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Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife

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Abstract

Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

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... Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the cause of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a contagious, transboundary disease of small domestic ruminants and some wild ungulates (Kinne et al. 2010;Munir et al. 2012). Because of its impact on small ruminants, and its similarity to the recently eradicated rinderpest virus, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) launched a joint program to eradicate PPRV by 2030 (FAO 2015). ...
... It was first assumed that PPRVonly affected sheep and goats (Lefevre and Diallo 1990), but it has since been observed clinically and pathologically in a wider range of species and confirmed diagnostically either directly through detection of virus, viral antigens, or specific viral RNA or indirectly through detection of antibodies in wild ruminants (Kinne et al. 2010), cattle and domestic buffaloes (Balamurugan et al. 2012a), yaks (Abubakar et al. 2015), camels (Kwiatek et al. 2011), Asiatic lion (Balamurugan et al. 2012b), and dogs (Ratta et al. 2016). Some wild ruminant species are at high risk from PPRV (Rossiter 2008) and domestic small ruminants most likely play a role in the spread of the virus to them. ...
... The clinical presentation of PPRV in wild ungulates is essentially the same as in domestic small ruminants. Initial involvement of the respiratory system causes lacrimation and nasal and ocular discharges (Bao et al. 2011;Abubakar et al. 2011;Hoffmann et al. 2012) which may lead to crusts forming over the nostrils and lip commissure (reported in antelopes; Kinne et al. 2010). Subsequent involvement of the alimentary tract epithelia causes cheesy necrotic material on the gums (reported in ibex; Abubakar et al. 2011) and erosions of the oral cavity membranes (reported in gazelle; Sharawi et al. 2010). ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of domestic small ruminants. It also affects wild ungulates but there are comparatively few studies of the incidence of natural infection, clinical signs and pathology, and confirmation of the virus, and in these species. In this article, we list the wild ungulates in which PPRV infection has been confirmed and summarize available information about the presentation of the disease, its identification, and impact of virus on wildlife populations. Considering recent reports of outbreaks by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), it is important to understand the transmission of this disease within wildlife populations in PPR endemic regions.
... Vaccination is a strategy to control PPR and the vaccine is required at mass scale, however, losses can be curtailed through preventive measures for which knowledge of pathology and pathogenesis of the disease is vital. Studies of PPR usually revolve around sero-epidemiology [12,36,37] and rare efforts have been made to report its pathology. Most of the available information on the pathology of PPR has been based on results obtained following experimental infections [38] but none in Dorper or Kajli sheep and Boer or Beetal goats under field conditions. ...
... PPR studies usually orbit sero-epidemiology [8,10,12,36,37,51] and A. Khan et al. Microbial Pathogenesis 117 (2018) [139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147] rare efforts have been made to report its pathology. ...
Article
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral transboundary disease of small ruminants is not only prevalent in Pakistan but also in other countries where people rely on agriculture and animal products. The present study was aimed at describing the pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in local (Kajli sheep; Beetal goats) as well as imported small ruminant breeds (Dorper sheep; Australian Boer goat). Morbidity and mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in indigenous Kajli sheep (75.37 and 32.80%) and Beetal goats (81.10 and 37.24%) as compared to Dorper sheep (6.99 and 1.48%) and Australian Boer goat (5.01 and 2.23%). Affected animals exhibited high fever, severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, respiratory distress and nodular lesions on lips and nostrils. Thick mucous discharge was oozing out from nostrils. On postmortem examination, lungs were congested and pneumonic, with nodular and cystic appearance and intestines were hemorrhagic with zebra stripping. Characteristic histopathological lesions of PPR were noted in intestines, lymphoid organs and lungs. In GI tract, stunting and blunting of villi, necrotic enteritis, and infiltration of mononuclear cells in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Small intestines exhibited diffuse edema of the submucosa along with proliferation of fibrocytes, leading to thickened submucosa which has not been reported previously. Lymphoid organs showed partial to complete destruction of lymphoid follicles. Lesions of the respiratory tract included depictive of bronchopneumonia, severe congestion of trachea and apical lobe of lungs with deposition of fibrinous materials. Histopathological lesions of respiratory tract were severe and characteristic of broncho-interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia and fibrinous pneumonia. The alveoli were filled with edematous fluid mixed with fibrinous exudate, numerous alveolar macrophages, mononuclear cells along with thickened interalveolar septa and presence of intranuclear eosinophilic inclusions. One-Step RT-PCR using NP3 and NP4 primers confirmed a PPR virus of 352 bp size in spleen, lungs and mesenteric and brachial lymph node samples. It was concluded that morbidity and mortality due to PPR were significantly higher in indigenous breeds of sheep and goat as compared to imported sheep and goat breeds. PPR has rendered various lesions in GI and respiratory tract which are characteristic in nature for the diagnosis of the disease under field condition.
... Retrospective participatory epidemiological studies showed that large numbers of cattle and wildlife died within the hirola range (Kock, 2008). Significant quantities of data on diseases affecting these species originate from captive collections, where significant mortalities from PPR, FMD, and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) have been recorded (Furley et al., 1987; Greth 1992; Elzein et al., 2004; Kinne et al., 2010). Whether the management conditions in captivity were a factor in the outbreaks is of interest, but care should be taken in extrapolating susceptibilities to free‐ranging populations from these data. ...
... Goats and sheep Only recorded in captive or semi‐captive antelope (e.g., Furley et al., 1987; Elzein et al., 2004; Kinne et al., 2010) ...
Chapter
Despite the long association between humans and antelope, surprisingly little has been written about their diseases. This chapter divides into three sections: the first two describes infection in terms of the ‘good’ and the ‘bad’ impact of disease on antelope population health and ecosystem dynamics as well as on the health of livestock and people. Some ecologically insensitive disease control measures still remain as part of veterinary policy, promulgated by national authorities and international organisations. In the final section, which one provocatively refers to as ‘the ugly', it discusses how veterinarians and veterinarian regulations have impacted conservation of antelope. The chapter focuses on evidence of disease and its impacts in free-ranging antelope populations. Zoological medicine records many diseases affecting antelope in captivity, but this aspect is not considered here, and readers should refer to zoo medicine texts if interested.
... Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease, caused by a morbillivirus closely related to rinderpest virus, which mainly affects goats, sheep, and some wild relatives of domesticated small ruminants, as well as camels. Wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as a virus source for domestic small ruminants [1]. PPR was first reported in Ivory Coast in 1942. ...
... domesticated small ruminants, as well as camels. Wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as a virus source for domestic small ruminants [1]. PPR was first reported in Ivory Coast in 1942. ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important infectious viral disease of domestic small ruminants that threatens the food security and sustainable livelihood of farmers across Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The objective of this research is to analyze the disease’s spread and its impacts on direct government costs through conducting three simulations of different control strategies to reduce and quickly eradicate PPR from the United Arab Emirates in the near future. A Modified Animal Disease Spread Model was developed in this study to suit the conditions of the United Arab Emirates. The initial scenario represents when mass vaccination is ceased, and moderate movement restrictions are applied. The second scenario is based on mass vaccination and stamping out the disease, whereas the third simulation scenario assumes mass and ring vaccination when needed, very strict movement control, and stamping out. This study found that the third scenario is the most effective in controlling and eradicating PPR from the UAE. The outbreak duration in days was reduced by 57% and the number of infected animals by 77% when compared to the other scenarios. These results are valuable to the country’s animal health decision-makers and the government’s efforts to report to the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) regarding the progress made towards declaration of the disease’s eradication. They are also useful to other concerned entities in other Middle Eastern, North African, and Asian countries where the disease is spreading.
... African buffalo were highly susceptible to rinderpest virus infection and disease [72], but, although they are susceptible to PPRV infection, it is apparently a subclinical infection, suggesting low viral loads and low virus excretion. However, it is possible that under greater stress, as more pressure is put on wildlife systems in Africa, PPRV could be clinically expressed, as has been seen in African wild species kept under semi-managed conditions in the Middle East [8,73,74] and in wild populations in Asia [6]. ...
... Clinical PPR disease has so far only been confirmed in Africa in captive Dorcas gazelle in Sudan and possibly free-ranging wildlife in Sudan [15], but these reports remain clinically and epidemiologically unconfirmed. However, clinical disease and PPRV RNA have been found in African species of wild artiodactyls kept under semi-managed conditions in the Middle East, including impala, Thomson's gazelle, Dorcas gazelle, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) and gemsbok (Oryx gazelle) [8,73,74], so it is possible PPR disease does occur in wild species in the GSE, but under these ecological conditions, the signs could be relatively mild or non-specific and therefore not detected or reported. In order to explore the possible role of other wild species in PPRV transmission, future studies in the GSE might focus on wildebeest, impala or Thomson's gazelle. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. The role of wild species in PPRV epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR. These studies aimed to investigate PPRV infection in wild artiodactyls in the Greater Serengeti and Amboseli ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. Out of 132 animals purposively sampled in 2015–2016, 19.7% were PPRV seropositive by ID Screen PPR competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; IDvet, France) from the following species: African buffalo, wildebeest, topi, kongoni, Grant’s gazelle, impala, Thomson’s gazelle, warthog and gerenuk, while waterbuck and lesser kudu were seronegative. In 2018–2019, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected African buffalo and Grant’s gazelle herds was conducted. The weighted estimate of PPRV seroprevalence was 12.0% out of 191 African buffalo and 1.1% out of 139 Grant’s gazelles. All ocular and nasal swabs and faeces were negative by PPRV real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Investigations of a PPR-like disease in sheep and goats confirmed PPRV circulation in the area by rapid detection test and/or RT-qPCR. These results demonstrated serological evidence of PPRV infection in wild artiodactyl species at the wildlife–livestock interface in this ecosystem where PPRV is endemic in domestic small ruminants. Exposure to PPRV could be via spillover from infected small ruminants or from transmission between wild animals, while the relatively low seroprevalence suggests that sustained transmission is unlikely. Further studies of other major wild artiodactyls in this ecosystem are required, such as impala, Thomson’s gazelle and wildebeest.
... There were many reports about small wild ruminant species infected by PPRV in the United Arab Emirates (21). On the other hand, white-tail deer challenged with PPRV exhibited clinical signs similar to those in goat (29). ...
... Abundant reports of natural infection of PPR disease in gazelles, ibexes, bharals, wild goats (Capra aegagrus), wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) have also been documented (7,14,20,22,23,26,31). Additionally, Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) and Afghan Markhor goat (Capra falconeri) died from PPRV infection, which belongs to lineage IV (21). Likewise, in Tibet, China, 19 free-living wild Bharals (Pseudois nayaur) showed clinical signs similar to PPR including mucopurulent discharge and severe diarrhea in a pasture nearby where other abnormally dead bharals were prevalent (22). ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a severe respiratory and digestive tract disease of domestic small ruminants caused by PPR virus (PPRV) of the genus Morbillivirus. Although the primary hosts of PPRV are goats and sheep, the host range of PPRV has been continuously expanding and reported to infect various animal hosts over the last decades, which could bring a potential challenge to effectively control and eradicate PPR globally. In this review, we focused on current knowledge about host expansion and interspecies infection of PPRV and discussed the potential mechanisms involved.
... Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a viral infectious disease affecting domestic (goats and sheep) and small wild ruminants (1,2). The virus can infect camels (3)(4)(5), cattle, and buffalos (3,6) although their role in the transmission remains unclear. ...
... GDP, Gross Domestic Product.2 Tabaski is the Muslim religious festivity of Aid-el-Kebir, during which each family sacrifices a sheep. ...
Article
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Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease affecting domestic and small wild ruminants. Endemic in large parts of the world, PPR causes severe damages to animal production and household economies. In 2015, FAO and OIE launched a global eradication program (GCSE) based on vaccination campaigns. The success of GCSE shall depend on the implementation of vaccination campaigns, accounting for husbandry practices, mobility and the periodicity of small ruminants' population renewal. In Mauritania, PPR outbreaks occur annually despite ongoing annual vaccination campaigns since 2008. Here, we developed a mathematical model to assess the impact of four vaccination strategies (including the GSCE one), the importance of their timing of implementation and the usefulness of individual animal identification on the reduction of PPR burden. The model was calibrated on data collected through ad-hoc surveys about demographic dynamics, disease impact, and national seroprevalence using Monte Carlo Markov Chain procedure. Numerical simulations were used to estimate the number of averted deaths over the next 12 years. The model results showed that the GSCE strategy prevented the largest number of deaths (9.2 million vs. 6.2 for random strategy) and provided one of the highest economic returns among all strategies (Benefit-Cost Ratio around 16 vs. 7 for random strategy). According to its current cost, identification would be a viable investment that could reduce the number of vaccine doses to distribute by 20–60%. Whilst the implementation of the identification system is crucial for PPR control, its success depends also on a coordinated approach at the regional level.
... Nevertheless, a single report describing abomasitis as a common finding in Nubian ibex may suggest that this is typical of SRMV infection in these animals [13]. Molecular analysis of three genomic regions, containing the N, F and H genes [3,8,10,14,15], showed that the virus detected in this study belongs to lineage IV, which is the most abundant SRMV lineage, circulating in Africa, the Middle East and Asia [10,15,16]. The prevalence of SRMV-positive serology in African wildlife, likely due to the fact that grazing lands are commonly shared in close contact by flocks of small ruminants [17], may suggest that wild ruminants are constantly exposed to the virus, but with minor or no clinical manifestations. ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a devastating disease that generally affects sheep and goats, mostly in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. The disease has been declared a target for global eradication. Despite its high prevalence in domestic flocks and its high seroprevalence among wildlife, it is rarely reported as a fulminant disease in wild ruminant species (with the exception of Central Asia). In this report, we describe a severe PPR outbreak in a zoo herd of Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), causing the deaths of 2/3 of the herd. The clinical onset was acute with morbid animals exhibiting lethargy and watery-to-bloody diarrhea and death usually within 48 h. The most consistent gross pathologic findings were hemorrhagic abomasitis and enteritis. Oral lesions and pulmonary lesions were rare. Histology revealed necrohemorrhagic enteritis and abomasitis with myriad nuclear and cytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies. Molecular examinations confirmed the diagnosis of PPR and determined that the causative agent belongs to lineage IV. Further molecular examination showed that the virus belongs to the Asian clade of lineage IV and is closely related to a virus described in Turkey.
... Other wild ruminants, including representatives of the Gazellinae, Tragelaphinae Caprinae subfamilies, may show serious illness and mortality when infected with PPRV from neighbouring small ruminant populations. In specific conditions, wildlife may play an important role in PPR epidemiology, as was seen in the Arabian Peninsula (Kinne et al. 2010). The incubation period of the disease is typically 4-6 days, although it may range between 3 and 14 days. ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is a highly contagious, infectious viral disease of small ruminant species which is caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the prototype member of the Morbillivirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Peste des petits ruminant was first described in West Africa, where it has probably been endemic in sheep and goats since the emergence of the rinderpest pandemic and was always misdiagnosed with rinderpest in sheep and goats. Since its discovery PPR has had a major impact on sheep and goat breeders in Africa and has therefore been a key focus of research at the veterinary research institutes and university faculties of veterinary medicine in Africa. Several key discoveries were made at these institutions, including the isolation and propagation of African PPR virus isolates, notable amongst which was the Nigerian PPRV 75/1 that was used in the scientific study to understand the taxonomy, molecular dynamics, lineage differentiation of PPRV and the development of vaccine seeds for immunisation against PPR. African sheep and goat breeds including camels and wild ruminants are frequently infected, manifesting clinical signs of the disease, whereas cattle and pigs are asymptomatic but can sero-convert for PPR. The immunisation of susceptible sheep and goats remains the most effective and practical control measure against PPR. To carry out PPR vaccination in tropical African countries with a very high temperature, a thermostable vaccine using the rinderpest lyophilisation method to the attenuated Nigeria 75/1 PPR vaccine strain has been developed, which will greatly facilitate the delivery of vaccination in the control, prevention and global eradication of PPR. Apart from vaccination, other important questions that will contribute towards the control and prevention of PPR need to be answered, for example, to identify the period when a susceptible naïve animal becomes infectious when in contact with an infected animal and when an infectious animal becomes contagious. Keywords: peste des petits ruminants virus; lineages; isolates; molecular; epidemiology; vaccine; sheep; goat.
... Le virus qui a été identifié chez les dromadaires malades et les petits ruminants qui partagent les mêmes zones de pâturage sont phylogénétiquement identiques . Les espèces sauvages de petits ruminants des différentes familles d'ongulés y compris les sous-familles de Gazellinae, Tragelaphinae et Caprinae peuvent également être affectées et présenter un fort taux de morbidité et de mortalité (Bao J et al., 2011;Furly et al., 1987;Kinne J et al., 2010). L'impact très important de la PPR affecte maintenant la faune dans son milieu naturel comme le démontrent les milliers de morts de la récente épidémie survenue chez les antilopes Saïga (Saiga tatarica) en Mongolie. ...
Thesis
La peste des petits ruminants (PPR) et la Pleuropneumonie Contagieuse Caprine (PPCC) causées respectivement par un Morbillivirus (Virus de la Peste des Petits Ruminants) et un mycoplasme (Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae) sont deux maladies respiratoires très contagieuses des petits ruminants. La PPR est présente en Afrique, en Asie, au Moyen Orient, et depuis peu en Europe. Sur le continent africain, notamment en Afrique de l’Ouest, elle est en expansion et représente un facteur majeur d’insécurité alimentaire pour la population agricole. La PPCC identifiée au Niger en 1995 n’est que suspectée au Mali sur la base de résultats sérologiques.La PPR est un modèle pour l’étude des maladies transfrontalières car sa diffusion est très étroitement liée aux mouvements régionaux d’animaux vivants. La compréhension de cette diffusion est une condition essentielle à la mise en place de mesures de contrôle efficaces (vaccination, contrôle aux frontières etc.).La thèse a pour ambition de clarifier la situation épidémiologique de la PPR et de la PPCC au Mali, notamment pour savoir si ces deux maladies coexistent, afin d’en évaluer le risque pour les filières de production de caprins et de proposer des stratégies de contrôle adaptées. Nous n’avons pas réussi à mettre en évidence la présence de la PPCC au Mali. Pour la PPR, l’objectif de la thèse est de caractériser la diversité génétique de souches collectées en Afrique de l’Ouest et plus particulièrement au Mali en utilisant en première instance le gène partiel de la nucléoprotéine du virus. Nous avons ensuite estimé la diversité et le taux d’évolution du PPRV dans la région à partir de séquences génomiques complètes. Notre étude a montré qu’au Mali ainsi que dans les autres pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, trois lignées génétiques du PPRV circulent dont l’une d’elles, la lignée II est dominante dans la région et est caractérisée par une grande diversité génétique transfrontalière. Cette étude démontre également une progression de la lignée IV dans l’Afrique de l’Ouest et la persistance au Mali et au Niger de la lignée I (au moins jusqu’en 2001). Ces résultats reflètent par rapport aux données précédentes connues de la répartition des lignées de PPRV, une intensification des mouvements du bétail dus à l’échange et au commerce de ces animaux, flux qui n’est pas contrôlé entre tous les pays de l’ouest africain. Au Mali, il n’existe aucun moyen de contrôle, de traçabilité et d’identification animale. L’utilisation de la diversité génétique comme marqueur épidémiologique serait un moyen d’améliorer notre connaissance de la diffusion de la PPR et de là son contrôle, plus particulièrement dans les pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest.
... After its initial appearance in the Ivory-coast (Cote D'Ivore) in West-Africa (Gargadennec and Lalanne, 1942), the disease spread aggressively into new countries until it became prevalent in nearly most of Africa and Asia, the Middle East, Turkey, with the recent occurrence in Georgia and Mongolia (Banyard et al., 2010;Albina et al., 2013;Libeau et al., 2014;Parida et al., 2015;Baron et al., 2017). PPRV is known to infect mainly sheep and goats however outbreaks of the disease were reported in some wild small ruminants as well as in camels (Kinne et al., 2010;Parida et al., 2015;Marashi et al., 2017). ...
... There are several reports of PPR occurring in other wild species, particularly in captive wild ungulates [6]. Although both cattle and pigs are susceptible to infection, but no obvious clinical signs are observed [7]. ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminan(PPR) is a contagious disease of small ruminants caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Para-myxoviridae. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of PPR dis-ease in sheep and goats and its associated risk factors in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan. Across sectional study was conducted during the period from 30th August to 25th November 2015. The study was carried out using a structured questionnaire survey and a total of 918 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy unvaccinated sheep and goats in different localities in State of Kassala. A total of 546 sheep and 372 goats were tested for specific antibodies to nucleoprotein (NP) by competitive enzyme linked immunosor-bent assay (cELISA). The apparent overall prevalence of PPR antibodies in Kassala was 58.2% while the true prevalence was calculated to be 61.3%. The apparent prevalence in sheep and goats was 68.1% and 43.5% respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors had significant associations with a cELISA positive status: locality, species, age, breed, husbandry system, housing mode, animals movement (p = 0.000) and animals sharing pasture and water(p = 0.003), while sex and newly introduced animals were not sig-nificant risk factors (p = 0. 771) (p = 0.050) respectively. Factors found that significantly associated (p < 0.05) with increased odds of being cELISA pos i-tive in multivariate analysis were localities, species, age and newly introduced animals. The prevalence differed between localities and was the highest in the River Atbara (84.0%) locality, whereas it was lowest in Delta North (29.0%). No significant difference was observed among the sexes. However, the preva-lence differed in different age groups and was 52.25% in animals of less than six months old; 49.3% were between seven months and two years old and 65.5% were above two years old. In different husbandry systems, the preva-lence was 47.9%, 73.0% and 49.2% in intensive, open grazing and pastoral systems respectively. Housing type effects were also observed ; the highest prevalence was in animals housed in metal fence (83.3%). The movement pattern showed significant effect, where the prevalence was the highest (81.3%) in animals that move inter -states/inter -localities. It is concluded that the disease is endemic in Kassala State, high prevalent in sheep and goats, posing a threat to animal exportation, and may have a serious economic in-fluence. Owners and herders should compulsorily vaccinate their animals yearly and animals should be investigated periodically for implementation of crucial eradication p
... PPR is predominantly a disease of goats and sheep (Lefevre and Diallo, 1990;cited in Parida et al., 2015). Fatal PPRV infections in wild sheep and goats, gazelles and various wildlife species have been reported (Parida et al., 2015;Aziz-ul-Rahman et al., 2018), however, their role in the transmission and epidemiology of the disease remains unclear (Kinne et al., 2010;Bao et al., 2011;Marashi et al., 2017). Direct contact between PPRV infected and susceptible animals is, the most likely, the route for transmission (Lefevre and Diallo, 1990). ...
... In recent years, it has also been reported that PPR is occurring in European ruminant populations [9]. PPRV can spread rapidly in wild and domestic ruminant populations [10,11], posing a huge threat to animal husbandry, particularly sheep and goat production in developing countries [8,12,13]. In 2015, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) prioritized PPR for control and launched a joint plan to eradicate the disease by 2030 [14]. ...
Article
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As a highly contagious viral disease, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) can cause severe socio-economic impacts in developing countries due to its threat to sheep and goat production. Previous studies have identified several risk factors for PPR at the individual or herd level. However, only a few studies explored the impacts of landscape factors on PPR risk, particularly at a regional scale. Moreover, risk factor analyses in Africa usually focused on sub-Saharan Africa while neglecting northern Africa. Based on regional occurrence data during 2006–2018, we here explored and compared the risk factors, with a focus on factors related to ruminant habitats, for the occurrence of PPR in sub-Saharan and northern Africa. Our results demonstrated different risk factors in the two regions. Specifically, habitat fragmentation was negatively correlated with PPR occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa, while positively correlated with PPR occurrence in northern Africa. Moreover, urbanization showed a positive association with PPR occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study is among the first, to our knowledge, to compare the risk factors for PPR in sub-Saharan and northern Africa and contributes to a better understanding of the effects of habitat characteristics on PPR occurrence at a regional scale.
... For instance, serological evidence of PPR in cattle and buffalos has been widely reported in different regions, although typical clinical disease could not be observed even under experimental conditions (Haroun et al. 2002;Lembo et al. 2013). However, unlike in cattle, the disease may have devastating clinical consequences in the camels and many wild small ruminants where severe illness and high mortality are often observed (Furley et al. 1987;Hoffmann et al. 2012;Kinne et al. 2010). The role of this wide host range in the overall epidemiology of the disease is still being investigated. ...
Article
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In order to determine the current status of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Sokoto State, Nigeria, a competitive ELISA kit was used to detect the presence of antibodies to PPR virus among the unvaccinated sheep and goats from some randomly selected local government areas (LGAs) in the study area. An overall seroprevalence rate of 45.50% (197/433) was recorded for the disease in this study. Based on the LGAs sampled, the seroprevalence rates in decreasing order were 68.75% (Sokoto South), 59.10% (Tambuwal), 56.72% (Goronyo), 53.24% (Kware), 33.24% (Bodinga) and 18.60% (Wurno). Our results further revealed that sheep had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentage of the seroprevalence rate (52.41%) than the goats (40.24%) sampled in this study. Similarly, age group was found to be significantly associated with the seroprevalence rate which was highest among animals aged 1–2 years (52.49%) followed by those aged less than 1 year old (44.86%) and those aged above 2 years (31.97%). Lastly, breeds of goats, but not those of sheep considered in this study, were found to be significantly associated with the seroprevalence rate (p < 0.05). Altogether, our results signify the active circulation of PPR virus in all the geopolitical zones of the state, and that age, sex, species and location of sampling may constitute the risk factors for the occurrence of the disease in the study area. Therefore, vaccination using PPR homologous vaccine should be intensified in the study area. Genetic characterisation of the circulating peste des petits ruminants virus in the study area should also be performed.
... Inother domestic animals such as camels. The disease has been reported in wild and zoo small ruminants (Ogunsanmi et al.,2003;Ezeibe et al., 2008;Kinne et al., 2010). ...
... The same study found a 63% seroprevalence in 46 sampled wild ruminants [32]. Although it is probable that PPR transmits between domestic and wild animals [32,69,70], our results do not support the hypothesis of wildlife as an important risk factor for exposure for domestic animals in an endemic setting. For the closely related rinderpest virus, the well-accepted hypothesis was that infection in wildlife was not self-sustaining, but rather a case of spillover from domestic animals [71,72]. ...
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Introduction: Livestock husbandry is critical for food security and poverty reduction in a low-income country like Tanzania. Infectious disease is one of the major constraints reducing the productivity in this sector. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important diseases affecting small ruminants, but other infectious diseases may also be present. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for exposure to PPR, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT), and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in sheep and goats in Tanzania. Methods: Serum samples were collected in 2014 and 2015, and analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect antibodies to the five pathogens. Results and discussion: This is the first description of seroprevalence of FMD and BT among small ruminants in Tanzania. Risk factor analysis identified sex (female) (OR for 2014: PPR: 2.49, CCPP: 3.11, FMD: 2.98, BT: 12.4, OR for 2015: PPR: 14.1, CCPP: 1.10, FMD: 2.67, BT: 1.90, BVD: 4.73) and increasing age (>2 years) (OR for 2014: PPR: 14.9, CCPP: 2.34, FMD: 7.52, BT: 126, OR for 2015: PPR: 8.13, CCPP: 1.11, FMD: 2.98, BT: 7.83, BVD: 4.74) as risk factors for exposure to these diseases.
... Inother domestic animals such as camels. The disease has been reported in wild and zoo small ruminants (Ogunsanmi et al.,2003;Ezeibe et al., 2008;Kinne et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Peste des petit ruminants [PPR] is a highly contagious viral disease which is characterized with acute or sub-acute hyperthermia, extremely contagious and mostly pernicious disease of sheep as well as goats and wild small ruminants. In this review, detailed information on etiology, transmission, clinical findings, diagnosis of method, control and elimination pathological, and epizootiological findings of Peste des petits ruminants was given.
... L'Afrique, qui comptait en 2008 environ 460 millions de petits ruminants (Thornton et al., 2002;Herrero et al., 2008) (Kamuanga et al., 2008;Robinson et al., 2014;Kardjadj et al., 2016). Annuellement, plus d'un milliard de petits ruminants, principalement les ovins et les caprins mais aussi les camélidés (Woma et al., 2015;Wohlsein et Singh, 2015) et plusieurs espèces de ruminants sauvages comme les gazellinés ou les hippotraginés, sont exposés au risque de la PPR (Furley et al., 1987;Ogunsanmi et al., 2003;Elzein et al., 2004;Sen et al., 2010;Kinne et al., 2010). ...
Thesis
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La peste des petits ruminants est une maladie infectieuse animale très contagieuse. Largement répandue en Afrique, au Moyen Orient, et en Asie, elle fait des ravages dans les élevages ovins et caprins. Les petits ruminants représentent une ressource nutritionnelle et économique essentielle dans les pays en développement, notamment pour les communautés rurales les plus pauvres. En Afrique sub-saharienne, l’impact de la maladie est d’autant plus élevé que les mouvements des animaux sont compliqués à contrôler (transhumance, commerce illégal, zones de conflits, etc.) et les contrôles sanitaires difficiles à organiser. Une coalition internationale a décidé de prendre en main le contrôle de cette maladie ravageuse en élaborant, avec l’OIE et la FAO, une stratégie mondiale de contrôle progressif et d’éradication de la maladie. A travers l’évaluation de la persistance de l’immunité post-vaccinale à l’échelle de la population, cette thèse présente une méthode d’optimisation des schémas de vaccination (calendrier, couverture vaccinale minimale requise, population cible, etc.) dans le but d’obtenir la meilleure couverture immunitaire possible. La phase de contrôle de la stratégie est basée sur la vaccination de masse, cependant les schémas de vaccination sont principalement élaborés sur des bases empiriques. La dynamique démographique entraînant le renouvellement du cheptel, après une campagne de vaccination, la proportion d’individus immunisés au sein de la population (taux d’immunité) est amenée à diminuer (entrées d’animaux non vaccinés, p. ex. les naissances, et sorties d’animaux vaccinés, p. ex. les ventes). La décroissance du taux d’immunité permet d’évaluer l’efficacité de la vaccination à moyen terme. Si le taux d’immunité est assez élevé, le virus n’a plus d’hôte pour se propager. Un modèle dynamique de prédiction du taux d’immunité dans des élevages de petits ruminants d’Afrique sub-saharienne au cours d’un programme de vaccination pluri-annuel a été développé pendant la thèse en utilisant la théorie des modèles démographiques matriciels. Le renouvellement du cheptel variant d’un système d’élevage à l’autre, ce modèle a été utilisé pour évaluer différents schémas proposés pour les élevages des zones sahéliennes arides / semi-arides et des zones sub-humides / humides. Les paramètres des modèles ont été estimés à partir des données disponibles et d’une revue exhaustive de la littérature. Des indicateurs synthétiques de l’efficacité des schémas de vaccination ont été calculés (persistance du niveau protecteur, taux d’immunité moyen, etc.), puis comparés. L’étude a confirmé la pertinence des schémas proposés par l’OIE et la FAO, apportant des précisions pour les divers scénarios. Les couvertures vaccinales atteintes doivent être très élevées (> 80%) pour permettre la protection d’un troupeau pendant toute la durée du programme. En zone sahélienne, les troupeaux doivent être vaccinés au plus tôt après la saison des pluies pour optimiser la portée de la vaccination. L’étude révèle aussi que le pic d’exploitation des mâles, dû à la Tabaski, et la situation épidémiologique initiale du troupeau influent peu sur la dynamique du taux d’immunité. Le modèle développé permet de représenter précisément les fortes variations démographiques saisonnières ayant lieu dans les troupeaux extensifs des zones tropicales. Il peut être appliqué à toute maladie infectieuse pour laquelle on dispose d’un vaccin efficace à long terme et dont on connaît la dynamique de population des hôtes. Il pourrait cependant être amélioré par l’intégration de la dynamique de la maladie, de la répartition spatiale des élevages ou de la diversité des espèces d’hôtes sous forme de méta-populations ou de méta-communautés. ***///***///***///*** English ***\\\***\\\***\\\*** Peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious animal disease. Widespread in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, it has a devastating effect on small ruminants. Small ruminants are essential to sustainable livelihood in developping countries, especially in rural communities. In western Africa, the disease incidence is higher because of the difficulty to control animals movements (transhumance, illegal trade, conflicted areas, etc.) and to settle adapted sanitary actions. A global strategy for the progressive control and the eradication of the disease has been developed by the OIE and FAO. It is based on mass vaccination, with vaccination protocols defined on empirical basis. After a vaccination campaign, the population dynamics is responsible for herd renewal, the proportion of protected individuals (post-vaccinal immunity rate) in the population is decreasing over time (entries of non-vaccinated animals and exits of vaccinated ones). The immunity rate decrease allows to assess to the efficiency of employed vaccination strategies in term of immunity coverage. From a given threshold, the immunity rate can stop the viral transmission. The population renewal has to be estimated carrefully because it varies from one farming system to another. The work described in this manuscript provides an optimization tool of vaccination strategy, supporting decision markers in the formulation of vaccination protocole achiving the best possible immunization coverage in a given socio-economical context. Using the demographic matrix model theory, we developed a seasonal model predicting the immunity rate dynamics in traditional small ruminants livestock of Western African during a vaccination program. We used this model to evaluate different vaccination protocols proposed for Sahelian arid and semi-arid areas, and Soudano-guinean sub-humid and humid areas. Model parameters were estimated from the available data and an exhaustive review of literature. Synthesising indicators of the protocoles efficiency were computed (length of protective immunity, average immunity rate, etc.) and compared. The work described in the manuscript broadly confirmed the protocols proposed by the OIE and FAO. Additionally, this work provides details for the various scenarios. Very high vaccination coverage (> 80%) should be reached to protect the population during the whole program. In the Sahelian zone, herds should be vaccinated at the earliest possible from September to optimize the scope of vaccination. We also show that the males offtake increase due to Tabaski and the initial epidemiological situation poorly influences the immunity rate dynamics. Our tool is generic. It can be applied to any infectious disease which has a vaccine providing a lifelong immunity and for which the population dynamics is known. Nevertheless, it could be improved by implementing spatial analysis and disease dynamics.
... Other wild ruminants, including representatives of the Gazellinae, Tragelaphinae and Caprinae subfamilies, may express a serious illness and mortality. In specific conditions, wildlife may have played an important role in PPR epidemiology in the Arabian Peninsula [75]. In areas where PPRV has been present for a long time, we have some evidences that PPRV might represent a threat for wildlife. ...
... The epidemiology of PPR does not end at domestic animals; rather it also involves wild animals (Aziz Ul et al., 2016;Ratta et al., 2016). Severe clinical disease with high mortality due to PPRV infection has been recorded in Dorcas Gazelles (Gazella dorcas) (Gur and Albayrak, 2010), Nubian Ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan sheep (Ovis orientalis laristani) and Gemsbok (Oryx gazellaa) (Couacy-Hymann et al., 2005;Kinne et al., 2010;Lembo et al., 2013). Likewise, subclinical infection has been reported in Nilgai (Tragelaphinae) in Arabian Gulf (Furley et al., 1987). ...
Article
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants that leads to high morbidity and mortality thereby results in devastating economic consequences to the livestock industry. PPR is currently endemic across most parts of Asia and Africa, the two regions with the highest concentration of poor people in the world. Sheep and goats in particularly contribute significantly towards the upliftment of livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in these regions. In this context, PPR directly affecting the viability of sheep and goat husbandry has emerged as a major hurdle in the development of these regions. The control of PPR in these regions could significantly contribute to poverty alleviation, therefore, the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) have targeted the control and eradication of PPR by 2030 a priority. In order to achieve this goal, a potent, safe and efficacious live-attenuated PPR vaccine with long-lasting immunity is available for immunoprophylaxis. However, the live-attenuated PPR vaccine is thermolabile and needs maintenance of an effective cold chain to deliver into the field. In addition, the infected animals cannot be differentiated from vaccinated animals. To overcome these limitations, some recombinant vaccines have been developed. This review comprehensively describes about the latest developments in PPR vaccines.
... Other domestic animals such as camels, cattle and pigs are known to undergo subclinical infection of PPR [31]. The disease has been reported in wild small ruminants in a zoo [1] and those living in the wild [32][33][34]. ...
Article
Peste des petit ruminants [PPR] is an acute or sub-acute febrile, highly contagious and often fatal disease of sheep, goats and wild small ruminants. The disease is characterized by fever, erosive stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia and causes serious economic losses in small ruminant's production. Peste des Petits Ruminants is endemic in Sub-saharan Africa extending to the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle Eastern countries and India. Peste des petit ruminants virus is transmitted by close contact between infected and non-infected susceptible animals, which is likely to occur in common grazing and watering points. Infected animals shed PPRV in exhaled air, in secretions, and excretions. In the field, a presumptive diagnosis of PPR can be made on the basis of clinical, pathological, and epizootiological findings. However laboratory confirmation of PPR may be performed through virus isolation, detection of viral antigens, nucleic acid isolation and sequencing; and detection of specific antibody in the serum. The Food and Agricultural organization and the Office International des Epizooties have developed a global eradication strategy aimed at control and eradication of the disease by the year 2030.
... Fortunately, the RPV had been eradicated worldwide through human intervention [20]. The PPRV primarily affects goats and sheep, occasionally infecting wild small ruminants [21], buffalos, camels and even pigs [22]. The CDV affects a wide variety of animal families, including dogs, coyotes, foxes and so on [23], and is most closely related to the PDV, which caused two mass mortalities of seals in Europe in 1988 [24] and 2002 [25], respectively. ...
Article
The genus Morbillivirus is classified into the family Paramyxoviridae, and is composed of 6 members, namely measles virus (MV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). The MV, RPV, PPRV and CDV have been successfully attenuated through their serial passages in vitro for the production of live vaccines. It has been demonstrated that the morbilliviral virulence in animals was progressively attenuated with their consecutive passages in vitro. However, only a few reports were involved in explanation of an attenuation-related mechanism on them until many years after the establishment of a quasispecies theory. RNA virus quasispecies arise from rapid evolution of viruses with high mutation rate during genomic replication, and play an important role in gradual loss of viral virulence by serial passages. Here, we overviewed the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains against morbilliviruses by consecutive passages in vitro, and further discussed a related mechanism concerning the relationship between virulence attenuation and viral evolution.
... The causative agent "peste des petits ruminants virus" (PPRV), has recently been re-classified as sole member of the Small Ruminant Morbillivirus, in the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae together with other animal morbilliviruses such as rinderpest virus (Gibbs et al., 1979;Maes et al., 2019). The disease affects domestic and wild small ruminants and camels (Lefevre and Diallo, 1990;Kinne et al., 2010;Parida et al., 2015). PPR is a particularly fast spreading disease characterized by a morbidity reaching 90% and even higher, and a mortality ranging between 50% and 80% (reviewed in Baron et al., 2011;Albina et al., 2013). ...
Article
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a member of the genus Morbillivirus, in the family Paramyxoviridae expresses two membrane glycoproteins, the fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins which mediate virus-to-cell fusion and cell-to-cell fusion leading to the induction of syncytia in PPRV infected cells. In the context of the characterization of the virulent lineage IV strain PPRV Kurdistan 2011, isolated from wild goats from the Kurdistan region in Iraq, we observed that both PPRV Kurdistan 2011 and the PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain led to induction of large syncytia in Vero-dogSLAM cells within 48 hours whereas both failed to induce detectable cell-cell fusion events in two Vero cell lines of differing passage histories. We were unable to detect syncytium formation in transiently transfected cells expressing PPRV F or H alone whereas co-expression of F and H induced large syncytia – in Vero-dogSLAM cells only. In VeroMontpellier cells expressing PPRV F and H, fused cells were rarely detectable indicating that PPRV mediated cell fusion activity is impaired in this cell line. Surprisingly, on Vero-dogSLAM cells the vaccine strain grew to titers of 105.25 TCID50/ml, whereas infectious virus yield was about 200-fold higher on VeroMontpellier and Vero-76 cells. In contrast, the virulent Kurdistan 2011 strain grew to a maximum titer of 107.0 TCID50/ml on Vero-dogSLAM cells and only 104.5 TCID50/ml on normal Vero cells. This was as expected since Vero cells lacking the SLAM receptor for PPRV are regarded as not so permissive for infection. To elucidate the divergent productive replication behaviour of PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain on Vero vs Vero-dogSLAM cells, we examined whether intracellular transport and/or maturation of the viral envelope glycoproteins F and H might be implicated with this phenomenon. The results indicate that F in contrast to the H glycoprotein matures inefficiently during intracellular transport in VeroMontpellier cells, thus leading to an absence of detectable syncytia formation. However, in the case of the PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain this did not impair efficient virus assembly and release.
... Other wild ruminants, including representatives of the Gazellinae, Tragelaphinae, and Caprinae subfamilies, may show a serious illness and mortality when infected with PPRV from neighboring small ruminant populations. In specific conditions, wildlife may play an important role in PPR epidemiology, as was seen in the Arabian Peninsula (Kinne et al., 2010), but it remains to be determined whether wildlife is primarily a sentinel victim rather than a reservoir for PPRV, as was found for RPV (Anderson, 1995;Couacy-Hymann et al., 2005;Mahapatra et al., 2015). This is an area where knowledge remains scarce and which deserves more attention, since PPR is progressing southward in Africa where wild ruminant density, as well as sheep/goat density, is high. ...
Chapter
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat.
... Other wild ruminants, including representatives of the Gazellinae, Tragelaphinae and Caprinae subfamilies, may express a serious illness and mortality. In specific conditions, wildlife may have played an important role in PPR epidemiology in the Arabian Peninsula (Kinne et al., 2010). In areas where PPRV has been present for a long time, we have some evidences that PPRV might represent a threat for wildlife. ...
... It is caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and affects mainly small domestic ruminants (sheep and goats) as well as camels, with serious economic loss especially in many countries of Africa and Asia (1,2). Wild ruminants, such as gazelles, deer, roe deer, antelope can also be affected (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12), which consequently poses a further risk for the control and surveillance in vaccination programs. ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a virus that mainly infects goats and sheep causing significant economic loss in Africa and Asia, but also posing a serious threat to Europe, as recent outbreaks in Georgia (2016) and Bulgaria (2018) have been reported. In order to carry out the eradication of PPRV, an objective set for 2030 by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), close collaboration between governments, pharmaceutical companies, farmers and researchers, among others, is needed. Today, more than ever, as seen in the response to the SARS-CoV2 pandemic that we are currently experiencing, these goals are feasible. We summarize in this review the current vaccination approaches against PPRV in the field, discussing their advantages and shortfalls, as well as the development and generation of new vaccination strategies, focusing on the potential use of adenovirus as vaccine platform against PPRV and more broadly against other ruminant pathogens.
... The only published disease outbreak in free-ranging wildlife in Africa occurred in Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) in Dinder National Park, Sudan (Asil et al., 2019). However, this was not supported by field data to confirm the nature of the epidemic or event, and so whether this represents true wildlife disease remains equivocal, while African species in captivity have been shown to express PPR disease in zoological collections in the Middle East (Furley, Taylor, and Obi 1987;Kinne et al., 2010;Berkowitz et al., 2019). Therefore, while it is now clear that PPRV poses a threat to biodiversity, the determinants of differential disease expression among wildlife hosts are not understood. ...
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes disease in domestic and wild ungulates, is the target of a global eradication programme and threatens biodiversity. Understanding the epidemiology and evolution of PPRV in wildlife is important, but hampered by the paucity of wildlife-origin PPRV genomes. In this study, full PPRV genomes were generated from three Mongolian saiga antelope, one Siberian ibex and one goitered gazelle from the 2016-2017 PPRV outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis showed that for Mongolian and Chinese PPRV since 2013, the wildlife and livestock-origin genomes were closely related and interspersed. There was strong phylogenetic support for a monophyletic group of PPRV from Mongolian wildlife and livestock, belonging to a clade of lineage IV PPRV from livestock and wildlife from China since 2013. Discrete diffusion analysis found strong support for PPRV spread into Mongolia from China and phylogeographic analysis indicated Xinjiang Province as the most likely origin, although genomic surveillance for PPRV is poor and lack of sampling from other regions could bias this result. Times of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) were June 2015 (95% HPD: August 2014 – March 2016) for all Mongolian PPRV genomes and May 2016 (95% HPD: October 2015 – October 2016) for Mongolian wildlife-origin PPRV. This suggests that PPRV was circulating undetected in Mongolia for at least six months before the first reported outbreak in August 2016, and that wildlife were likely infected before livestock vaccination began in October 2016. Finally, genetic variation and positively selected sites were identified that might be related to PPRV emergence in Mongolian wildlife. This study is the first to sequence multiple PPRV genomes from a wildlife outbreak, across several host species. Additional full PPRV genomes and associated metadata from the livestock-wildlife interface are needed to enhance the power of molecular epidemiology, support PPRV eradication and safeguard the health of the whole ungulate community.
... The only published disease outbreak in free-ranging African wildlife in Africa occurred in Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) in Dinder National Park, Sudan Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/ve/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ve/veab062/6309185 by guest on 03 July 2021 (Asil et al. 2019). However, this was not supported by field data to confirm the nature of the epidemic or event, and so whether this represents true wildlife disease remains equivocal, whilst African species in captivity have been shown to express PPR disease in zoological collections in the Middle East (Berkowitz et al. 2019;Furley et al. 1987;Kinne et al. 2010). Therefore, while it is now clear that PPRV poses a threat to biodiversity, the determinants of differential disease expression among wildlife hosts are not understood. ...
Preprint
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes disease in domestic and wild ungulates, is the target of a global eradication programme and threatens biodiversity. Understanding the epidemiology and evolution of PPRV in wildlife is important, but hampered by the paucity of wildlife-origin PPRV genomes. In this study, full PPRV genomes were generated from three Mongolian saiga antelope, one Siberian ibex and one goitered gazelle from the 2016-2017 PPRV outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis showed that for Mongolian and Chinese PPRV since 2013, the wildlife and livestock-origin genomes were closely related and interspersed. There was strong phylogenetic support for a monophyletic group of PPRV from Mongolian wildlife and livestock, belonging to clade of lineage IV PPRV from livestock and wildlife from China since 2013. Discrete diffusion analysis found strong support for PPRV spread into Mongolia from China and phylogeographic analysis indicated Xinjiang Province as the most likely origin, although genomic surveillance for PPRV is poor and lack of sampling from other regions could bias this result. Times of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) were June 2015 (95% HPD: August 2014 – March 2016) for all Mongolian PPRV genomes and May 2016 (95% HPD: October 2015 – October 2016) for Mongolian wildlife-origin PPRV. This suggests that PPRV was circulating undetected in Mongolia for at least six months before the first reported outbreak in August 2016, and that wildlife were likely infected before livestock vaccination began in October 2016. Finally, genetic variation and positively-selected sites were identified that might be related to PPRV emergence in Mongolian wildlife. This study is the first to sequence multiple PPRV genomes from a wildlife outbreak, across several host species. Additional full PPRV genomes and associated metadata from the livestock-wildlife interface are needed to enhance the power of molecular epidemiology, support PPRV eradication and safeguard the health of the whole ungulate community. Author Summary Recent mass mortality of critically endangered Mongolian saiga antelope due to peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has dramatically highlighted the threat this viral disease represents for biodiversity. The genome of viruses such as PPRV evolve fast, so virus genetic data gathered from infected animals can be used to trace disease spread between livestock and wildlife, and to determine if the virus is adapting to infect wildlife more efficiently. Here we obtained PPRV virus genomes from Mongolian wildlife and compared them with other published PPRV genomes. Using a molecular clock, we estimated that the disease was circulating in Mongolia well before it was first reported. Genetic analyses support the hypothesis of virus spread from livestock to wildlife, with genetic changes potentially helping infection in Asian wild ungulates. However, more PPR virus genomes and epidemiology data are needed from disease outbreaks in areas shared between livestock and wildlife to confirm these results and take efficient actions to safeguard the health of the whole ungulate community.
... of most wild ungulate species in PPR epidemiology is largely unknown, as no clinical disease has ever been reported despite exposure (26). Clinical disease has been observed in African ungulates in zoo environments elsewhere (27) and in other wild ungulate species in central Asia (28,29). The southern African region has large and healthy wildlife populations with relative freedom of movements across borders thanks to the creation of Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) (30,31). ...
Article
Full-text available
In southern Africa, small ruminants are an important source of nutrition and income to resource-poor small holder farmers. After spreading from West to Central and Eastern Africa, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in the United Republic of Tanzania in 2008 and has since been reported in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Comoros. The disease can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in naïve sheep and goat populations and severely impact rural livelihoods, particularly those of women. Gaps in the knowledge of PPR epidemiology still exist, particularly around the role of small-ruminant movement and the role of the abundant wildlife in southern Africa. The capacity of veterinary services to undertake surveillance and control PPR is heterogeneous within the region, with vaccination being limited. The Pan African strategy for the control and eradication of PPR mirrors the Global Strategy and provides the framework for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region to meet the 2030 goal of eradication. Five countries and one zone within Namibia are officially PPR free according to OIE Standards. Most countries have developed national strategies for the control and eradication of PPR. To strengthen national and regional PPR eradication programme goals, there is a need for a regional risk-based surveillance adapted to infected, high-risk and lower-risk countries that will enable targeted and efficient control, rapid response to incursions and prevention of spread as well as improved preparedness. Continued international and national support will be necessary including laboratory diagnostics and enhancing surveillance capacity to prevent further spread southwards on the continent.
... Peste des petits ruminants are generally considered a major constraint for small ruminant production (Rossiter and Taylor, 1994;Nanda et al., 1996). This disease causes serious economic losses in small ruminants' production due to its extremely contagious nature of the disease. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sheep and goats disease is among the main constraints of small ruminant production in the country. The peste des petits ruminants disease is widespread viral diseases that affect sheep and goats kept in a different production system. This disease is a primary effect of sheep and goats. Peste des petits ruminants are caused by peste des petits ruminants virus. The virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus. Pest des petits ruminants disease is an extremely contagious, severe and economically important disease in not only in domestic small ruminants but also wild small ruminants. The disease is characterized in affected animals by increased respiratory rates, the extension of the head and neck, dilation of the nostrils, protrusion of the tongue, abdominal breathing, and soft painful coughs. In post mortem, necroticor hemorrhagic enteritis is usually present and linear hemorrhages or zebra stripes may be located in the colon and caecum. The infection is transmitted by direct and indirect contact. The disease is influenced by age, breeds, flock size, introduced by new or market returned animal and climatic conditions. The peste des petits ruminants disease has an enormous economic impact on production varying from direct to indirect losses. Peste des petits ruminants virus has a significant economic impact due to its highly contagious nature of the disease. With proper use of vaccine and vaccination programs together with other measures like quarantine, adequate disposal of carcasses, and movement control was suggested.
... Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease mainly affecting sheep and goats. However, several cases of PPR have been reported in other domestic and wild ungulates like Laristan sheep, gazelles (Dorcas, Arabian, Arabian mountain, Rheem, Thompson's), buffalo, springbuck, impala in captivity (Govindarajan et al., 1997 ;Abu Elzein et al., 2004;Diallo et al. 2007 ;Kinne et al., 2010). Cattle, camels and pigs can be infected by this virus, but there is little or no evidence of the disease associated with their infection (Khalafallaa et al., 2010;Schulz et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study aims at determining the prevalence of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in goats reared traditionally in northern Côte d'Ivoire villages. For that, serum samples collected from 171 goats randomly selected from five localities in the Departement of Korhogo and tested the presence of anti-PPRV antibodies by a Competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA). Overall, seroprevalence of PPR in the area was 36.26% (62/171). All the localities sampled had at least one PPR-positive animal. Age and sex of the animals were not significantly (p>0.05) associated with the infection; however, localities of sampled animals, showed significant (p<0.05) association with PPR virus-infection in goats. It is then concluded that there is high seroprevalence of PPR in traditional raised goats in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Therefore, vaccination campaigns against PPR are advocated to prevent the transmission and spread of PPR in the area.
... Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a severe contagious viral disease which mainly affects small ruminants [1]. There are several reports of PPR occurring in other wild species, particularly in captive wild ungulates [2]. The disease caused by a virus belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae [3] in human, and Canine distemper virus in pets and wild animals species belonging to Canidae, Mustelidae, Procynonidae, Ailuridae, Elephantidae, and large Felidae [4]. ...
Article
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Background Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a severe contagious viral disease, which mainly affects small ruminants. PPR is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae . In this study 12 suspected PPR outbreaks among sheep and goats were investigated in four localities in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan, during 2015—2017. The causative agent was confirmed by a Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (sELISA), and a Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) targeting a partial sequence of nucleocapsid protein gene (N- gene) and a partial sequence of fusion protein gene (F- gene). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were carried out on six N- gene based RT-PCR products selected from two outbreaks occurred on border and inner localities of Kassala State to determine the circulating lineages of PPRV strains. Identity percentages were determined between isolates in this study and previous Sudanese, and other (African and Asian) isolates which clustered along with them. Results Out of 30 samples, 22 (73.3%) were positive using sandwich ELISA. From 22 s ELISA positive samples, 17 (77.3%) were positive by Ngene based RT-PCR and only 7(43.8%) out of 16 positive samples by N gene based RT-PCR were positive using Fgene based RT-PCR. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed involvement of the lineage IV of PPRV in outbreaks among small ruminants in Kassala State and high identity percentage between our isolates and previous Sudanese and other (African and Asian) isolates. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that genetic relationship between PPRV strains circulating in sheep in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan, and PPRV strains characterized as lineage IV in neighboring African countries such as Eretria,Ethiopia, Egypt, and other Asian countries
... The role of wildlife animals and domestic Artiodactyls in the epidemiology of PPR is unknown or insufficiently understood [38]. Infections of various wildlife species including African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and many antelope species occur apparently subclinical [38,39] but the only confirmed reports of disease in African wildlife have occurred under captive or semi-free range conditions [40,41]. According to previous studies, animals that recover from PPRV infections develop life-long immunity [42,43]. ...
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Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly contagious disease, which poses enormous economic losses in domestic animals and threatens the conservation of wild herbivores. Diagnosis remains a cornerstone to the Peste des petits ruminants Global Control and Eradication Strategy, an initiative of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The present review presents the peste des petits ruminants diagnostic landscape, including the practicality of commercially available diagnostic tools, prototype tests and opportunities for new technologies. The most common peste des petits ruminants diagnostic tools include; agar gel immunodiffusion, counter-immunoelectrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction either gel-based or real-time, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays, immunochromatographic lateral flow devices, luciferase immunoprecipitation system and pseudotype-based assays. These tests vary in their technical demands, but all require a laboratory with exception of immunochromatographic lateral flow and possibly reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays. Thus, we are proposing an efficient integration of diagnostic tests for rapid and correct identification of peste des petits ruminants in endemic zones and to rapidly confirm outbreaks. Deployment of pen-side tests will improve diagnostic capacity in extremely remote settings and susceptible wildlife ecosystems, where transportation of clinical samples in the optimum cold chain is unreliable.
... Saiga antelope were confirmed to be susceptible and capable of spreading PPRV infection within their population over a short time, suggesting high viral excretion loads and contact rates over the period of the epidemic. PPR in 3 other species of antelope in a semicaptive private collection in the United Arab Emirates has been previously reported (30), and our report indicates that free-ranging antelope exhibit the same level of susceptibility. The multiple clusters of ibex deaths suggest multiple spillovers from livestock followed by effective intraspecies transmission. ...
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The 2016–2017 introduction of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) into livestock in Mongolia was followed by mass mortality of the critically endangered Mongolian saiga antelope and other rare wild ungulates. To assess the nature and population effects of this outbreak among wild ungulates, we collected clinical, histopathologic, epidemiologic, and ecological evidence. Molecular characterization confirmed that the causative agent was PPRV lineage IV. The spatiotemporal patterns of cases among wildlife were similar to those among livestock affected by the PPRV outbreak, suggesting spillover of virus from livestock at multiple locations and time points and subsequent spread among wild ungulates. Estimates of saiga abundance suggested a population decline of 80%, raising substantial concerns for the species’ survival. Consideration of the entire ungulate community (wild and domestic) is essential for elucidating the epidemiology of PPRV in Mongolia, addressing the threats to wild ungulate conservation, and achieving global PPRV eradication.
... For example, sheep subclinically infected with PPRV are a known possible source of silent PPRV-spread [5,9]. PPRV RNA, antigen or infectious virus was detected in blood or tissue samples from different wild animal species [5,10], camels [11,12], buffaloes [13], and cattle [14], but no transmission to susceptible contact animals or shedding of infectious virus has so far been reported in any sound study for these Artiodactyla species. Additionally, due to multiple disease outbreaks in camels, which were associated with PPRV-infection with any of the lineages LII, LIII [15], or LIV, PPR has been discussed an emerging disease in camels [12,[16][17][18]. ...
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Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. The possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of PPRV remains to be clarified. Recent transmission trials with the virulent PPRV lineage IV (LIV)-strain Kurdistan/2011 revealed that pigs and wild boar are possible sources of PPRV-infection. We therefore investigated the role of cattle, llamas, alpacas, and dromedary camels in transmission trials using the Kurdistan/2011 strain for intranasal infection and integrated a literature review for a proper evaluation of their host traits and role in PPRV-transmission. Cattle and camelids developed no clinical signs, no viremia, shed no or only low PPRV-RNA loads in swab samples and did not transmit any PPRV to the contact animals. The distribution of PPRV-RNA or antigen in lymphoid organs was similar in cattle and camelids although generally lower compared to suids and small ruminants. In the typical small ruminant hosts, the tissue tropism, pathogenesis and disease expression after PPRV-infection is associated with infection of immune and epithelial cells via SLAM and nectin-4 receptors, respectively. We therefore suggest a different pathogenesis in cattle and camelids and both as dead-end hosts for PPRV.
... Recently, Lineage IV isolated from Arabian Peninsula, Middle East, Southern Asia, and across several African territories (De Nardi et al., 2012;Libeau et al., 2014). In spite of, sheep and goats display the clinical form of PPR disease; PPRV has been reported in other wild species especially in captive wild ungulates (Abu Elzein et al., 2004;Kinne et al., 2010). Goats were reported to display more severe symptoms and outbreaks than sheep ( Khan et al., 2007;Abubakar et al., 2008). ...
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... of most wild ungulate species in PPR epidemiology is largely unknown, as no clinical disease has ever been reported despite exposure (26). Clinical disease has been observed in African ungulates in zoo environments elsewhere (27) and in other wild ungulate species in central Asia (28,29). The southern African region has large and healthy wildlife populations with relative freedom of movements across borders thanks to the creation of Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) (30,31). ...
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In southern Africa, small ruminants are an important source of nutrition and income to resource-poor small holder farmers. After spreading from West to Central and Eastern Africa, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in the United Republic of Tanzania in 2008 and has since been reported in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Comoros. The disease can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in naive sheep and goat populations and severely impact rural livelihoods, particularly those of women. Gaps in the knowledge of PPR epidemiology still exist, particularly around the role of small-ruminant movement and the role of the abundant wildlife in southern Africa. The capacity of veterinary services to undertake surveillance and control PPR is heterogeneous within the region, with vaccination being limited. The Pan African strategy for the control and eradication of PPR mirrors the Global Strategy and provides the framework for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region to meet the 2030 goal of eradication. Five countries and one zone within Namibia are officially PPR free according to OIE Standards. Most countries have developed national strategies for the control and eradication of PPR. To strengthen national and regional PPR eradication programme goals, there is a need for a regional risk-based surveillance adapted to infected, high-risk and lower-risk countries that will enable targeted and efficient control, rapid response to incursions and prevention of spread as well as improved preparedness. Continued international and national support will be necessary including laboratory diagnostics and enhancing surveillance capacity to prevent further spread southwards on the continent.
Chapter
The first interaction of the host and pathogen is initiated by receptor binding, which is mediated by the hemagglutination-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) and sialic acid on the host cell membrane. A siRNA-mediated study has confirmed that signal lymphocyte activating molecules (SLAM) could be a putative co-receptor for PPRV. As in all paramyxoviruses, RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) binds to the genome promoter, which is a stretch of the nucleotides before the nucleocapsid open reading frame that initiates transcription in a “stop-start” fashion with the contribution of other viral proteins such as matrix, nucleocapsid, and phosphoprotein. Viral budding occurs through the neuraminidase activity, which cleaves sialic acid residues from the carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins. Some of these steps in the replication of PPRV are not fully defined yet. However, among morbilliviruses, PPRV is unique in which the HN protein performs both hemagglutination and neuraminidase actions, so better reflected as an HN protein instead of H protein. The virus propagation and pathogenicity is directly proportional to that of the host’s immune response, parasitic infection, the nutritional level of host, and the age of the animal. This chapter highlights recent studies on PPRV replication, transmission, and the factors, both host and non-host, affecting virus propagation in the host.
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an highly contagious disease of small ruminants, and caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The first outbreak of PPR in China was officially reported in July 2007, when a PPRV strain was successfully isolated from a sick goat in Tibet, followed by sequencing at a full-genome level (China/Tibet/Geg/07-30, GenBank: FJ905304.1). To date, this isolate has been virulently attenuated by more than 90 serial passages in Vero-Dog-SLAM cells at our laboratory. In this study, a total of nine strains by serial passages (namely the 10th, 20th, 30th, 40th, 50th, 60th, 70th, 80th, and 90th passages) were chosen for sequencing of six structural genes in PPRV. The sequence analysis showed that mutation rates in all viral genes were relatively low, and only a few identical mutations within certain genes were stably maintained after an earlier passage, perhaps indicating a predominance of mutants after such a passage.
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) or goat plague is considered a leading, highly contagious, and most lethal infectious viral disease of small ruminants affecting the worldwide livestock economy and international animal trade. Although sheep and goats are the primarily affected, the PPR Virus (PPRV) host range has expanded to other livestock (large ruminants) and wildlife animals over the last few decades, resulting in serious concern to the ongoing PPR global eradication program, which is primarily optimized, designed, and targeted towards accessible sheep and goat population. A systematic review and meta-analysis study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and spill-over infection of PPRV in large ruminants (bovine and camel) and wildlife. Published articles from 2001 to October 2021 on the "PPR" were searched in four electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, and Google Scholars. The articles were then selected using inclusion criteria (detection/prevalence of PPRV in bovine, camel, and wildlife population), exclusion criteria (only sheep or goats, lack of prevalence data, experimental trial, test evaluation, and reviews written in other languages or published before 2001), and the prevalence was estimated by random effect meta-analysis model. In the current study, all published articles belonged to Africa and Asia. The overall pooled prevalence of PPR estimates was 24% (95% CI: 15-33), with 30% in Asia (95% CI: 14-49) and 20% in Africa (95% CI: 11-30). The overall estimated pooled prevalence at an Africa-Asia level in bovine and camel was 13% (95% CI: 8-19), and in wildlife, it was 52% (95% CI: 30-74) with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 97%) in most pooled estimates with a high prevalence in atypical hosts and wildlife across Asia and Africa. Over the last two decades, the host range has increased drastically in the wildlife population, even for prevalent PPR in the unnatural hosts only for a short time, contributing to virus persistence in multi-host systems with an impact on PPR control and eradication program. This observation on the epidemiology of the PPRV in unnatural hosts demands appropriate intervention strategies, particularly at the livestock-wildlife interface.
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Although the Trans-Himalayan region (THR) is an important endemic and rendezvous area of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), monitoring and prevention measurements are difficult to execute because of the rough geographical conditions. Besides, a heterogeneous breeding system and the poor veterinary service of susceptible animals compound the existing problems. Here, we propose a forecasting system to define the key points of PPR prevention and aid the countries in saving time, labor, and products to achieve the goal of the global eradication project of PPR. The spatial distribution of PPR was predicted in the THR for the first time using a niche model that was constructed with a combination of eco-geographical, anthropoid, meteorological, and host variables. The transboundary least-cost paths (LCPs) of small ruminants in the THR were also calculated. Our results reveal that the low-elevation area of the THR had a higher PPR risk and was mainly dominated by human variables. The high-elevation area had lower risk and was mainly dominated by natural variables. Eight LCPs representing corridors among India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and China were obtained. This confirmed the potential risk of transboundary communication by relying on PPR contamination on the grasslands for the first time. The predicted potential risk communication between the two livestock systems and landscapes (high and low elevation) might play a role in driving PPR transboundary transmission.
Chapter
Given its impact on animal health and its economic relevance, Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) list A disease. The economic losses associated with PPR occur not only directly through reduced animal production and high death rate but also indirectly through trade losses due to restrictions on animal movements. The costs of implementing control measures along with diagnostic tests further influence the profitability of the small ruminant business. Recent outbreaks of PPRV in Morocco and Turkey highlight the importance of the disease and reasoned to facilitate the efforts for eradication of PPR, globally. Recently, rinderpest (RP) has been eradicated from the globe and efforts are in progress to eradicate other viral diseases, of which PPR is the most suitable candidate. The availability of efficient diagnostic tests accompanied by vaccines providing strong immunity that last for years are facilitating elements in this cause. However, a unified framework is currently lacking that can help bridging and synthesizing the lessons from the RP eradication programme, and effectively devise future campaigns for the successful control and elimination of PPR from the globe. Expecting the impact of great economic reward, a high number of PPR-endemic countries should join the force, and implement regional roadmaps for the progressive and successful control and elimination of PPRV. This chapter focused on all of these possibilities in light of the global concern and animal health organization’s objectives. Moreover, efforts are made to emphasize the elements that favor the eradication campaign, while the research and planning gaps that require immediate attention are critically reviewed.
Article
Since the first case report in 1942, the peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) has been causing infection in a wide range of susceptible hosts, particularly in disease-endemic regions. In the last 40 years, various reports highlighted the evidence of disease and viral genome in around 46 animal species from nine diverse families, including Bovidae, Cervidae, Camelidae, Suidae, Canidae, Felidae, Muridae, and Elephantidae. This evidence of clinical and/ or subclinical infection and the presence of the virus in an extended range of susceptible hosts emphasizes the cross-species transmission that remains a significant obstacle to effective control, particularly in disease-endemic regions. Therefore, a better understanding of virus transmission, host susceptibility, and epidemiological investigation of the disease is crucial to achieving the goals of efficient disease control and eradication programs initiated by OIE and FAO in various diseases-endemic regions. Nevertheless, the propensity of PPRV to inter- and intra-transmission may be a possible constraint in disease control strategies in terms of the new outbreak with the involvement of unusual or novel hosts. Considering this aspect, we tried to summarize the scattered data on PPR in available information about the susceptibility of a wide range of wildlife species, large ruminants, camels, and unusual hosts.
Chapter
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important plague of small ruminants. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has even spread into the developed world through the spread of the infection into sheep and goat populations within European Turkey. Where the virus is present, it is often seen to disproportionately affect small ruminant production, often causing increased poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the globe. PPR is considered to be a transboundary disease of great significance through its effect on the development and maintenance of sustainable agriculture in developing countries, most notably in Western Africa and South Asia. Here, we review reporting to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and World Reference Laboratories (WRLs) over the last 16 years and comment on reporting systems. Furthermore, we discuss the utility of molecular tools to genetically type PPRV infection across Africa, Asia and Europe.
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A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Qatar. Three hundred sixty-eight blood, swabs, and organ tissue samples collected between 2009 and 2016 were screened for PPR viral antibodies, antigens and nucleic acids using ELISA-Ab, ELISA-Ag and r RT-PCR, respectively. Fifteen PPR positive samples were subjected to virus isolation using Vero cell lines. 52% (n=192) of the samples were shown positive for PPR reporting first time infection of 52% (n=71) animal species including sheep, goat, deer, gazelle, addax, Oryx, blackbuck, deer, springbuck and waterbuck. Eight PPR virus (PPRV) field isolates demonstrated classical PPRV cytopathic effect (CPE) and shown positive for the virus antigens proving finally virus isolation. Sheep had the highest infection rate (55%) followed by wild ruminants (54%) and goats (47%). History wise, PPR might exist in Qatar before 2009. A systematic investigation is recommended to identify the risk factors associated with exposure of the susceptible animals to PPR infection, to test the susceptibility of the different species to PPR infection, and to describe the molecular entity and the replicative potentiality of the circulating field strains.
Article
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus member of the genus Morbillivirus, which mainly affects goats, sheep and wild ruminants. It is considered one of the most significant transboundary infectious diseases and represents an animal health concern in developing countries. Spain is considered a PPR‐free country. Nevertheless, given its geographical proximity to countries in North Africa where PPR virus (PPRV) has been circulating in recent years, the south of Spain can be considered a risk area for the introduction of PPRV. The aim of the present study was to assess circulation of PPRV in domestic and wild ruminant species in this country. During the period 2015‐2017, a total of 910 sera from domestic, wild and captive ruminants were analyzed using a commercial blocking ELISA to detect antibodies against PPRV. None of the 910 (0.0%; 95%CI: 0.0‐0.3) animals tested were positive for anti‐PPRV antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serosurvey study of PPR in Spain. The results indicate absence of circulating PPRV in the south of Spain during the study period. Due to the risk of PPRV introduction into European countries of the Mediterranean basin, epidemiological surveillance should be maintained and extended in this region.
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro District. During June 2015, 33 PPR-like disease reports were investigated in different parts of the district, using semi-structured interviews, clinical examinations, PPR virus rapid detection test (PPRV-RDT), and laboratory analysis. Ten flocks were confirmed as PPRV infected by PPRV-RDT and/or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and two flocks were co-infected with bluetongue virus (BTV), confirmed by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analysis of six partial N gene sequences showed that the PPR viruses clustered with recent lineage III Tanzanian viruses, and grouped with Ugandan, Kenyan and Democratic Republic of Congo isolates. No PPR-like disease was reported in wildlife. There was considerable variation in clinical syndromes between flocks: some showed a full range of PPR signs, while others were predominantly respiratory, diarrhoea, or oro-nasal syndromes, which were associated with different local disease names (olodua-a term for rinderpest, olkipiei-lung disease, oloirobi-fever, enkorotik-diarrhoea). BTV co-infection was associated with severe oro-nasal lesions. This clinical variability makes the field diagnosis of PPR challenging, highlighting the importance of access to pen-side antigen tests and multiplex assays to support improved surveillance and targeting of control activities for PPR eradication.
Chapter
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. Clinically, it is characterized by fever, gastroenteritis, erosive lesions of mucous membranes, and respiratory distress due to severe bronchopneumonia. PPR is a transboundary animal disease (TAD) with mortality rates varying considerably but as high as 60–70%. It is in the list of the group of economically important animal diseases to be notified to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Described for the first time in 1942 in Côte d’Ivoire, PPR has steadily expanded its geographical distribution throughout Africa, the Middle and Near East, and Asia, from China to Kazakhstan. It has now become the most important sheep and goat infectious disease. It is estimated that productions of nearly two billion of sheep and goats, and many vulnerable wild small ruminants such as Saiga in Mongolia, are threatened by PPR. As sheep and goats are vital for day-to-day livelihoods of small farmers, the fight against PPR should be seen as a program for the reduction of poverty in the world, one of the Millennium Development Goals. Taking lessons from the success of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), and as PPR shares with rinderpest some favorable technical attributes that have facilitated rinderpest eradication, FAO and the OIE have jointly developed a Strategy for the Global Eradication of PPR by the year 2030.
Article
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infects a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants, and occasionally unusual hosts such as camel, cattle and pig. Given their broad host-spectrum and disease endemicity in several developing countries, it is imperative to elucidate the viral evolutionary insights for their dynamic pathobiology and differential host-selection. For this purpose, a dataset of all available (n = 37) PPRV sequences originating from wild and unusual hosts was composed and in silico analysed. Compared to domestic small ruminant strains of same geographical region, phylogenomic and residue analysis of PPRV sequences originating from wild and unusual hosts revealed a close relationship between strains. A lack of obvious difference among the studied sequences and deduced residues suggests that these are the host factors that may play a role in their susceptibility to PPRV infection, immune response, pathogenesis, excretion patterns and potential clinical signs or resistance to clinical disease. Summarizing together, the comparative analysis enhances our understanding towards molecular epidemiology of the PPRV in wild and unusual hosts for appropriate intervention strategies particularly at livestock-wildlife interface.
Article
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Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV, genus Morbillivirus), which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, has only recently been officially declared to be present in Turkey. We carried out a study to determine the prevalence, distribution, and host range of PPRV in Turkey. A total of 1,607 animals, reared in 18 different locations, were monitored for the presence of antibodies to PPRV and the related virus of large ruminants, Rinderpest virus (RPV). Only two farms had animals that were free of antibody responses to either disease. Prevalence for PPRV infection varied (range 0.87%-82.6%) and was higher in sheep (29.2%) than in goats (20%). The overall antibody responses to PPRV and RPV were 22.4% and 6.28%, respectively. Two PPRVs of lineage 4, which comprises many other PPRVs whose origins are in the Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia, were isolated from Turkish sheep.
Article
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The occurrence of outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in three districts of Tajikistan is described. The causal strain (PPR Tajikistan) was characterized and the sequence of its N gene was compared with that of 43 other strains isolated since 1968 in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The study demonstrated (1) the value of the N gene as a target in comparing isolates obtained over an extended period of evolution, and (2) that clustering was related to the geographical origin of strains.
Article
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An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in lambs and young goats of Najdi breed of sheep and goats occurred during winter 2005 at Qassim region of central Saudi Arabia. The PPR infection was confirmed by demonstration of antibodies against the virus in the serum of clinically-ill young sheep and goats using competitive ELISA test. Clinical examination of infected animals showed fever, salivation, lacrimation, mucopurulent nasal discharge, difficult breathing and diarrhoea. The disease was particularly severe in the goats. Morbidity was about 20% and mortality was less than 3 percent. Autopsy showed necrotic and ulcerative lesions in the mouth, stomach and intestine. Mesenteric lymph nodes were swollen and congested. The lungs were patchy pneumonic mostly at the diaphragmatic and apical lobes. Liver and kidney lesions were seen in goats only and both organs were congested and necrotic. Histopathological examination revealed necrotic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Intracytoplasmic viral inclusions were seen in the enterocytes of goats. Lung sections showed bronchopneumonia and syncytial and giant cells. The bronchial epithelium of goats had intracytoplasmic viral inclusions. Extensive coagulation necrosis, fatty degeneration and presence of intracytoplasmic viral inclusions were seen in hepatocytes and syncytial cells were evident in biliary epithelium of goats. Congestion, coagulation necrosis and syncytial cells were seen in the renal tubular epithelium of goats only. In a survey to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, PPR antibodies were evidenced in 363/996 (36.6%) sheep and 530/962 (55.1%) goats.
Chapter
Rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are contagious morbilliviral infections in cloven hoofed animals, both domestic and wild, which share common clinical and morphological features. The classical course of rinderpest and PPR is characterized by profuse diarrhoea and inflammation of various mucous membranes. Morphologically, erosive lesions of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract are the main changes seen in both rinderpest and PPR, but respiratory signs are a distinguishing feature typical for PPR where an interstitial and suppurative pneumonia may occur. In highly susceptible animals each virus causes similar severe clinical signs and high-mortality rates. As a result of the successful rinderpest eradication campaign, virtually all countries have stopped vaccinating against rinderpest and the virus remaining in the last endemic focus is a mild strain for cattle, with low numbers of fatalities; however, it causes severe and mostly fatal infections in wildlife species. No strains of PPR have been characterized as mild till yet, although they probably do exist. Due to the clinical and morphologic similarities of both diseases, there was considerable confusion regarding which of these viruses were most prevalent in small ruminants in Asia until molecular tests were available to rapidly and unequivocally distinguish the two viruses in clinical specimens.
Article
The prevalence rate of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and rinderpest Virus (RPV) antigens was studied using 38 sera samples collected from African grey duiker ( Sylvicapra grimmia ). Of the total, 4 (10.5%) were positive for antibodies to PPRV, while none (0%) was positive for RPV. The role of wildlife in the epizootiology of peste des petits ruminants is discussed.
Article
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a virus disease of sheep and goats in West Africa. When first described, the virus was considered a variant of rinderpest virus. The biological and physicochemical characteristics of the virus indicate that it is closely related to measles, rinderpest and canine distemper viruses. These three viruses form the genus Morbillivirus of the Paramyxoviridae. PPR virus is sufficiently distinct from these 3 viruses to justify considering it as the fourth member of the Morbillivirus genus.
Article
The virus epizootics which occurred in seals in both Europe and Siberia during 1987/1988 were caused by two different morbilliviruses, referred to as phocid distemper virus (PDV) 1 and 2, respectively. Molecular and serological studies have shown that the European virus is quite distinct from canine distemper virus (CDV), its closest relative in the morbillivirus group. Analysis of tissues obtained from infected seals from a wide geographical distribution over Northern Europe showed that the infectious agent (PDV 1) was identical in all cases. Nucleotide sequence analysis of one of the virus genes suggested that this virus has evolved away from CDV over a long time period and is most probably an enzootic virus of marine mammals. In contrast, the virus (PDV 2) which caused the deaths of many Siberian seals was indistinguishable, both serologically and at the molecular level, from CDV and must have originated from a land source.
Article
Virological and serological evidence was obtained to show that peste des petits ruminants virus was widely distributed in Omani sheep and goats. There was no evidence for the concomitant presence of rinderpest virus in these species. Two virus isolates were classified as peste des petits ruminants virus on the basis of their pathogenicity in experimental animals and their specific hybridisation with nucleic acid probes. However, neutralisation tests and polyacrylamide gel analysis of their nucleocapsid proteins showed that they were not identical to the highly conserved African strains of this virus.
Article
Peste des petits ruminants virus was suspected to be the cause of a disease outbreak in a zoological collection at Al Ain in the Arabian Gulf. Clinically the outbreak affected gazelles (Gazellinae), ibex and sheep (Caprinae) and gemsbok (Hippotraginae); subclinical involvement of Nilgai (Tragelaphinae) was suspected. A morbillivirus was isolated and using monoclonal antibodies and biological tests in cattle, sheep and goats the virus of peste des petits ruminants was identified.
Article
The clinical features of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection in goats were studied in two field outbreaks and by contact exposure of susceptible goats. Clinical signs observed included sudden onset of pyrexia, necrosis and erosions of the oral cavity, diarrhoea, and pneumonia, in that chronological order. Erosions of the vulva and prepuce as well as abortion were recorded in a few cases. Bacteriological examination of ante — in and post mortem samples showed that the most significant bacteria associated with PPR — infected goats were Pasteurella haemolytica, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococus pyogenes from the lungs, Salmonella sp. and E. coli from the faeces, Moraxella bovis from the eyes and Staphylococcus pyogenes from the oral cavity. The pathological lesions seen in natural PPR included necrosis, erosions and ulcerations of the epithelial layers of the labium, the vulva, and the alimentary tract as well as giant-cell type pneumonia. However, some of the affected goats had fibrinous or purulent bronchopneumonia, most probably caused by secondary bacteria. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) bei Ziegen in Nigeria: Klinische, mikrobiologische und pathologische Charakteristika Die klinischen Charkteristika der Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR)-Virusinfektion bei Ziegen wurden während zwei Feldausbrüchen und mittels Kontaktexposition empfänglicher Ziegen untersucht. Die beobachteten klinischen Krankheitszeichen waren plötzlich auftretendes Fieber, Nekrosen und Erosionen in der Maulhöhle, Durchfälle und Pneumonien in der aufgeführten Reihenfolge. Erosionen an Vulva und Präputium ebenso wie Aborte wurden in wenigen Fällen beobachtet. Bakteriologische Untersuchungen von ante- und post mortem Proben zeigten, daβ die wichtigsten bakteriellen Infektionen in Verbindung mit der PPR verursacht wurden von Pasteurella haemolytica, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa und Staphylococcus pyogenes, isoliert aus der Lunge, ferner von Salmonella sp. und E. coli, isoliert aus den Faeces, sowie von Moraxella bovis, isoliert aus den Augen und von Staphylococcus pyogenes isoliert, aus der Maulhöhle. Die pathologischen Läsionen, die bei den natürlichen Ausbrüchen der PPR beobachtet wurden, waren Nekrosen, Erosionen und Ulcera des Lippen-Epithels, des Epithels der vulva und des Verdauungstrakts und das Auftreten von Pneumonien des Riesenzell-Typs. Obwohl einige der befallenen Ziegen fibrinöse oder purulente Bronchopneumonien hatten, dürften diese höchstwahrscheinlich durch bakterielle Sekundärinfektionen verursacht sein. Peste des petits ruminants (PFR) chez des chèvres au Nigeria: caractéristiques cliniques, microbiologiques et pathologiques Les caractéristiques cliniques de l'infection virale de la peste des petits ruminants (PPR) chez des chèvres ont été examinées durant deux épizooties dans le terrain et au moyen d'une exposition par contact de chèvres réceptives. Les signes cliniques observés ont été une fièvre brutale, des nécroses et des errosions dans la gueule, de la diarrhée et des pneumonies dans l'ordre cité. Des errosions sur la vulve et le prépuce ainsi que des avortements ont été observés dans quelques cas. Les recherches bactériologiques d'échantillons ante- est post-mortem ont montré que les infections bactériennes les plus importantes, liées à PPR étaient dues à Pasteurella haemolytica, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Staphylococcus pyogenes dans les poumons, à Salmonella sp. et E. coli dans les matières fécales, à Moraxella bovis dans les yeux et à Staphylococcus pyogenes dans la gueule. Les lésions pathologiques observées lors de PPR dans le terrain furent des nécroses, des errosions et des ulcères de l'épithélium des lèvres, de la vulve et du tube digestif et l'apparition de pneumonies du type «cellules géantes». Quelques chèvres atteintes ont présenté des bronchopneumonies fibrineuses et purulentes, très vraisemblablement dues à des infections bactériennes secondaires. La peste de los pequeños rumiantes (PPR) en cabras en Nigeria Caracteres distintivos clínicos, microbiológicos y patológicos Se estudiaron las características clínicas de la infección virósica peste de los pequeños rumiantes (PPR) en cabras durante dos brotes campales y mediante exposición de contacto de cabras receptibles. Los signos nosológicos observados eran fiebre que aparecía repentinamente, necrosis y erosiones en la cavidad bucal, diarreas y pneumonías en la ringlera citada. En casos contados, se observaron erosiones en la vulva y prepucio, e incluso abortos. Los estudios bacteriológicos de muestras ante y post mortem mostraron que las infecciones bacterianas más importantes fueron ocasionadas, en combinación con la PPR, por Pasteurella haemolytica, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Staphylococcus pyogenes, aisladas del pulmón, además por Salmonella sp. y E. coli, aisladas de heces, así como por Moraxella bovis, aislada en los ojos, y por Staphylococcus pyogenes, aislado de la cavidad bucal. Consistían las lesiones patológicas que se observaron en los brotes naturales de PPR en necrosis, erosiones y úlceras del epitelio labial, del epitelio vulvar y del tracto digestivo y la presentación de pneumonías del tipo celular gigante. Aunque algunas de las cabras afectadas tenían broncopneumonías fibrinosas o purulentas, éstas podrían haber sido ocasionadas con toda posibilidad por infecciones bacterianas secundarias.
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The distribution of viral antigen in various organs of four approximately 10-month-old castrated male Friesian cattle experimentally infected with a highly virulent strain of rinderpest virus was studied. A monoclonal antibody with genus-specific reactivity for morbilliviruses was applied in an indirect immunoperoxidase method performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Rinderpest viral antigen was located mainly in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts, as well as in the cells of endocrine glands (adrenal, thyroid) and exocrine glands (salivary glands, sebaceous glands, exocrine pancreas). Furthermore, different types of cells in lymphatic organs contained rinderpest viral antigen. In contrast to the documented results of studies carried out with other morbilliviruses, tissues of the central nervous system did not contain viral antigen. Various types of epithelial and lymphoreticular cells are the main targets of a virulent strain of rinderpest virus in vivo.
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Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of goats and sheep prevalent in West Africa and the Middle East. In recent years, PPR has emerged in India, first in the South India and later in North India. To study the genetic relationships between viruses of distinct geographical origin we have sequenced a 322 nucleotide cDNA fragment of the fusion protein gene generated using reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Viruses from nineteen independent PPR outbreaks were compared; these included the prototype African strain from Senegal and viruses from disease outbreaks which have occurred at different times and locations across Africa, Arabia, the Near East and the Indian subcontinent. Four separate lineages of the virus were identified and the virus isolates from Asia over the past 2 years were all of one lineage which had not previously been identified in Africa or Asia.
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By the end of March 2002, a collection of some 200 gazelles, kept under semi range conditions in Saudi Arabia, was hit by a highly fatal peracute disease. The morbidity rate was 51% while the case mortality rate was 100%. Clinico-pathological and virological investigations were carried out. A virus was isolated from the ailing gazelles which was identified as Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV). Epidemiology of the disease in the Arabian peninsula is discussed.
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A total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) distributed in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. Arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, equine herpesvirus 9, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The high seroprevalence to BTV and EHDV in the UAE and SA indicates that Arabian oryx are likely to be susceptible to infection by these viruses and therefore could act as a source of virus to vectors during the infective stage of infection. Moreover, antibodies were detected against RPV and BRSV in sera from SA and against BAV-3 in sera from the UAE. No antibodies were found against bovine herpesvirus-1, caprine herpesvirus-1, enzootic bovine leucosis virus, and peste des petits ruminants virus. On the basis of these results, caution should be applied when considering translocation of Arabian oryx, and only those proven to be free of infectious agents that might present a risk to other species should be moved.