Las mujeres y la segunda enseñanza durante el franquismo

Historia de la educación: Revista interuniversitaria, ISSN 0212-0267, Nº 26, 2007, pags. 257-278
Source: OAI


In this article a view is given of the women who entered secondary education during the first period of the Franco regime, both from the point of view of the teaching staff and that of pupils. As is well-known, the concept and image that the regime sought for Spanish woman had nothing to do with independence and autonomy, but indeed the opposite, one of submission and dependency on men and mainly in the role of child-bearer. In this context, we were interested in finding out what kind of women went into higher secondary studies and how they fit in. Higher secondary colleges at the time were highly elitist, not only regarding social class, but also regarding the gender to which they were addressed: men of the middle and upper classes destined to being the future leaders of the country. As regards the women who taught there, who were they and why did they do it? Above all, was there really so much pressure to be only wives and mothers or was this more theoretical than real? Or was it that they simply did not feel it to be so? En este artículo pretendemos dar una visión de las mujeres que se adentraron en la segunda enseñanza durante el primer franquismo, tanto desde el punto de vista del profesorado como del alumnado. Como es de sobra conocido, el concepto e imagen que de la mujer española se quería construir nada tiene que ver con el de independencia y autonomía, sino precisamente el contrario, el de sumisión y dependencia del varón y sobre todo el de reproductora de hijos. Ante este ambiente ¿quiénes son y cómo encajan las mujeres que van a estudiar el bachillerato? Un bachillerato eminentemente elitista no sólo en cuanto a la clase social, sino también al género al que iba dirigido: varones de las capas medias y altas destinados a ser las futuras clases dirigentes del país. ¿Y las que ejercen de profesoras?, ¿quiénes son y por qué lo hacen?, pero sobre todo, ¿era, realmente, tanta la presión para que fueran esposas y madres en exclusividad?, o ¿era más teórica que real?, o ¿es que ellas simplemente no la sentían así?

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