et al., 2018;Di Fabio et al., 2017). Third, both gratitude and kindness have been associated with the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Gherghel et al., 2019;Kashdan et al., 2009;Wood et al., 2009). Therefore, the present investigation aims to examine the links between workplace gratitude and organizational kindness as well as COVID-19 anxiety, relatedness needs satisfaction, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive emotions, and negative emotions) among selected Filipino employees. ...
Article
This research explored the association of perceptions of gratitude and kindness at work with well-being outcomes, such as relatedness needs satisfaction, life satisfaction, and COVID-19 anxiety among selected Filipino employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that kindness positively predicted relatedness needs satisfaction even after controlling for participants' age, gender, employment status, and length of stay in the organization. Gratitude positively predicted life satisfaction. This research underscores the mental health payoffs associated with fostering gratitude and kindness in organizational contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... compared to Brazil (77.31) between January and April 2020. (Kashdan, et al., 2009), and the association between religiousness and prosocial behavior (Guo et al,74 2020) we will also control participants' gender and religiousness. 75 ...
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The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has quickly swept the globe leaving a devastating trail of lost human lives and leading to a public health and economic crisis. With this in mind, prosociality has been heralded as potential important factor to overcome the negative effects of the pandemic. As such, in this study, we examined the effectiveness of a brief reflexive writing exercise about recent experiences of gratitude on individuals' intentions to engage in prosocial behaviors using a sample of 253 participants living in Portugal and 280 participants living in Brazil. Participants were randomly assigned to either a condition in which they were asked to write about recent experiences of gratitude, or a control group in which they were asked to write about daily tasks. We predicted that the gratitude intervention would increase state gratitude, and consequently, increase positive affect and empathic concern, and decrease negative affect, leading to increased intentions to engage in prosocial behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. A moderated serial-parallel mediation analysis, in which we controlled for gender, age, and level of religiosity, indicated that our manipulation led to increases in state gratitude, which in turn increased positive emotions and empathic concern, leading to increased prosocial intentions in both countries. A content analysis of participants’ responses in the gratitude group revealed that relationships with others and health and well-being were the central themes of their gratitude experiences during the COVID-19 global pandemic.
... =108.30, and female participants M= 112.42 And the t-value (2.368) has been found to be significant at 0.05 level, it is inferred that gender plays significant role in determining one's gratitude. From the mean scores it is clear that female student's posse's higher gratitude as compared to male students. The findings support the earlier study of Kashdan, Mishra,. Breen and Froh (2009) examined gender differences in gratitude: Examining Appraisals, Narratives, the Willingness to Express Emotions, and Changes in Psychological Needs. These researchers conducted their three studies on 288 college students and the findings of the study revealed that female remained more likely feel and express gratitude and the male were ...
... Also, when men and women with the same life circumstances were compared, women were happier than men in nearly a quarter of the countries. Kashdan et al. (2009) found that women express more pro-social emotions such as gratitude which act as a catalyst to have more happiness. The data in Table 6 portrays the correlation of socio-personal variables of adolescents with empathy and happiness. ...
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Garlic prices showed volatility over the past few years, exposing the growers to more risk and consumers paying more.The lack of market intelligence about the potential markets and their pattern of arrivals and prices are the main causes for distress sale of the garlic. The study was aimed to assess the extent and integration among garlic major markets and to study the price movement of garlic major markets in Uttar Pradesh. Different tests viz.,Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, Johansen co-integration test, Granger causality test were used for analysis,Monthly wholesale prices from January 2010 to December 2019 of garlic were collected from major garlic markets in Uttar Pradesh. The study recorded that all major markets were well-integrated and at least two co-integrating equations were confirmed by the Johansen test. The Granger causality test indicated that there was bi-directional causality observed in garlic prices between Etah and Luckow markets. The remaining all market pairs exhibited unidirectional causality and affects.
... Male users who rarely stay up late express relatively fewer negative emotions than males in the other two groups. One possible explanation may be that males are less willing to express negative emotions because it may cause them to appear vulnerable [39] . The results also suggest that latitude does not affect the association between late bedtimes and mood, which is consistent with previous ndings [30] . ...
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Background: The use of social media before bedtime usually results in late bedtimes, which is a prevalent cause of insufficient sleep among the general population of most countries. However, it is still unclear how people with late bedtimes use social media, which is crucial for adopting targeted behavior interventions to prevent insufficient sleep. Methods: In this study, we randomly selected 100000 users from Sina Weibo and collected all their posting through web crawling. The posting time was proposed as a proxy to identify nights on which a user stays up late. A text classifier and topic model were developed to identify the emotional states and themes of their posts. We also analyzed their posting/reposting activity, time-use patterns, and geographical distribution. Results: Our analyses show that habitually late sleepers express fewer emotions and use social media more for entertainment and getting information. People who rarely stay up late feel worse when staying up late, and they use social media more for emotional expression. People with late bedtimes mainly live in developed areas and use smartphones more when staying up late. Conclusion: This study depicts the online behavior of people with late bedtimes, which helps understand them and thereby adopt appropriately targeted interventions to avoid insufficient sleep.
... Control variables. We took the gender, age, education and job tenure as control variables, since scholars have demonstrated that these variables may correlate with trait gratitude or OCBs (e.g., Chattopadhyay, 1999;Kashdan et al., 2009). We also controlled for the firm with a dummy variable as well as the data collection time interval between each wave of employee surveys. ...
... Before the pandemic, there is evidence supporting how gratitude relates to sense of relatedness among a sample in an online platform in Australia (Naqshbandi et al., 2020), undergraduate students in Singapore (Lee et al., 2015), early adolescents in China (Tian et al., 2016), undergraduate students in Croatia (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), and college students in the United States (Kashdan et al., 2009). Apart from the direct link of gratitude to relatedness, research suggests that the basic needs for relatedness can predict subsequent gratitude (Lee et al., 2015). ...
Article
Objectives: Although gratitude relates to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) well-being outcomes in the United States, more evidence is needed to understand how this psychological strength reciprocally relates to mental health during this pandemic. This study examines the association of gratitude with stress, anxiety, and depression among undergraduate students in the United States via a longitudinal design. Methods: An online survey was administered to 643 undergraduate students in a public university located in the southeastern region of the United States. There was a 1-month interval between the first and second waves of data collection. Results: Cross-lagged panel structural equation modeling showed that whereas gratitude positively predicted subsequent relatedness needs satisfaction, it negatively predicted later stress, anxiety, and depression. Relatedness needs satisfaction was reciprocally linked to subsequent gratitude. Conclusion: Results suggest that gratitude might serve as a protective psychological resource against the detrimental mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... estos resultados son consistentes con diferentes estudios en los que se ha encontrado que las mujeres en general puntúan más alto en empatía que los hombres [23,13]. se hipotetiza que el sexo presentó un valor predictivo significativo, debido a los estereotipos sociales en cuanto a los roles de género, los cuales se inclinan a que en general las mujeres son más empáticas que los hombres, siendo más propensas a expresar emociones morales [15,11,39]. por otro lado, posiblemente la empatía materna percibida tuvo el mayor peso predictivo sobre la empatía autopercibida debido a la importante influencia de la conducta materna sobre los hijos en cuanto al área emocional y las conductas prosociales, dado que según algunos autores [6], la conducta prosocial sería parte de la empatía, coincidiendo con los resultados de diferentes estudios [29,31,22]. ...
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Diversos estudios indican la importancia de determinados factores ambientales y genéticos en el desarrollo de la empatía. En el presente estudio se consideran ambos aspectos, teniendo por objetivo analizar cuál es el rol de la empatía parental percibida (materna y paterna), el sexo y el ser gemelo monocigótico o no, en la predicción de la empatía autopercibida de los hijos. Método: la muestra no probabilística estuvo constituida por 114 adolescentes y jóvenes adultos argentinos de ambos sexos, de entre 16 y 30 años. La muestra se dividió en dos grupos: 1) 61 hermanos gemelos monocigóticos (Medad = 23.49; DE = 4.23), de los cuales 46 eran mujeres y 15 eran varones; 2) 53 hermanos no gemelos (Medad = 23.57; DE = 3.38), de los cuales 40 eran mujeres y 13 eran varones. Resultados: el análisis de regresión por bloques indicó que la empatía parental percibida, el sexo y ser hermano gemelo monocigótico predicen un 39 % de la variancia de la empatía. Las variables que tuvieron mayor peso predictivo sobre la empatía de los jóvenes fueron la alegría empática materna (β = .38; p = .002), el sexo (β = .494; p <.001) y el ser o no hermano gemelo (β = .20; p = .029). Conclusiones: este estudio destaca la importancia de la empatía positiva materna en el desarrollo de la empatía de los hijos, así como el rol del sexo y el ser gemelo monocigótico o no en la predicción de dicha variable. Palabras clave: Empatía cognitiva - Empatía afectiva - Modelado parental - Diferencias por sexo - Regresiones por bloques.
... Studies have shown that the expression of gratitude differs among men and women Naito et al., 2005). Furthermore, studies across multiple approaches have supported the notion that women tend to convey and express gratitude, and subsequently acquire benefit from gratitude (Froh et al., 2008;Kashdan et al., 2009). Accordingly, Hill et al. (2013) also tested the moderating effect of gender and marital status on the effect of gratitude and well-being and discovered that the results are insignificant. ...
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The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted the well-being and mental health of people around the world. Positive emotions like resilience and gratitude have been proven to be able to improve one’s well-being. The theory of Broaden-and-build was used to explore resilience’s mediating role in the relationship between gratitude and well-being among Malaysian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data of 530 participants aged 18 to 35 years was analyzed using SmartPLS. The results showed that grateful and more resilient participants showed a better well-being, and the effects were further moderated by financial income and marital status. The results also supported the hypothetical statistical mediation model in which resilience is the statistical mediator for the association between gratitude and well-being. The results highlighted the significant influence of gratitude and resilience on Malaysian adults’ well-being and explained the role of gratitude in boosting their well-being. It is suggested that policymakers and mental health professionals should consider promoting gratitude and resilience to increase positive emotions and well-being in young adults and help society to be prepared for challenging times of adversity in the future.
... We controlled for gender difference between the employee and the leader, because previous studies (e.g. Kashdan et al., 2009) have demonstrated that women are more inclined to feel gratitude than men. We also controlled for age difference between the employee and the leader to exclude its potential impact on employee gratitude and LMX Chopik et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates why and when leader favorable feedback inhibits employees’ withdrawal behaviors. The authors propose that leader favorable feedback reduces employees’ withdrawal behaviors via employees’ gratitude toward the leader. The authors further posit that this mediation is contingent on leader-member exchange, arguing that as the quality of leader-member exchange increases, employees are more likely to feel grateful and are less likely to withdraw from work. Design/methodology/approach Two-wave, multisource field data collected from 662 employees were used to test our hypotheses. Findings Employees’ feelings of gratitude mediated the negative relationship between leader favorable feedback and employees’ withdrawal behavior. The negative effect of gratitude on withdrawal behavior was stronger under higher levels of leader-member exchange, as was the indirect effect of leader favorable feedback on withdrawal behavior via employees’ gratitude. Originality/value These results contribute to a social exchange-based understanding of gratitude as an emotional mechanism underlying the feedback and withdrawal relationship and provide important practical implications for managers.
... The past studies indicate that females are more emotional and they express both positive and negative feelings more than males, and men have lower levels of gratitude than women as a result of being socialized to view gratitude expression as a feature of women only (Levant & Kopecky, 1995). The reason behind this may be because since men do not want to be open and vulnerable, they do not express gratitude as well (Kashdan et al., 2009). Our result of gender difference is also in line with the investigation by Lasota, Tomaszek, & Bosacki, (2020), who demonstrated that females were higher in gratitude than males. ...
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The present study was aimed to examine the role of personality types on the prediction of gratitude among adults. The gender differences in gratitude were also examined. Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6) (McCullough, Emmons & Tsang, 2002) and Big Five personality inventory (John & Srivastava, 2005) were used for data collection for a sample of adults (N = 200). Independent t-test, Pearson Correlation, and multiple regression were computed for data analysis. Results indicated that extraversion has a significant positive correlation with agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and gratitude and a significant negative correlation with neuroti-cism. Results also showed that openness has a significant correlation with conscientiousness and gratitude and a significant negative correlation with neuroticism. Also, conscientiousness has a significant correlation with gratitude and a non-significant negative correlation with neuroticism. Neuroticism has a significant negative correlation with gratitude. Multiple regression analysis was computed with personality types as predictor variables and gratitude as an outcome variable. Findings also indicated that extroversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness have a significant positive effect on gratitude, while neuroticism has a significant negative effect on gratitude. Therefore, individuals who are social, outgoing open, and helping they inclined to show more gratitude..
... Thus, the generalizability of these results may be limited. Some evidence suggests that women benefit more from gratitude interventions than men (Kashdan et al., 2009), and culture moderates the relationship between gratitude and well-being (Alkozei et al., 2018). Moreover, this study, along with most research on gratitude interventions, is limited by a lack of culturally diverse samples. ...
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Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... 20 On the other hand, gender differences in gratitude got evident by a study which found that women were more likely to express and feel gratitude than men. 21 Women experience more negative feelings, greater cardiac reactivity, and a greater number of negative thoughts. In line with same context, an empirical study showed positive emotions as antidote to health problems, it revealed that if the individual possessed with tendency of gratitude and hope then can deal with health problems effectively by having the optimistic approach. ...
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Objective: To investigate the liaison between gratitude and hope with stress appraisal on caregivers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methodology: The cross- sectional had 150 care givers of CVD consisting of 84 men and 66 women selected from public and private hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Purposive sampling technique was used. We used Urdu versions of questionnaires the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item, Adult Dispositional (Trait) Hope Scale and the Stress Appraisal Measure. Results: Gender differences were significantlypresent in hope and gratitude. Hope and gratitude affirmatively and negatively were related to different ways of appraising stress. A positive correlation between gratitude and hope was found. Conclusion: Caregivers with possession of positive aspects of gratitude hope and stress appraisal can inculcate positive aspect of thankfulness and level of hope and stress management while care giving. Keywords: Gratitude, hope, stress appraisal, caregivers, cardiovascular disease.
... The literature converges to confirm that men and women express emotions differently. Kashdan et al. (2009) further this perspective, spotlighting that women articulate prosocial sentiments such as empathy, gratitude, and happiness more explicitly than men. In this regard, the whole motivation of a diaspora tourist is not just about sightseeing. ...
... Many authors consistently find that on average women score higher on the measures of religious dimensions compared to men [108][109][110]. Likewise, women generally tend to report higher feelings of gratitude and express more gratitude than men [111,112]. In respect to homelessness, the "typical" profile of a homeless person in most countries is a man between 30 and 50 years of age [113,114]. ...
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Although empirical reports draw attention to the pathological aspects of the functioning of the homeless, recent studies show the benefits related to the elevating roles of different positive phenomena in coping with difficulties for this group of people. The main goal was to verify whether there is a direct relationship between religiosity and gratitude among the homeless, and whether this association is moderated by the reported help-seeking since both religiosity and gratitude seem to play an important role in homeless people's lives. In total, 189 homeless persons participated in the study. Their mean age was M = 56.55 (SD = 12.39; range = 27-86). Most respondents were men (n = 119; 63%). The Scale of Religious Attitude Intensity and the Gratitude Questionnaire were used. The outcomes presented a statistically significant positive correlation between religious attitude and gratitude (r = 0.326***, p = 0.001). Help-seeking played a moderatory role in this relationship. Therefore , it can be assumed that the relationship between religiosity attitude intensity and dispositional gratitude is stronger when homeless persons seek specific help from other people or institutions compared to when they do not look for assistance. Homeless people, overcoming their limitations by actively asking for help, can strengthen their bonds with God (faith, religiosity) and with others (dispositional gratitude).
... In particular, men in this study, reported feeling less gratitude than women. Previous research has found that gender matters when it comes to gratitude (Alkozei et al., 2018;Kashdan et al., 2009). It has been observed that women are more likely than men to feel and express gratitude. ...
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The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused widespread emotional distress. The current study sought to ascertain the impact of COVID stress syndrome on quality of life and gratitude. The COVID-19 Stress Scale, COVID-19 Quality of Life Scale, and Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Scale were administered to 199 Singaporeans. Data were collected online using convenience sampling between December 2020 and March 2021. Pearson correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the research hypotheses. The results showed that fear of spreading SARSCoV2 by foreigners was the most stressful fear among Singaporeans (M = 2.59), while traumatic stress by COVID-19 was the least stressful fear (M = 0.16). COVID stress syndrome was positively correlated with negative quality of life (r ranged from .25 to .66) and negatively correlated with gratitude (r ranged from −.29 to −.14). Xenophobia was also found to be the most influential factor in reducing quality of life (β = .52) and gratitude (β = −.37) during the pandemic. Study findings demonstrate how COVID-19 increases Singaporeans’ xenophobic attitudes towards foreigners, making them more vulnerable to the pandemic.
... To realize the third objective, we chose the variables of sex, age, and religious engagement. In fact, previous research has consistently found that women tend to be more religious (Feltey and Poloma 1991;Collett and Lizardo 2009) and grateful (Kashdan et al. 2009;Guse et al. 2019). Simultaneously, several studies (Kling et al. 1999;Gentile et al. 2009;Bleidorn et al. 2016;Zeigler-Hill and Myers 2012) have found that men score higher than women on both the general and specific domains of self-esteem across their life span, even though the difference is small. ...
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In comforting or distressing circumstances, individuals tend to have various perceptions of themselves. It seems that religious comfort and religious distress correlate differently with people’s self-esteem. Since the relationship between religiosity and self-esteem is not only direct but can be mediated by other factors that are recognized as buffers against adverse situations, our main goal was to verify whether dispositional gratitude may have an indirect effect on the association between both variables. The research involved data from 254 participants aged 18 to 25 (M = 21.24; SD = 2.09) and included 192 women (76%) and 62 men (24%). To measure the title variables, we used: the Religious Comfort and Strain Scale (RCSS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). The results showed that people who consider religion as a source of comfort express positive attitudes toward the self and recognize others’ kindness, as well. In contrast, people who consider religiosity as a cause of fear, stress, and internal strain tend to display a lower subjective sense of personal worth and lower appreciation of the positivity around them. Moreover, gratitude had a mediatory effect on the relationships between religious comfort/negative emotions toward God and self-esteem.
... Respecto a si la experiencia de emociones positivas varía según el sexo de los menores, la investigación es muy limitada y los resultados no muestran una dirección clara, excepto en cierto grado para la gratitud (Cuello & Oros, 2016;Froh et al., 2009;Kiang et al., 2016) y especialmente para la simpatía (Lemos et al., 2015;Malti, Gummerum, Keller, & Buchmann, 2009;Vossen, Piotrowski, & Valkenburg, 2015) donde algunos estudios tienden a coincidir en que las niñas presentan valores más elevados que los varones, como suele ocurrir en población adulta (Bernabé-Valero, García-Alandete, & Gallego-Pérez, 2014; Kashdan, Mishra, Breen, & Froh, 2009). De cualquier manera, hay evidencia que sugiere que cuando las emociones y afectos positivos son evaluados de un modo global o más genérico (por ejemplo, a través del PANAS) no emergen diferencias entre los grupos (Barrón-Sánchez & Molero, 2014;Sandín, 2003;Veronese et al., 2012). ...
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The aim of this study was to assess the validity based on internal structure of the Children's Questionnaire of Positive Emotions (CIEP), and to provide normative data for the interpretation of the scores of Argentinean children, aged from 8 to 12 years old. Participants were 1384 girls, 1376 boys and 1 child who did not identify his sex (M = 10.14; SD = 1.30). All attended to public or private primary schools, from urban and suburban areas of Argentina. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the data fit acceptably the five-factor proposed model: joy, gratitude, sympathy, serenity and personal satisfaction. The ANOVA’s revealed differences in the positive emotional experience between girls and boys, being the first who shown greater tendency to be grateful and sympathetic. From these results, the means, standard deviations and percentile values for each sex were calculated.
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Kebersyukuran merupakan aspek psikologi positif yang penting untuk meningkatkan kebahagian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat perbedaan antara kebersyukuran ibu yang bekerja dan ibu rumah tangga. Metode penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif deskriptif dengan menggunakan satu alat ukur yaitu The Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6) yang disusun oleh McCullough, Emmons, dan Tsang. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 135 orang yang terdiri dari 75 orang ibu yang bekerja dan 60 orang ibu rumah tangga (IRT). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan kebersyukuran antara ibu yang bekerja dan ibu rumah tangga dengan nilai signifikansi 0.736 artinya Ibu bekerja dan ibu rumah tangga memiliki tingkat kebersyukuran yang sama, yang dominan berada pada kategori sedang. Kata kunci: Kebersyukuran, Ibu yang bekerja, Ibu rumah tangga
Article
Aims and objectives To investigate the spiritual care needs and associated factors in patients with ostomy. Background The significance of the spiritual care needs of the patients has been emphasized across countries and cultures in the literature. Design A descriptive, cross‐sectional study. Methods Outpatients with an ostomy (n=127) were recruited from proctology, wound and stoma therapy unit and general surgery clinics between January‐March 28, 2020. The data were collected using the Socio‐demographic Characteristics Form and Spiritual Care Needs Inventory (SCNI). SCNI has two components, namely “meaning and hope” and “caring and respect”. Descriptive statistics, correlation, student’s t‐test, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The STROBE checklist was used to report the study. Results The mean scores of the spiritual care needs (65.31± 12.83), meaning and hope (37.35 ± 9.37), and caring and respect (27.96 ± 5.63) of the patients with ostomy were found to be moderate. The most significant factors affecting the meaning and hope component were the age, being female and decreases in the level of income. Scores of the patients who perceived the severity of the disease seriously and who practiced religious ritual regularly had more spiritual care needs for the component of caring and respect. Patients with ostomy needed interaction, respect for their privacy and dignity, to be shown concern and to be respected for their religious and cultural beliefs, which were the most salient needs. Conclusions There is an unambiguous requirement for nurses to ensure spiritual care for patients with ostomy. Showing interest and spending time for the interaction with patients with ostomy, need‐based spiritual practices and life review are key elements of spiritual care. Relevance to clinical practice Evaluating patients with ostomy spiritually requires information about how spiritual needs may arise and how to talk about spiritual needs. The result of the present study may help nurses to begin the process of maintaining spiritual care for patients with ostomy.
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Cel pracy stanowiło określenie związków między wymiarami wybaczanie i wdzięczność a jakością relacji interpersonalnej rodzeństw w okresie wczesnej dorosłości, sprawdzenie czy stanowią one predyktory relacji interpersonalnej rodzeństw oraz, czy i w jaki sposób wymiary relacji interpersonalnej rodzeństw łączą się z motywami wybaczania. Uczestnikami badań było 200 osób, znajdujących się w okresie wczesnej dorosłości (M=24; SD=3,27), posiadających dorosłe rodzeństwo. Badania przeprowadzono w Polsce. Zastosowano następujące narzędzia badawcze: Kwestionariusz Relacji Dorosłego Rodzeństwa (Walęcka-Matyja, 2014), Skalę Wybaczania (Charzyńska, Heszen, 2013), Kwestionariusz Powodów Przebaczania (Noworol, 2016), Kwestionariusz Gratitude Questionnaire (Kossakowska, Kwiatek, 2014) oraz ankietę. Rezultaty badań wskazały na występowanie dodatniego związku między wdzięcznością a wymiarem relacji z rodzeństwem określanym jako Ciepło. Zmienna wybaczanie nie łączyła się w sposób istotny statystycznie z wymiarami relacji interpersonalnej dorosłych rodzeństw. Odnotowano występowanie istotnych, przebiegających w oczekiwanym kierunku związków między wymiarem relacji interpersonalnej rodzeństw Ciepło i powodami wybaczania. Predyktorem czynnika Ciepło w relacji dorosłych rodzeństw okazała się zmienna wdzięczność. Zmienna wybaczanie nie objaśniała żadnego z wymiarów z relacji interpersonalnej rodzeństw.
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Dispositional gratitude has recently emerged as a variable of interest in organizational contexts. However, it remains unclear whether dispositional gratitude is predictive of employee well-being, with limited theoretical and empirical elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. To address these limitations, the present study investigated dispositional gratitude as a predictor of employee well-being and organizational commitment. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory of positive affect, the study also examined whether the social bonding resources of leader-member exchange (LMX) and coworker exchange (CWX) mediated these effects. The participating employees ( N = 300) completed the survey in three waves at one-week intervals. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) confirm that dispositional gratitude is positively related to employee well-being and organizational commitment and that these effects are mediated by LMX and CWX. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, the study’s limitations, and future research directions.
Chapter
This chapter describes evidence-based happiness techniques that are highly relevant for workers in the tourism and hospitality industries. Although happiness creates success for many stakeholders, there is limited evidence on how to increase the happiness of workers in these industries as the focus has predominantly been on the happiness of the customers. The authors fill this gap in the literature by presenting three proven interventions that are particularly relevant to these sectors: job crafting, acts of kindness, and gratitude exercises. The chapter explains what these concepts are and how they work. It also provides specific examples of how they can be implemented into tourism and hospitality organisations.
Chapter
In this chapter we review the good of gratitude and recommend various methods for cultivating this human strength. First, we show how gratitude is indeed good. We show how gratitude is important to flourishing and happiness. Gratitude is strongly correlated with various measures of well-being, and experimental studies suggest that gratitude actually causes increases in happiness. If gratitude is good, then it behooves us to investigate how the disposition of gratitude can be enhanced. We suggest that grateful responding can be enhanced by training in noticing the good in one's life, and by encouraging interpretations and appraisals that have been found to promote gratitude. We then present a discussion of unresolved issues in the science of gratitude. This is followed by a discussion of who might benefit most from gratitude. We conclude with a summary of the cultivation of gratitude. Research strongly supports the idea that the cultivation of gratitude should result in a harvest of happiness, but cultivating gratitude is not likely to be an easy process.
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Es gibt Hinweise darauf, dass sich ältere Klienten in der psychotherapeutischen Beziehung als besonders dankbar erweisen. Dies hat Implikationen für den therapeutischen Prozess und das Therapieergebnis. Aus psychologischer Perspektive wird Dankbarkeit als konkrete Emotion (state) und überdauernde Lebenshaltung (trait) analysiert. Dann werden Theorien und empirische Befunde zur Bedeutung von Dankbarkeit im Leben älterer Menschen vorgestellt. Als nächstes wird gefragt, welche Bedeutung Dankbarkeit angesichts von chronischen körperlichen und depressiven Erkrankungen im Alter überhaupt haben kann. Für die konkrete psychotherapeutische Arbeit werden Übungen zur Förderung von Dankbarkeit vorgestellt. In der therapeutischen Beziehung stellt die Äußerung von Dankbarkeit eine Herausforderung für die Nähe-Distanz-Regulation des Therapeuten dar. Unter Berücksichtigung dieser potenziellen »Nebenwirkungen« wird die besondere Bedeutung von Dankbarkeit für die sozioemotionale Situation und die Psychotherapie von älteren Menschen diskutiert.
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Gratitude has been linked with normal human functioning and well-being yet, its association with happiness and life satisfaction remains understudied among non clinical samples in collectivist cultures. Most studies on gratitude are focused on clinical settings and in individualist cultures. This study investigates the predictive strength of gratitude and purpose in life on life satisfaction among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Using a cross sectional research design, 390 university students were selected from 2 (public and private) universities. A questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, gratitude scale(r=0.84), purpose in life scale(r=0.96) and life satisfaction scale (r=0.90) was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that gratitude and purpose in life jointly and independently predicted life satisfaction (R 2 = .24; F = 62.56; p<.05). Being grateful and having purpose are crucial for a comprehensive examination of life satisfaction.
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Research on mixed emotions is yet to consider emotion-specificity, the idea that same-valenced emotions have distinctive characteristics and functions. We review two decades of research on mixed emotions, focusing on evidence for the occurrence of mixed emotions and the effects of mixed emotions on downstream outcomes. We then propose a novel theoretical framework of mixed-emotion-specificity with three foundational tenets: (a) Mixed emotions are distinguishable from single-valenced emotions and other mixed emotions based on their emotion-appraisal relationships; (b) Mixed emotions can further be characterized by four patterns that describe relationships between simultaneous appraisals or appraisals that are unique to mixed emotions; and (c) Carryover effects occur only on outcomes that are associated with the appraisal characteristics of mixed emotion. We outline how mixed-emotion-specific effects can be predicted based on the appraisal tendency framework. Temporal dynamics, the application of mixed-emotion-specificity to individual difference research, methodological issues, and future directions are also discussed.
Chapter
Gratitude is an emotion and state of being that recognizes a positive outcome as the result of external factors, thereby prompting internal and external responses of appreciation. As a positive psychology intervention (PPI), gratitude not only encourages positive affect and savoring of positive life experiences, it is associated with a reduction in psychological distress, improved sleep, better relationships, more engagement at work, and fewer physical ailments. In Islam, shukr (gratitude) is a fundamental virtue which, along with sabr (patience), provides a formula for Muslim wellbeing. In this chapter, we review the positive psychology literature on gratitude and define the concept of shukr from an Islamic perspective. We also provide suggestions for increasing gratitude through Islamically-integrated PPIs and discuss how such interventions can provide useful tools for Muslim wellness.
Thesis
School-based gratitude interventions show evidence of enhancing student well-being but there is limited research suggesting how gratitude increases well-being. There is also the need for a suitable tool to measure children’s gratitude and evaluate the impact of gratitude interventions. The researcher sought to address these literature gaps. A systematic literature review was used to address the question ‘which variables mediate the association between young people’s gratitude and well-being?’. Stronger evidence was found for cognitive and social resources as mediators, compared to mediators related to affect. A lack of experimental and longitudinal studies in the current evidence base was identified, highlighting avenues for future research. In an empirical study, the researcher designed and screened a new questionnaire of children’s gratitude, the Questionnaire of Appreciation in Youth (QUAY). Items were developed using the literature to identify a comprehensive definition of gratitude and its key features, and through discussion with the research supervisors who have extensive experience of studying gratitude. The initial items were screened in a focus group with three children aged eight to nine. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with responses from 107 children aged eight to 10. This led to the development of an 11-item scale with good reliability and convergent validity with an existing measure of gratitude, the GQ-6. A three-factor structure was retained, with subscales addressing gratitude, appreciation, and sense of privilege. Limitations include the lack of a more diverse sample, the absence of reverse-scored items, positive skew in responses, and the need to establish discriminant validity. Implications include new insights into the structure of children’s gratitude, providing a working tool which could be further developed in order to measure children’s gratitude more effectively.
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In the existing literature, no attempt has been made to inspect how men and women rhetorically manage their gratitude communications in the academic written discourse. To bridge this knowledge gap, the present article examined how students of different gender construct their thanking acts in the acknowledgements of their M.A. theses. Discrepancies between male and female postgraduates’ employment of linguistic patterns and gratitude themes were compared. The results showed that student writers’ gratitude communications to a certain extent are conditioned by the conventional rhetorical patterns of the academic genre. Remarkable gender variations were evidenced in the students’ selections of lexical items for encoding the thanking expressions, thanking modifiers, and gratitude themes of their acknowledgements. These gender discrepancies in gratitude communications are highly pertinent to the social expectations of masculinity and femininity, the students’ psychological orientations toward the emotion of thanking and their own value priorities.
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Teaching in contemporary societies is an extremely multi-faceted and specialized task. Teachers have been known to have important influence on students' academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment. Research consistently shows that teachers have the greatest potential to influence children's education. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between gratitude and psychological capital among high school teachers. The researchers have employed simple random technique for data collection through survey method. There were 65 teachers who participated in this study. The Gratitude questionnaire (McCullough et al., 2002) and Psychological capital questionnaire (Luthans et.al, 2007) were used for assessing gratitude and the dimensions of psychological capital. Results showed that there is a significant relationship between gratitude and psychological capital among teachers. Gratitude and each of the psychological capital domains (hope, optimism, resilience, and self efficacy) are statistically correlated. Further, the findings revealed that psychological capital domains are significantly interrelated with all other variables except self-efficacy and resilience. Limitations and implications of the study are also discussed.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested theory that adherence to the traditional male gender role and help-seeking attitudes and behaviors are related. Ss were 401 undergraduate men who completed measures of help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, attitudes toward the stereotypic male role, and gender role conflict factors (i.e., success/power/competition, restrictive emotionality, and restrictive affectionate behavior between men). Canonical analysis and regression indicated that traditional attitudes about the male role, concern about expressing emotions, and concern about expressing affection toward other men were each significantly related to negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological assistance. Restrictive emotionality also significantly predicted decreased past help-seeking behavior and decreased likelihood of future help seeking. The implications of these results for theory, research, and counseling practice are discussed.
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Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.
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Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.
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In this book, Joseph Pleck examines and analyzes the full body of research literature on the male role that has appeared since the 1930s and subjects it to a devastating critique. He identifies the components of the "male sex role paradigm" which has been the basis of research for the past forty years, and notes numerous instances of blatant misrepresentation of data, twisted reinterpretations of disconfirming results, misogyny, homophobia, and class bias. He proposes a new theory, the "sex role strain paradigm," offers a reinterpretation of sex role stereotyping, and a critique of research by sociobiologists that allegedly demonstrates a biological basis for male aggression.
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Social and personality correlates of crying relevant to clinical application were examined in the laboratory. The effects of gender and of gender-pairing on emotional expression of film-induced sadness were evaluated. College students served in pairs as experimental subjects. Results indicated that men retrospectively reported less crying than women, and that both male and female subjects reported more appropriate sex-stereotypic behavior (i.e., males cried less, females cried more) when in opposite-sex pairings. Correlational analyses indicated that females, unlike males, showed clear concordances between sadness and crying. Males, unlike females, evidenced negative correlations between reported anger and crying. Personality variables (including empathy, extraversion, femininity, ego strength, and prior levels of stress) were found to be associated with crying and sadness, although markedly different correlation patterns were seen for men and women. The findings collectively suggest that crying is associ...
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U.S. emotion culture contains beliefs that women are more emotional and emotionally expressive than men and that men and women differ in their experience and expression of specific emotions. Using data from the 1996 emotions module of the GSS, the authors investigate whether men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior, evaluating whether the patterns observed for men and women are consistent with cultural beliefs as well as predictions from two sociological theories about emotion and two sociological theories about gender. Surprisingly, self-reports do not support cultural beliefs about gender differences in the frequency of everyday subjective feelings in general. Men and women do, however, differ in the frequency of certain positive and negative feelings, which is explained by their difference in social position. The implications of the findings for theory and research on both gender and emotion are discussed.
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One consistent element of Western sex stereotypes is that women are emotional, whereas men are rational. This is also widely spread in psychology and defended by feminist authors who equate women's relationality with their emotionality. In this article the concept of `emotionality' is criticized and the assumption that women are generally more emotional than men is questioned. A large amount of empirical research on sex differences in emotions is reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the general idea that women are more emotional than men tells us more about Western sex stereotypes than about women's actual emotions.
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The present study was designed to test the assumption that gender differences in emotion expression are based on differences in the motives held by men and women in social interactions. Three hundred and fourteen students participated in this study by completing a questionnaire. Each questionnaire contained two vignettes that varied with respect to type of emotion (anger, disappointment, fear or sadness), sex of target, and object-target relationship. Dependent variables included measures of emotion expression and of motives for regulating one's emotions. The results support the general hypothesis that women are more concerned with relationships and less reluctant to express powerless emotions, whereas men are more motivated to stay in control and tend to express emotions that reflect their power.
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Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Conference Paper
Stereotypes about gender and emotional expression tend to be imprecise and misleading. They fail to acknowledge situational, individual, and cultural variations in males' and females' emotional expressiveness. They also tend to generalize across emotional intensity and frequency, as well as across different modalities of emotional expression, e.g. verbal vs, behavioral modalities. Moreover they tend to exaggerate the extent of gender differences in emotional expression. I argue that when gender differences in emotional expression do occur they can be traced to social processes such as dissimilar gender roles, status and power imbalances, and differing socialization histories of males and females. These processes may predispose some males and females to express emotions differently in some cultures and in some contexts. To support this argument, I present data from two studies, one showing that the amount of time fathers spend with their children relates to the gender stereotypic nature of their children's emotional expressiveness; and the other showing that gender differences in emotional expressiveness are culturally specific in a sample of Asian international, Asian-American, and European-American college students. Finally I note the potentially destructive limitations imposed by stereotypes on males' and females' interpersonal functioning as well as on their mental and physical health.
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Gratitude, like other positive emotions, has inspired many theological and philosophical writings, but it has inspired very little vigorous, empirical research. In an effort to remedy this oversight, this book brings together prominent scientists from various disciplines to examine what has become known as the most-neglected emotion. The volume begins with the historical, philosophical, and theoretical foundations of gratitude, and then presents the current research perspectives from social, personality, and developmental psychology, as well as from primatology, anthropology, and biology. The volume also includes a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of research on gratitude. This work contributes a great deal to the growing positive psychology initiative and to the scientific investigation of positive human emotions. It will be an invaluable resource for researchers and students in social, personality, developmental, clinical, and health psychology, as well as to sociologists and cultural anthropologists.
Chapter
This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
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Gratitude is an emotional state and an attitude toward life that is a source of human strength in enhancing one's personal and relational well-being. In this article, we first explore the theological origins of gratitude as a virtue to be cultivated in the major monotheistic traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Each tradition emphasizes the development of gratitude as a path to a good life, and prescribes approaches for practicing. Gratitude is explored further in the context of psychological theory and research. Empirical research linking gratitude with well-being and goal attainment is presented and discussed. Finally, future research questions and a tentative research agenda are presented.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
Book
Friends are an integral part of our lives---they sometimes replace family relationships and often form the basis for romantic relationships. This book] examines how friends give meaning to our lives and why we rely so heavily on them. The book is process oriented and research based with each phase of the friendship process documented by empirical research. The result is a conceptual framework that illuminates the fascinating components of how we make friends, how we become close, how we maintain friends, and how friendships deteriorate and dissolve. This book] illustrates . . . the fact that, as a field of study, close relationships is maturing rapidly. This book will be a particular interest to students, practitioners, and researchers in social psychology, sociology, communication, family studies, and social work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(cover)
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Previous research has documented that specificemotions are differentially associated with women andmen. For example, sadness and happiness arestereotypically associated with girls and women, whereas anger and pride are stereotypically associatedwith men. The present research qualifies these previousfindings by establishing that gender-emotion stereotypesare context specific. Twenty-four scenarios were developed that depicted a target personover-or underreacting to happy, sad, or angry events ineither an interpersonal or an achievement context.Thirty-three female and 44 male Caucasian undergraduates judged how characteristic these reactions werefor women and men. The results demonstrated thatoverreactions to happyand sad events were morecharacteristic of women in the interpersonal context,but were more characteristic of men in the achievementcontext. Overreactions to angry scenarios, however, weremore characteristic of men, regardless of context. Theimplications of the context-dependent nature of gender-emotion stereotypes for men and womenare discussed.
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The purpose of this studywas to see if feeling grateful to God reduces the deleterious effects of stress on health in late life. In addition, an effort was made to test for gender differences in this process. Three main findings emerged from the analysis of data provided by a nationwide sample of older adults. First, the data suggest that olderwomen are more likely to feel grateful to God than older men. Second, the results revealed that the effects of stress (e.g., living in a deteriorated neighborhood) on health are reduced for older people who feel more grateful to God. Finally, the analyses indicated that the potentially important stress-buffering properties of gratitude toward God emerge primarily among older women but not older men.
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Being preoccupied with the pursuit of money, wealth, and material possessions arguably fails as a strategy to increase pleasure and meaning in life. However, little is known about the mechanisms that explain the inverse relation between materialism and well-being. The current study tested the hypothesis that experiential avoidance mediates associations between materialistic values and diminished emotional well-being, meaning in life, self-determination, and gratitude. Results indicated that people with stronger materialistic values reported more negative emotions and less relatedness, autonomy, competence, gratitude, and meaning in life. As expected, experiential avoidance fully mediated associations between materialistic values and each dimension of well-being. Emotional disturbances such as social anxiety and depressive symptoms failed to account for these findings after accounting for shared variance with experiential avoidance. The results are discussed in the context of alternative, more fulfilling routes to well-being.
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This study investigated whether positive emotion is differentially prescribed for men and women in self-and other-oriented contexts. Subjects read a scene in which the main character either did or did not express positive emotion toward either the self or another person. After imagining themselves as the main character, subjects rated on a rewards/costs scale how others would respond to them if they had behaved as depicted. Females expected more rewards/fewer costs when positive emotion was expressed toward another person than when it was not, whereas expected rewards/costs did not differ when females expressed and did not express self-directed positive emotion. Males expected more rewards/fewer costs when positive emotion was expressed than when it was not expressed in both self-and other-oriented contexts. Findings indicate that norms for expression of positive emotion are gender differentiated in that women are particularly required to express positive emotion toward others.
Article
Positive feelings are considered within the framework of a general model of origins and functions of affect. This model treats affect as reflecting the error signal of a feedback loop managing rate of incentive-seeking (and threat-avoidant) behaviour. In this view, positive feelings represent a sign that things are going better than necessary and are presumed to induce coasting. A tendency to coast is seen as facilitating the shift of attention and effort to other behavioural domains, where they may be needed more or where unforeseen opportunities have arisen. Such a function for positive feelings would permit the person both to maintain satisfactory standing with regard to multiple goals and to take advantage of unforeseen opportunities, thus providing adaptive value. Comparisons are made to other recently developed ideas concerning the functions of positive feelings.
Article
Background: This paper reports the findings of a phenomenological study to understand and interpret the experience of a group of men before, during and after their attendance at a charity-based service for the early detection of prostate cancer. Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature on men's help-seeking behaviour regarding their health was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a purposive sample of 12 men who had attended the service in the previous 3 months. Results: Resultant data showed that men experience social, psychological and structural barriers to help-seeking including a threat to masculinity, embarrassment, fear and guilt at using an under-resourced health service. Participants attended the service due to a variety of motivating factors which are often complex and interrelated. However, fear of cancer, the value of early detection, the media and encouragement by women were key cues to action. Participants felt reassured and empowered by the process, largely due to the interpersonal and communication skills of health professionals working within the early detection service. Conclusions: The findings highlight the need for health policy makers and health promoters to understand men's help-seeking behaviour, provide them with information in a relevant and meaningful way and provide services for the early detection of prostate cancer which should be of high quality and person-centred.
Article
This study investigates the relationship between emotional expressiveness and dyadic adjustment in a sample of adults from Guayaquil, Ecuador. Hypotheses were explored and tested in the following areas: the factor structure of emotional expressiveness and marital adjustment items, gender differences in emotional expressiveness, and the relationship between emotional expressiveness and marital adjustment. The factor structure in the current sample shows similar structures as a previous Latin American sample, but differing from the structures identified in U.S. samples. Women were not found to report a difference in expressiveness compared to men. Emotional expressiveness showed a strong relationship with marital adjustment, illustrating the importance of sharing positive emotions while suppressing negative ones (expression of sadness was not significant). Implications for practitioners in cross-cultural work, and possible explanations for cultural differences are discussed.
Article
According to our social-role theory of gender and helping, the male gender role fosters helping that is heroic and chivalrous, whereas the female gender role fosters helping that is nurturant and caring. In social psychological studies, helping behavior has been examined in the context of short-term encounters with strangers. This focus has tended to exclude from the research literature those helping behaviors prescribed by the female gender role, because they are displayed primarily in long-term, close relationships. In contrast, the helping behaviors prescribed by the male gender role have been generously represented in research findings because they are displayed in relationships with strangers as well as in close relationships. Results from our meta-analytic review of sex differences in helping behavior indicate that in general men helped more than women and women received more help than men. Nevertheless, sex differences in helping were extremely inconsistent across studies and were successfully predicted by various attributes of the studies and the helping behaviors. These predictors were interpreted in terms of several aspects of our social-role theory of gender and helping.
Article
The authors surveyed 212 university students in Japan and 284 university students in Thailand, using a multiaspect questionnaire that was designed to investigate cultural similarities and differences in gratitude. The questionnaire included the items involved in hypothetical helping situations: (a) perceived gains of recipients, cost to benefactors, and obligation to help as antecedent variables of gratitude; (b) both positive feelings of gratitude and feelings of indebtedness; and (c) requital to benefactors and increased prosocial motivation of recipients as an outcome of gratitude. In both Japanese and Thai students, positive feelings cor-related with facial and verbal expressions of gratitude and increased prosocial motivation. However, the variable of feelings of indebtedness was positively related to increased prosocial motivation only in Japanese male students.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
What is happiness? Why are some people happier than others? This new edition of The Psychology of Happiness provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of research into the nature of happiness. Major research developments have occurred since publication of the first edition in 1987 - here they are brought together for the first time, often with surprising conclusions. Drawing on research from the disciplines of sociology, physiology and economics as well as psychology, Michael Argyle explores the nature of positive and negative emotions, and the psychological and cognitive processes involved in their generation. Accessible and wide-ranging coverage is provided on key issues such as: the measurements and study of happiness, mental and physical health; the effect of friendship, marriage and other relationships on positive moods; happiness, mental and physical health; the effects of work, employment and leisure; and the effects of money, class and education. The importance of individual personality traits such as optimism, purpose in life, internal control and having the right kind of goals is also analysed. New to this edition is additional material on national differences, the role of humour, and the effect of religion. Are some countries happier than others? This is just one of the controversial issues addressed by the author along the way. Finally the book discusses the practical application of research in this area, such as how happiness can be enhanced, and the effects of happiness on health, altruism and sociability. This definitive and thought-provoking work will be compulsive reading for students, researchers and the interested general reader
Article
from its inception, differential emotions theory (DET) . . . has maintained that emotions are the primary forces in organizing human thought and action / DET has also affirmed that it is the emotional component of consciousness and experience that gives richness and meaning to individual life and relationships / having characterized the emotions in this way, it follows that quality of life in the older adult can best be explained by a principle that affirms the community of emotion feelings and emotion expressions across the life span show how DET may serve as a theoretical framework for emotional development across the life span / present an overview of DET / discuss key principles of life span emotional development / discuss DET in relation to adult development and aging / discuss how DET relates to other models of emotion in adulthood / conclude by discussing avenues for future research from the perspective of DET (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest among theorists and researchers in autobiographical recollections, life stories, and narrative approaches to understanding human behavior and experience. An important development in this context is D. P. McAdams's life story model of identity (1985; see also records 1993-972