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The Alarm problem and directed attention in dynamic fault management

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Abstract

This paper uses results of held studies from multiple domains to explore the cognitive activities involved in dynamic fault management. Fault diagnosis has a different character in dynamic fault management situations as compared to troubleshooting a broken device that has been removed from service. In fault management there is some underlying process (an engineered or physiological process that will be referred to as the monitored process) whose state changes over time. Faults disturb the monitored process and diagnosis goes on in parallel with responses to maintain process integrity and to correct the underlying problem. These situations frequently involve time pressure, multiple interacting goals, high consequences of failure, and multiple interleaved tasks. Typical examples of fields of practice where dynamic fault management occurs include flight deck operations in commercial aviation, control of space systems, anaesthetic management under surgery, and terrestrial process control. The point of departure is the 'alarm problem', which is used to introduce an attentional view of alarm systems as tools for supporting dynamic fault management. The work is based on the concept of directed attention-a cognitive function that inherently involves the co-ordination of multiple agents through the use of external media. Directed attention suggests several techniques for developing more effective alarm systems.
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
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The Alarm Problem and Directed Attention
in Dynamic Fault Management
David D. Woods
Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory
The Ohio State University
Columbus OH 43210 USA
Abstract
This paper uses results of field studies from multiple domains to explore the cognitive
activities involved in dynamic fault management. Fault diagnosis has a different
character in dynamic fault management situations as compared to troubleshooting a
broken device which has been removed from service. In fault management there is
some underlying process (an engineered or physiological process which will be referred
to as the monitored process) whose state changes over time. Faults disturb the
monitored process and diagnosis goes on in parallel with responses to maintain process
integrity and to correct the underlying problem. These situations frequently involve
time pressure, multiple interacting goals, high consequences of failure, and multiple
interleaved tasks. Typical examples of fields of practice where dynamic fault
management occurs include flight deck operations in commercial aviation, control of
space systems, anesthetic management under surgery, and terrestrial process control.
The point of departure is the “alarm problem” which is used to introduce an attentional
view of alarm systems as tools for supporting dynamic fault management. The work is
based on the concept of directed attention -- a cognitive function that inherently
involves the coordination of multiple agents through the use of external media.
Directed attention suggests several techniques for developing more effective alarm
systems.
Keywords: Directed attention, joint reference, alarms, cognitive systems, fault diagnosis.
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1. Introduction: The Alarm Problem
Fault management, the identification of and response to abnormal conditions, is a major
component of the human's role as supervisory controller of dynamic systems. Evidence
from disasters (Kemeny 1979; FCC 1991), from field studies (Cook et al. 1991; Moll van
Charante al. 1993), from design reviews (Cooper 1977; Fink 1984), from experimental
investigations (Kragt 1984; Kragt and Bonten 1983; Sorkin, Kantowitz and Kantowitz
1988), and from mathematical models (Sorkin and Woods 1985) all point out that
operational personnel can have difficulties identifying, prioritizing and responding to
abnormal conditions despite the presence of various types of alarm systems (both
traditional annunciators and computerized variants) and diagnostic aids.
Several factors in alarm systems have been identified that contribute to difficulties in
fault management (Lees 1984): nuisance alarms, ambiguous or underspecified alarm
messages, alarm inflation, “alarms” that indicate system status rather than anomalies
are just a few. The temporal dynamics of alarms are also relevant. The periods where
alarms are densest are also likely to be those time periods of highest cognitive load and
task criticality for practitioners. It is precisely during these periods of high workload
that technological artifacts are supposed to provide assistance. But this is the time
period where nuisance alarms will occur, where poorly designed alarms will distract
and disrupt other tasks, where diagnostic search is most difficult and where there is the
need to act to prioritize information processing tasks. Together these factors constitute
what can be called the alarm problem (Woods, O'Brien and Hanes 1987).
The following episodes illustrate vividly for us some of the dimensions of the alarm
problem.
"The whole place just lit up. I mean, all the lights came on. So
instead of being able to tell you what went wrong, the lights were
absolutely no help at all."
Comment by one space controller in mission control after the Apollo 12
spacecraft was struck by lightning (Murray and Cox 1990).
"I would have liked to have thrown away the alarm panel. It wasn't
giving us any useful information."
Comment by one operator at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant
to the official inquiry following the TMI accident (Kemeny 1979).
"When the alarm kept going off then we kept shutting it [the device] off
[and on] and when the alarm would go off [again], we’d shut it off.”
“... so I just reset it [a device control] to a higher temperature. So I kinda
fooled it [the alarm]...”
Physicians explaining how they respond to a nuisance alarm on a computerized operating room
device (Cook, Potter, Woods and McDonald 1991).
The present lunar module weight and descent trajectory is such that
this light will always come on prior to touchdown [on the moon]. This
signal, it turns out, is connected to the master alarm--how about
that! In other words, just at the most critical time in the most
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critical operation of a perfectly nominal lunar landing mission, the
master alarm with all its lights, bells and whistles will go off. This
sounds right lousy to me. ... If this is not fixed, I predict the
first words uttered by the first astronaut to land on the moon will be
"Gee whiz, that master alarm certainly startled me."
Internal memo trying to modify a fuel warning alarm computation and
how it was linked to the alarm handling system for the lunar landing craft
(Murray and Cox 1990).
A [computer] program alarm could be triggered by trivial problems that
could be ignored altogether. Or it could be triggered by problems that
called for an immediate abort [of the lunar landing]. How to decide
which was which? It wasn't enough to memorize what the program alarm
numbers stood for, because even within a single number the alarm might
signify many different things. "We wrote ourselves little rules like
'If this alarm happens and it only happens once, don't worry about it.
If it happens repeatedly, but other indicators are okay, don't worry
about it.'" And of course, if some alarms happen even once, or if
other alarms happen repeatedly and the other indicators are not okay,
then they should get the LEM [lunar module] the hell out of there.
Response to discovery of a set of computer alarms linked to the
astronauts displays shortly before the Apollo 11 mission (Murray and
Cox 1990).
"1202." Astronaut announcing that an alarm buzzer and light had gone off and
the code 1202 was indicated on the computer display.
"What's a 1202?"
"1202, what's that?"
"12...1202 alarm."
Mission control dialog as the LEM descended to the moon during Apollo 11
(Murray and Cox 1990).
"I know exactly what it [an alarm] is--it’s because the patient has been, hasn’t
taken enough breaths or--I’m not sure exactly why.”
Physician explaining one alarm on a computerized operating room device that
commonly occurred at a particular stage of surgery (Cook et al. 1991).
The alarm problem has long been recognized as significant, but persists despite many
different attempts to attack it. Some assaults have focused on the perceptual functions
of alarms. Are the perceptual signals that mark abnormal conditions in a monitored
process discriminable from the background and each other (e.g., Patterson 1990)?
Another perceptual function of alarms is the capacity of the signal itself to attract
people’s attention (exogenous control of attention). This alerting potential refers to
characteristics of the signal (e.g., sudden motion or sudden sound bursts against a
quiescent background) to force, to a greater or lesser degree, an observer to orient to the
signal itself. Apprehending these perceptual signals conveys the message that some
event has occurred which may be of interest.
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Other efforts have addressed the informativeness of alarms. Do semantic aspects of
alarm messages inform observers about the kinds of abnormalities present or help
discriminate between normal and abnormal states or between different kinds of
abnormal conditions? There are several ways that alarms can be uninformative. Alarm
signals and messages may be underspecified and ambiguous as in several of the above
examples. Sometimes alarms occur frequently and seem so familiar that the observer
misses the cases where something truly unusual is happening. In other words, the
number of false alarms is high relative to the number of times the alarm signals that the
abnormal condition it monitors for actually is present (Sorkin and Woods 1985).
Another reason alarms may be uninformative is the context sensitivity problem (Doyle
et al. 1989). Alarms often indicate the status of a parameter, subsystem or component.
However, current status may or may not be actually abnormal without reference to
additional data which specifies the relevant context (as in the case above from Apollo
11).
In this paper I will view the alarm problem from a slightly different vantage point
where the alarm system is seen as an agent that attempts to direct the attention of the
human observer. I explore characteristics of alarm systems and computer-based
systems that affect practitioners’ ability to shift attention to potentially interesting new
events in data rich, high tempo and multi-task situations. Directed attention can help
us understand why practitioners continue to use some traditional alarm systems in
actual practice and abandon or underutilize the functionality of many new
computerized systems which purport to address the alarm problem. The directed
attention perspective integrates at least parts of the perceptual, informative, and
cooperative aspects of alarms into a single cognitive function that I have labeled pre-
attentive reference.
1.1 Joint Cognitive Systems
Some have attempted to solve the alarm problem through an automation finesse; that is,
if we automate diagnosis, then the need for the cognitive task of alarm interpretation is
eliminated. Ironically, despite the large efforts to develop more autonomous machine
diagnosis capabilities, past field experience at introducing new diagnostic aiding
systems shows that the benefits of new technology on fault management have tended to
be derived more from information handling and visualization capabilities (e.g., Mitchell
and Saisi 1987; Malin et al. 1991). Systems that only embody autonomous diagnostic
capabilities without regard to the coupling to human partners in fault management
have generally failed in the field (Roth et al. 1987 studies one case; also consider the
failure of the disturbance analysis system developments in the nuclear industry in the
1980's).
In this paper, I will explore a joint cognitive system analysis of dynamic fault
management. The concepts introduced here have evolved based on observations of
practitioners doing fault management in evolving situations. The ideas arose in
attempts to understand results from a series of studies of dynamic fault management
and human-automation interaction in the four domains of flightdeck operations in
commercial aviation, control of space systems, anesthetic management under surgery,
and terrestrial process control. Investigations have included field observation of new
support systems (Moll van Charante et al. 1993), simulation studies of practitioner
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cognitive activities in simulated emergencies (Woods et al. 1987), case studies of system
development (Malin et al. 1991), and the design of new aiding strategies (Potter and
Woods 1991).
There are two critical components to a joint human-machine cognitive system analysis.
First, inherent in human-machine systems is cooperation across multiple agents, across
both human and machine agents and across multiple people (Woods et al. 1994;
Hutchins 1994). Second, the cognitive demands of dynamic fault management make
control of attention a critical cognitive factor (Rabbitt 1984; Gopher 1991). This means
that developing cognitive tools that support control of attention during evolving fault
management situations is an important and overlooked aspect of developing new alarm
and diagnostic systems. This paper will define several concepts about the control of
attention during cooperative work in dynamic fault management.
2. Attentional View of Fault Management
Dynamic fault management is practiced in a cognitively noisy world, where very many
stimuli are present which could be relevant to the problem solver (Woods 1994). There
are both a large number of data channels and the signals on these channels usually are
changing (i.e., the raw values are rarely constant even when the system is stable and
normal). In this data rich environment, the human practitioner must track evolving
situations loaded with unanticipated and potentially threatening events, but they can be
barraged with signals that could be in principle informative or interesting. As a result,
operators must build and maintain a coherent situation assessment in a changing
environment where multiple factors are at work including one or more faults, operator
interventions and automatic system responses. Attentional control, given multiple
interleaved activities and the possibility of asynchronous and unplanned events, is a
fundamental part of fault management.
Experts need to be able to manage several threads of activity in parallel, devoting
enough attentional resources at the appropriate time in order to keep each on track.
Resource saturation may be threatened, especially at high tempo periods. Experts may
suspend even usually important tasks in order to perform tasks critical to cope with the
system vulnerabilities most relevant in that context or stage. They assign less important
tasks to subordinates, or even forgo some tasks completely in favor of an activity critical
for the particular circumstances. Strategies for managing multiple activities in domain
specific ways are even part of expert training (e.g., in aviation inder the label of crew
resource management and in anesthesiology especially in new crisis management
training).
Events in the process and in the interface (e.g., alarms) can serve as interrupts, prompts
or reminders. Interrupt signals and interrupt handling are important when one
functions in a cognitively crowded world. As data changes and new events are noted,
how does one or should one modify their current task or cognitive resource priorities?
Understanding action in the face of diverse, changing and highly uncertain situations
depends critically on understanding attentional processes and the dynamic
prioritization of tasks. A critical criterion for the design of the fault management
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systems is how they support practitioner attention focusing, attention switching and
dynamic prioritization.
The critical point is that the challenge of fault management lies in sorting through an
avalanche of raw data -- a data overload problem. This is in contrast to the view that
the performance bottleneck is the difficulty of picking up subtle early indications of a
fault against the background of a quiescent monitored process. While this may be the
bottleneck in some cases, field studies of incidents and accidents in dynamic fault
management emphasize the problem of shifting attention to potentially informative
areas as many data values are changing.
Given the nature of human perceptual and attentional processes and the large amounts
of raw data available, human monitors focus selectively on one of many possible
objects, themes, activities with respect to the monitored process. Thus, shifting the
focus of attention across the data field is a fundamental characteristic of fault
management tasks. Shifting the focus of attention in this context does not refer to initial
adoption of a focus from some neutral waiting state (Kahneman 1973). In fault
management, one re-orients attentional focus to a newly relevant event on a different
data channel or set of channels from a previous state where attention was focused on
other data channels or on other cognitive activities (such as diagnostic search, response
planning, communication to other agents). Dynamic fault management demands a
facility with reorienting attention rapidly to new potentially relevant stimuli.
In an attention-based approach to fault management, alarm handling and diagnostic
systems are seen as cognitive tools to support the human fault manager's or the fault
management team's control of attention. This assumes, after Gopher (1991), that control
of attention is a skillful activity that can be developed through training or supported (or
undermined) by the design of representations of the monitored process.
2.1 Directed Attention Across Agents
From an attentional or cooperative point of view, alarms can be seen as messages from
one agent, a first stage monitor, to another, a second stage supervisory agent who
monitors multiple channels and whose cognitive and physical resources can be under
moderate to severe workload constraints (Sorkin and Woods 1985). An alarm signal
functions as a message from a first stage monitor intended to direct the attention of the
supervisor to some particular area or topic or condition in the monitored process. In
effect, the attention directing signal says, “there is something that I think that you will
find interesting or important; I think you should look at this.” The attention directing
signal functions as a kind of potential interrupt signal intended to influence or shift the
receiver's focus of attention.
From the point of view of the supervisor receiving directed attention signals, again
given that the supervisory agent has multiple demands competing for attention, he or
she must evaluate the interrupt signal in parallel with ongoing activities and lines of
reasoning (i.e., it is a dual or really a multiple task situation). The receiver must use
some partial information about the attention directing signal and the condition that it
refers to, in order to ‘decide’ whether or not to interrupt ongoing activities and lines of
reasoning. Some attention directing signals should be ignored or deferred; similarly,
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some attention directing signals should re-direct attention. The quality of the control of
attention is related to the skill with which one evaluates interrupt signals without
disrupting ongoing lines of reasoning -- knowing when the attention directing event
signals ‘important’ information and when the attention directing event can be safely
ignored or deferred, given the current context. Overall, the situation can be expressed
in a signal detection theory framework (e.g., Sorkin and Woods 1985) where one can err
by excessive false shifts or excessive missed shifts. Thus, in principle, two parameters
are needed to describe attentional control: a sensitivity parameter that captures
variations in skill at control of attention and a criterion parameter that captures
tradeoffs about the relative costs and benefits of under-shifts versus over-shifts of
attention. Note that framing the problem in terms of signal detection points out that
even very sensitive systems for control of attention will show errors of false shifts or
missed shifts of attention.
An attention directing signal refers to an event or condition in the monitored process --
‘look at this’. How the signal influences the processes involved in the control of the
supervisor’s attention may depend strongly on information about (a) the referent event
or condition that the first stage monitor thinks is worthy of attention and (b) the context
in which this event or condition occurred. Specific information about why the monitor
evaluated the event as worthy of an attentional shift also may be an important part of
the attention directing process.
It is important to emphasize that directed attention is inherently both cognitive and
cooperative. Directed attention is a kind of coordination across agents where one agent
can perceive and direct the attentional focus of other agents to particular parts,
conditions, or events in the monitored process. This kind of coordination involves
several forms of joint reference. One aspect of joint reference involves “referring to
something with the intent of directing another’s attention to it” in a mentally
economically way (Bruner 1986, p. 63). Joint reference functions in the other direction
as well, in that one agent can perceive where and to what the other is directing their
attention to, without attention demanding explicit communication on the part of either
agent. Hutchins’ analysis of the cognitive system involved in speed control during a
descent in air transport aircraft illustrates this aspect of joint reference (Hutchins 1991).
The physical activities associated with tasks carried out by one agent are inherently
available for the other pilot to pick up without requiring explicit intent to communicate
and without disrupting either’s ongoing lines of reasoning. Joint reference inherently
involves the external representations of the monitored process by which agents assess
the state of and interact with the monitored process. One refers to some part, condition,
event or task in the referent world through some shared external representation of the
monitored process. As a result, one agent can direct or can pick up another’s
focus/activity on some part, condition, event or task in the referent world in mentally
economical ways.
A study by Pavard et al. (1989) illustrates the dynamic of directed attention across
agents under workload. They found that directing another’s attention depended on
being able to see what the other agent is doing in order for one agent to be able to judge
when another was interruptible. In other words, interruptibility is a joint function of the
new message and the ongoing activity. This requires one agent being able to see the
activity of the other in enough detail to characterize the state of the other’s activities --
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what line of reasoning are they on? are they having trouble? does their activity conform
to your expectations about what the other should be doing at this stage of the task? are
they interruptible?
In the task investigated by Pavard et al., monitoring the other agent’s activities to judge
when the other agent was interruptible represented a new and mentally effortful task.
For the agent trying to pass on information or hand off tasks, the burdens associated
with monitoring or judging the other agent’s interruptibility could interfere with their
other tasks. This system, with direct visual access between team members, could
function under moderate workload as long as the interrupting agent could monitor the
other agents’ activities. But the receiver had limited means to queue demands for
attention or to partially evaluate the demands in order to decide how to allocate
resources, to defer some tasks to lower tempo periods, to decide when to interrupt
ongoing lines of reasoning and activity, or to signal that they are in fact interruptible
(e.g., dealing with a non-demanding or low priority task). Under higher workload, the
demands of coordination for the interrupting agent increased and interference between
this and other task demands increased, leading to performance problems.
Pavard and his colleagues aided performance during high demand situations by
devising a medium for interaction that was mentally economical for both parties. The
design eliminated the need for the interrupting agent to monitor and judge the
interruptibility of the receiver; the receiver was able to inspect a queue of demands for
attention at their own initiative, as other task demands allowed, and in parallel with
other activities. From the point of view of the receiver, the study showed that their
control of their focus of attention was improved by the ability to queue demands for
attention and to partially evaluate the different attentional demands in parallel with
ongoing activities in order to decide when to switch their focus in a context sensitive
way.
3. Preattentive Reference
Note the paradox at the heart of directed attention. Given that the supervisory agent is
loaded by various other task related demands, how does one interpret information
about the potential need to switch attentional focus without interrupting or interfering
with the tasks or lines of reasoning already under attentional control. We can state this
paradox in another way: how can one skillfully ignore a signal that should not shift
attention within the current context, without first processing it -- in which case it hasn't
been ignored.
This paradox has a parallel in perceptual organization (e.g., Kubovy and Pomerantz
1981). “Since the processes of focal attention cannot operate on the whole visual field
simultaneously, they can come into play only after preliminary processes have already
segregated the figural units involved ...” (Neisser 1976, p. 89). Neisser termed these
processes preattentive. “An important part of the preattentive processes, therefore, is
the segregation of detailed stimuli into bundles or segments that can be attended to or
rejected as a whole (Broadbent 1977, p. 112). “These rules [preattentive processes]
produce perceptual units that have a high probability of corresponding to distinct
objects in the scene ... (Kahneman 1973, p. 68). These organizational processes are
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thought to operate without attentional demands; otherwise, we are left with a paradox:
how can attentional mechanisms focus in on a part of the perceptual field if it first
requires attention to structure the field into the objects or groups to be operated on.
It is important to see the function of preattentive processes in a cognitive system as
more than a simple structuring of the perceptual field for attention. It is also part of the
processes involved in orienting focal attention quickly to “interesting” parts of the
perceptual field (Rabbitt 1984; Wolfe 1992). Preattentive processes are part of the
coordination between orienting perceptual systems (i.e., the auditory system and
peripheral vision) and focal perception and attention (e.g., foveal vision) in a changing
environment where new events may require a shift in attentional focus at indeterminate
times. Orienting perceptual systems are critical parts of the cognitive processes
involved in noticing potentially interesting events and knowing where to look next
(where to focus attention next) in natural perceptual fields (Folk et al. 1992).
To intuitively grasp the power of orienting perceptual functions, try this thought
experiment (or better, actually do it!): put on goggles that block peripheral vision,
allowing a view of only a few degrees of visual angle; now think of what it would be
like to function and move about in your physical environment with this handicap.
Perceptual scientists have tried this experimentally through a movable aperture that
limits the observer’s view of a scene (e.g., Hochberg 1986). Although these experiments
were done for other purposes theoretically, the difficulty in performing various visual
tasks under these conditions is indicative of the power of the perceptual orienting
mechanisms.
The orienting perceptual systems function to pick up changes or conditions that are
potentially interesting. This perceptual ability plays a critical role in supporting how we
know where to look next. Both visual search studies (e.g., Rabbitt 1984; Folk et al. 1992)
and reading comprehension studies (e.g., the review in Bower and Morrow 1990) show
that people are highly skilled at directing attention to aspects of the perceptual field or
the text being read that are of high potential relevance given the properties of the data
field and the expectations and interests of the observer.
I have claimed that designers of a computer based information system are creating a
kind of virtual perceptual field (Woods 1995). In typical systems, the proportion of the
virtual perceptual field that can be seen at the same time (physically in parallel) is very
very small. In other words, the viewport size (the windows/VDUs available) is very
small relative to the large size of the artificial data space or number of data displays that
potentially could be examined. This property is often referred to as the keyhole effect.
Given this property, shifting one's “gaze” within the virtual perceptual field is carried
out by selecting another part of the artificial data space and moving it into the limited
viewport.
In these kinds of computer-based information systems, the designer has created a
virtual perceptual field where the observer must function without the assistance of the
orienting perceptual systems. When dealing with the computer medium, the burden is
on the designer to explicitly build in mechanisms to support the operation of the
orienting perceptual systems and the functions that they perform in a fully articulated
cognitive system adapted to a changing environment. The design of the alarm system is
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a critical part of supporting the function of these mechanisms, and directed attention is
one process that contributes to these functions. Preattentive processing is part of how
we are able to achieve a “balance between the rigidity necessary to ensure that
potentially important environmental events do not go unprocessed and the flexibility to
adapt to changing behavioral goals and circumstances” (Folk et al. 1992, 1043). The
concept of directed attention suggests that characteristics of external artifacts can
influence the expression of this basic cognitive competency.
Now let us return to the paradox that we started with: how can one decide whether or
not to ignore a signal without first processing it; or how can one decide whether or not a
new signal warrants interrupting the ongoing line of reasoning without interrupting or
interfering with that very line of reasoning. Skillful control of attention, knowing when
the attention directing event signals ‘important’ information and when the attention
directing event can be safely ignored or deferred given the current context, depends on
the supervisory controller in an event-driven environment somehow being able to
notice potentially interesting changes without drawing on or interfering with limited
attentional resources. Analogous to preattentive processes in perception, some kind of
preattentive evaluation of an attention directing signal is required to resolve the
paradox. I claim that the ability to carry out a preattentive evaluation of attention
directing signals depends in part on the characteristics of the alarm system and the
representation of the monitored process. Thus, I will refer to the characteristics of alarm
and display systems that support a preattentive evaluation of attention directing signals
as attributes of preattentive reference.
Note that preattentive reference is a joint cognitive system property. It refers to more
than cognitive processes within a single head. Preattentive reference is about how
characteristics of the alarm system and characteristics of the external representations of
the monitored process available to the supervisory controller support skilled control of
attention in data rich, dynamic situations.
The criteria for preattentive reference are that the attention directing signals
(a) are capable of being picked up by the supervisory controller in parallel with
ongoing lines of reasoning and ongoing activities,
(b) includes partial information on what the attention directing signal is referring to,
so that the observer can pick up whether the interrupt signal warrants a shift in
attention or not,
(c) the assessment of the interrupt signal and the partial information that it carries
must be mentally economical and not require an act of focal attention.
In effect, these criteria demand the potential for ‘peripheral access’ in the sense of being
able to evaluate the interrupt without interrupting ongoing lines of reasoning (not
necessarily in the sense of literal detection via peripheral vision).
An example of a system meeting these criteria serendipitously occurred in power
generation process control. The position of a device (rod position in the core of a nuclear
reactor) under the control of an automatic system was indicated via mechanical
counters. These counters happened to make an audible click sound when the
mechanism changed values as the device position changed, that is, click rate varied as
rods were moved into and out of the core to regulate and balance the heat generated
(the same serendipitous auditory indications occurred with another system under
automatic control which regulating the boron concentration in the coolant fluid).
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Operators are able to monitor the auditory indications preattentively: (a) the
indications were available in parallel with other indications (primarily visual), (b) the
clicking pattern contained information about the activity of the system (is the system
active or quiescent? making small or large adjustments?) that could be used to
recognize whether or not system activity matched practitioners’ expectations for the
context, (c) practitioners could monitor the auditory indications in parallel with other
activities and switch attention only when they recognized anomalous behavior in that
portion of the monitored process.
Another example, again non-visual, is the role of the voice loops at the mission control
center that manages space missions (e.g., Murray and Cox’s 1990, description of the
Apollo missions illustrates how the voice loops function as a coordinative tool).
Outsiders see the voice loops as sheer cacophony; but space flight controllers see it as an
essential tool. The voice loop system enables preattentive reference -- one can notice
potentially interesting events or signals without drawing on limited attentional
resources. Similarly, shared voice loops support preattentive reference in the context of
aircraft carrier flight operations (Rochlin et al. 1987).
“... everyone involved ... is part of a constant loop of conversation and
verification taking place over several different channels at once. At first little of
this chatter seems coherent, let alone substantive, to the outside observer. ...
one discovers that seasoned personnel do not ‘listen’ so much as monitor for
deviations, reacting to almost anything that does not fit their expectations ...”
(Rochlin et al. 1987, p. 85).
Experience with the computerization of traditional annunciator type alarm systems
provides us with a visual example of the properties of alarm systems and computer
based information systems that contribute to preattentive reference. Annunciator
systems consist of a number of backlit tiles. Each tile has engraved on it a message
concerning some state or event in the monitored process. Each individual state change
has a dedicated tile which associated with it, and the tiles are laid out in a fixed spatial
array. When a state change or event occurs, the associated tile is backlit (see Woods et
al. 1987 for examples of these kinds of systems). Field experience indicates that simple
computerization of existing alarm systems has failed to correct the alarm problem and
in some cases has exacerbated it (Woods et al. 1987; Potter and Woods 1991). I mean
simple computerization in the sense of moving the exact same alarm messaging
constructs from a physically parallel and spatially dedicated medium (backlit
annunciator tiles each dedicated to a particular alarm triggering condition) to serial
presentation in the computer medium (usually including chronologically ordered
message lists). Potter and Woods (1991) describe at some length the deficiencies of
chronologically ordered alarm message lists, so I will not dwell on them here.
While annunciator type alarm systems have a variety of deficiencies, they have some
properties that seem to provide some practitioners, with large amounts of experience,
with the potential to develop strategies for control of attention. Spatially dedicating
each alarm message within a physically parallel space at least provides a minimal level
of support for preattentive reference. When a new alarm occurs, it always occurs at
some specific place within the spatial array of annunciator tiles. The spatial array
provides some of the conditions of a natural perceptual field so that orienting
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
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perceptual mechanisms (visual and auditory) can pick up the fact that an event has
occurred in the monitored process. The fact that each alarm state is dedicated to a single
physical location (and, ideally, that functionally or structurally similar alarms tend to
occur in neighboring locations) means that observers can know something about the
event that occurred without invoking focal attention (in the case of nuclear power
plants until the mid- to late 1980s, the engraving on the tiles were often not legible at the
distances operators were stationed in the control room, yet operators could pick out
patterns of events). In other words, it is possible for observers using these annunciator
type systems to partially evaluate the attention directing signal to ‘decide’ whether a
shift in attention is warranted or not.
Another study (Leroux in press) illustrates the paradoxical nature of preattentive
reference. In this study air traffic controller teams directed aircraft in a busy sector with
multiple conflicts between aircraft to resolve (the study was run on a full scope
simulation facility with actual controllers). One aircraft in the sector behaved in an
abnormal fashion (a very abnormally low rate of ascent). In one of the problems this
aircraft’s behavior was directly linked to the conflicts that the controllers needed to
resolve; in another scenario the same aircraft and behavior occurred in a lower density
part of the sector and did not interact with the conflict resolution tasks of the
controllers. All of the teams noticed the aircraft’s abnormal behavior when it interacted
with their conflict resolution tasks; virtually all of the teams failed to notice the aircraft’s
abnormal behavior when it was not part of their conflict resolution tasks. Several teams
insisted, when prompted in general and later in particular, that this aircraft had
exhibited no extraordinary behavior. One crew, when watching a replay of the scenario,
even insisted that the investigator had modified the playback -- they could not conceive
of having missed the abnormal behavior. The same locally anomalous behavior was
attended to (and therefore was reportable) when it is a part of the practitioner’s larger
goals and task context, and it was not attended to (and therefore was not reportable)
when it was not a part of the practitioner’s larger task context.
This case points out how preattentive reference is not a conscious decision or judgment
but rather is some kind of recognition driven process. The observers are not aware of
the normal or expected or irrelevant parts of the flow of activity, but they are capable of
recognizing the anomalous when it is relevant to the larger context and their goals.
They only see or pickup or are sensitive to the relevant portions of the data field, even
though what is relevant varies with both properties of the data field and with the
interests and expectations of the observer. Interestingly, the same conclusion can be
drawn about visual search (Rabbitt 1984; Folk et al. 1992) and text comprehension
(Bowers and Morrow 1990). While the concept that experts see problems in terms of
meaningful high level structures is old (DeGroot 1965; Chase and Simon 1973), the
concepts of directed attention and preattentive reference show how this ability is
modulated by characteristics of the cognitive artifacts embedded within a joint
cognitive system.
None of these examples are meant to indicate that the solution to the alarm problem
simply is to mimic properties of traditional media for handling alarms such as
annunciator panels or voice loops. Instead, the point is to understand how properties of
these media interact with the cognitive demands of and strategies for dynamic fault
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
13
management. It is this deeper understanding that can support skillful rather than
clumsy use of technological possibilities to create more effective joint cognitive systems.
Note that my characterization of directed attention and preattentive reference is not an
explanation of the internal cognitive mechanisms that produce it, but rather a
characterization of how it functions in the larger context of practitioners handling
dynamic fault management problems with various kinds of cognitive artifacts. Artifacts
that support preattentive reference could be mentally economical in several ways:
processing these displays could be literally preattentive; the artifact could simply
support timesharing (task switching) in a way that minimizes disruption of the ongoing
lines of reasoning and activities; the artifact could support parallel processing using
different resources (e.g., an ongoing task that primarily uses the visual channel with
interrupt signals occurring on auditory channels). Whichever mechanism or
combination of mechanisms underlies preattentive reference in general or in a given
case, the key component is the way that artifact helps orienting perceptual systems
coordinate with focal attention in natural perceptual fields where new events worthy of
attention can occur at indeterminate times.
4. Attention Directing Displays and Preattentive Reference
4.1 Underspecified Alarms
In general, an attention directing signal says, “there is something that I think that you
will find interesting or important that you should look at.” Let us assume that the
perceptual properties of the signals are well designed so that observers can apprehend
that a signal is present relative to the perceptual background and yet not to be so
powerful as to disrupt all processing temporarily (as in the startle response to very loud
and sudden sounds). There are essentially two parts to the content behind an attention
directing message. First, there is the state, event, or behavior of the monitored process
that is being referred to -- what is it that the monitor thinks is worthy of attention.
Second, why does the alerting monitor think that this condition or event is interesting.
This is almost always based on a difference relative to a background or contrast state of
the monitored process: either a contrast between actual and desired state of the
monitored process (an abnormal condition) or a contrast between actual behavior and
the agent's model or expectations about current or future process behavior (an
unexpected condition).
In addition, an abnormal or unexpected event varies in importance depending upon its
relationship to the larger context of goals and competing activities. For example, an
alarm may refer to a valve position -- valve X is closed. But if this all that is noted in the
attention directing signal one must infer on their own what is anomalous about this
valve position. It could be anomalous because the system of which it is a part could not
perform its function if it were needed; in other words, the redundant backup
mechanism is now unavailable. Or it could mean that the system of which it is a part is
no longer performing its function; in other words, the process for meeting some
constraint on the monitored process has malfunctioned. These are two different kinds of
anomalies in the process; they both refer to the same state of this component, but in
different larger contexts.
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
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Problems occur when alarms messages say only that “there is trouble, here” without
any further indication of the specific anomaly detected or the function that is impaired
(‘here’ refers to some aggregated unit of description of the monitored process, typically
traditional system/subsystem divisions). These kinds of alarms are underspecified and
provide no support for control of attention. The observer has to shift attention away
from the current line of reasoning and search for more information to clarify what kind
of anomaly is being referred to and to evaluate its importance in the current context.
The alternative to this break is to defer evaluation of the signal to a lower tempo
moment.
One common example of this dynamic occurs when designers of computer-based
information systems mark a digital value or component icon yellow or red when the
machine monitor detects an anomaly in the monitored process, without providing any
further information concerning the nature of the anomaly (Malin et al. 1991). It appears
to be a virtually universal folk concept that changes in hue alone are an effective
directed attention signal. While a hue change could be an effective perceptual cue to
signal that an event has occurred, the hue change alone provides no indication
whatsoever of the kind of trouble that triggered the attention directing signal. The hue
change is in effect a group alarm or an aggregated attention marker, i.e., many different
kinds of anomalies could be the source of the signal. One cannot evaluate a group
alarm, in these kinds of designs, without interrupting ongoing lines of reasoning and
devoting focal attention (a) to determine where more data about the anomaly resides in
the virtual perceptual field hidden behind the narrow keyhole of the VDU, (b) to
maneuver to that display, and (c) to evaluate the data relative to the current context
(Woods 1995). Thus, using hue as a group alarm fails to support directed attention
when multiple signals and events are occurring which may indicate the need for the
observer to shift attention. The group alarm does not provide a partial, peripherally
accessible indication of the shape or type of information that the attention director
thinks is interesting or why it thinks it is interesting.
An investigation of the impact of a computer display that consisted only of icons
representing aggregations of components which changed hue when the machine
monitor detected any anomaly within that aggregation of components revealed the
weakness of this technique (Reiersen, Marshall and Baker 1988). One of the
characteristics of dynamic fault management is the cascade of disturbances that follow
from a fault which can produce an even greater cascade of low level messages about
potential anomalies (Woods 1994). As a result, group alarms hide most of the changes
going on in the monitored process that result from the disturbances spreading from one
or more faults. Reiersen et al. found that operators of a simulated nuclear power plant
did not utilize the hue coded icon display preferring other displays that provided
greater depth of data about the state of the plant in a single view. The hue coded icon
display provided very little data, forcing the operator to switch to other displays as
soon as any trouble at all occurred in the monitored process; in other words, it was a
data sparse display. Field studies support this result. Practitioners treat systems with
uninformative alarm systems as if there were only a single master caution alarm (Moll
van Charante et al. 1993).
This case illustrates that attention directing signals should refer to the specific anomaly
that is the basis for the monitor issuing an alert. In addition, it could include or should
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
15
at least make it easy, both physically and cognitively, for the practitioner to see the
relationship of this anomaly to the larger context. Furthermore, it is very important not
to confound the alerting signal itself (the look or orient part of the message) with
indications about what is the potentially interesting condition or event.
The above ideas were utilized in the development of one system for supporting alarm
management (Woods et al. 1986). This system has attention directing displays which
signal the kind of anomaly indicated as well as the specific anomalous event or
condition. The alarm system consisted of an array of computerized alarm ‘tiles’ for each
function of a particular monitored process. Each function-based tile signaled the kind of
anomaly or disturbance detected by the machine monitor as well as the specific
evidence on which this was based. In this system three classes of anomalies were
defined: (a) constraint or goal violations (e.g., constraints on providing sufficient
material inventory in a reservoir), (b) process disturbances including both the absence
of a desired influence (e.g., the failure of an automatic system to respond as needed)
and the presence of an undesired influence (e.g., a piping break), and (c) process
unavailabilities (backup systems that would not function if needed, for example, loss of
a vital support system).
The soft tile for each function occurred in one fixed position and each tile was
subdivided into three fixed areas, one for each of the anomaly classes (spatial
dedication). When a specific triggering event occurred, the observer received several
indications in parallel: the overall soft tile changed to indicate an event in that portion
of the monitored process; the relevant portion of the tile dedicated to the kind of
anomaly detected in each case changed; and a computer-based message occurred in
that portion of the soft tile which specified the condition detected by the machine
monitor. Furthermore, observers could see relationships between functions and how
they changed over time because the soft tiles formed a spatial array. These
characteristics were developed consciously to support preattentive reference.
Observers could in principle extract partial information about the kind of event and its
importance in the larger context without disrupting ongoing lines of reasoning.
4.2 Nuisance Alarms
A frequently noted contributor to the alarm problem is nuisance alarms. From a
cognitive systems point of view, a nuisance alarm is a signal that attempts to direct
attention to an event, but that event is frequently one that does not warrant a shift in the
agent’s focus of attention. In other words, a nuisance alarm is a consistently false signal
for an attention shift. For example, during the descent phase of flight on a B-727 aircraft
the flight engineer will know when to grab the alarm silence control to anticipate and
prevent a nuisance alarm from sounding that is triggered in every descent.
It is important to distinguish between an attention directing signal that turns out to not
warrant an attention shift in this particular case (but could have) and an attention
directing signal that does not warrant attention shifts consistently in a specific context.
The latter is a nuisance alarm in that context. Nuisance alarms represent a cost to
practitioners because they frequently constitute an interruption of attention to other
tasks and lines of reasoning. Frequent nuisance alarms is a cue that suggests
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
16
sharpening the definition of what is potentially interesting for this context -- an increase
in the “intelligence” or informativeness of the alarm system.
The nuisance value of alarms also depends on the context of practitioner activity in
which the alarm occurs. Many fields of practice involve busy periods where
practitioners cannot devote their attention exclusively to one subsystem or condition. In
one study (Moll van Charante et al. 1993) the pace of the activity was faster than the
time required for the first stage monitor to detect and announce faults. This meant that
practitioners were doing other things by the time an alarm appeared so that alarms
always constituted an interruption of practitioner attention to other tasks. Users would
initiate or intervene on one task and then proceed to another task. Later they would be
alerted by an alarm that the previous action had been unsuccessful. This alarm
necessitated stopping ongoing activity, switching attention, locating the appropriate
subsystem, recall of the prior actions, and troubleshooting of the subsystem even when
state or event signaled was of low priority relative to other events.
4.3 Context Sensitivity
The same attention directing signal can and sometimes should evoke different
responses in different contexts. The meaning of the signal (and the underlying
anomaly) depends on what other problems are present in the monitored process and on
where the practitioners are in the process of assessing and responding to the
disturbances.
Typically, alarm system designers attempt to help the practitioner know when an
anomaly should interrupt ongoing activity by developing a fixed, static priority
assignment to individual alarm signals. Usually, two or three classes of priority are
defined and then individual alarm signals are assigned to one these categories.
Presumably, there are only a few high priority alarms that occur in the same time
period and alarms in the lower priority classes do not need to be processed in order to
evaluate the significance of the high priority ones. In other words, the static priority
technique tries to cope with alarm handling demands through a scale reduction process.
But scale reduction does not directly aid directed attention. The context sensitivity
problem makes it very difficult to define one static set of priorities. Alarms should help
link a specific anomaly into the larger context of the current activities and goals of
supervisory agents. What is interesting depends on practitioners’ line of reasoning and
the stage of the problem solving process for handling evolving incidents. Examples of
how the supervisor’s situation assessment or mindset affects the interpretation of an
alarm include:
if the background situation assessment is ‘normal system function,’ then the alarm is
informative, in part, because it signals that conditions may be moving into a
qualitatively different phase of operations -- abnormal or emergency operations;
if the background line of reasoning is ‘trying to diagnose an unexpected finding,’
then the alarm may be informative because it supports or contra-indicates one or
more hypotheses under consideration;
if the background line of reasoning is ‘trying to diagnose an unexpected finding,’
then the alarm may be informative because it functions as a cue to generate more
candidate hypotheses that might explain the anomalous process behavior;
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
17
if the background line of reasoning is ‘executing an action plan based on a
diagnosis,’ then the alarm may be informative because it functions as a cue that the
current working hypothesis may be wrong or incomplete since the monitored
process is not responding to the interventions as would be expected based on the
current working hypothesis.
In other words, the context sensitivity of interrupts is the major challenge to be met for
the development of effective alarm systems, just as context sensitivity is the major
challenge for developing solutions that treat any data overload problem (Doyle et al.
1992; Woods 1995).
4.4 How Can Attention Directing Displays Support Preattentive Reference?
The claim here is that directed attention, as a part of the skilled control of attention, can
be supported or undermined by characteristics of the interface between practitioner and
monitored process. Understanding directed attention should point towards techniques
or principles for the design of attention directing systems and displays. How can
attention directing displays support partial, preattentive characterization of potential
interrupts? The key is to think about the way that displays, representations, alarms,
etc., can engage the orienting perceptual systems which coordinate with focal attention.
For the case of peripheral vision, my observations of directed attention in field settings
suggest several properties of dynamic representations of the monitored process that are
likely to support partial, preattentive characterization of potential interrupts. A first
requirement is that the representations of the monitored process must capture and
emphasize change and events (Woods 1995), given that peripheral vision is relatively
good at picking up change and given that the unit of analysis for directed attention is
knowing which changes in the process are interesting or important to focus attention
on. Second, representations of the monitored process that will support preattentive
reference need take advantage of nonvisual channels or, if visual, support check reading
or peripheral visual cues. Third, analog pattern oriented graphic representations are
likely to better support peripheral access (Sorkin et al. 1988) -- in part, the patterns
generally will be lower spatial frequency stimuli and the processing required to pick up
patterns may be mentally economical in one or more of the ways outlined earlier.
4.4.1 Spatial Dedication: A powerful technique is spatial dedication, i.e., data on the
status of some part of the monitored process appears in a fixed and consistent location.
Thus, if one picks up a change in that location, then they are aware implicitly that an
event has occurred on the relevant subsystem, function or data channel. In three
different studies of the introduction of multi-function computer based display systems
for highly dynamic and event driven fields of practice (a medical operating room case, a
space flight control case, and a study of experienced users of extended spreadsheets), it
was found that practitioners made minimal use of the flexible display of data afforded
by the computer medium and instead converted the displays into a fixed and spatially
dedicated form where the same data and topics always occurred in the same places.
Note that spatial dedication is an implicit property of hardwired media for
representation where physical constraints require each display to occupy one fixed
position in a larger field. But the computer medium, as typically used, eliminates
spatial dedication as an organizing cue. Given (a) the typical kinds of graphic forms
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
18
designed for computers (which do not highlight change and events), (b) the fact that the
basic unit of data display remains the raw value, (c) the keyhole property of the
computer medium, and (d) the absence of spatial dedication, the result of this
combination is little or no support for preattentive reference. This is not to imply that
one should simply return to spatially distributed and dedicated annunciator systems to
support directed attention but rather to note how such systems provide some support
for this cognitive function. Understanding the partial success and the limits of these
systems can lead us to new ideas for how to create preattentive reference and support
directed attention when the substrate is the computer medium.
4.4.2 Auditory Displays: We can think about how representations using the auditory
channel can support preattentive reference by considering examples like the
serendipitous auditory indications that reflected the behavior of automatic control
systems or the function of the voice loops in space system control centers. In one sense,
auditory indications can support preattentive reference simply because vision is often
the dominant channel for monitoring system status. More fundamentally, auditory
indications may be especially relevant in building an implicit awareness of orientation
in an environment (though we wish to apply it to an abstract environment of the
changing status of a dynamic process). Audition is special in that it is an inherently
temporal modality; thus, it may have some special advantages for representing the
behavior of a process (behavior as a change over time). One approach is to link
auditory stimuli to the behavior of a system or process (Gaver 1991). If audible
consequences result from the behavior of the process (e.g., clicks that occur when a
system changes state) and if the auditory indications correspond to meaningful
categories of process behavior (e.g., is the system active or quiescent? is the trend
deteriorating or recovering? is system state changing in one direction or another?), then
the auditory representation has provided the basis for practitioners to monitor the
system preattentively.
4.4.3 Analog alarm displays: Alarm signals are usually categorical -- a condition is
present, the value has crossed a discrete threshold. One way to support preattentive
reference may be to make greater use of analog representations with visual or auditory
highlighting of discrete category shifts (see Woods et al. 1987 and Sorkin et al. 1988 for
examples). By showing continuous values with respect to an underlying dimension,
observers may be able to better recognize when an attention directing signal warrants
interruption of ongoing activity. For example, practitioners may react differently to a
rapidly deteriorating situation as compared to one that is stable but abnormal,
depending on the larger context.
4.4.4 The ‘Intelligence’ of Alarms: In the directed attention paradigm increasing the
‘intelligence’ or informativeness of an alarm system is sharpening the ability of the first
stage machine monitor to identify potentially interesting conditions/events as a
function of context (see Doyle et al. 1989; Doyle et al. 1990 and Doyle et al. 1992 for one
line of research to develop such systems). Informativeness lies in part in the first stage
monitor’s ability to answer the question -- when are events in the monitored process
worthy of attentional shifts? In other words, attention directing signals are ambiguous
when it is difficult to know on the basis of the signal alone whether an attentional shift
is really warranted.
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
19
But remember that in dynamic processes variation and change is the norm. Which of
these variations or the absence of variation mark an interesting event? The most basic
factor that governs when new events are interesting is a difference against a
background, including both departures from normal function and departures from
models of expected behavior in particular contexts. Recognizing such mismatches can
be very difficult as when the interesting behavior is the absence of an expected change
or when one change initiates a set of changes, for example, one event can shift the
reference state against which many other states should be evaluated.
Let us see these points concretely in an example taken from the development of an
intelligent system for monitoring satellite communications. The intelligent system
detects and issues a warning (a message appears in the alarm window and an icon
changes to red to indicate a problem in transmission) when it detects a loss of signal
condition (Figure 1, panels A and B). Obviously, a loss of transmission from the
satellite is an abnormal condition -- or is it always? Space flight controllers complained
that the intelligent system was emitting a nuisance alarm under some conditions. The
intelligent system thought there was an abnormal loss of signal and tried to diagnose
the underlying fault when, in fact, it was normal and expected to lose satellite
transmissions during a transponder switchover, a normal, expected and scheduled
event. Figure 2 graphically illustrates the sequence of events. The initial response of
the knowledge engineers was to adjust the knowledge base to eliminate all messages
and graphical indications of the occurrence of the event when it was not abnormal.
Now the representation provided no indication of the transponder switchover event,
and no indication that the expected loss of signal had occurred (the display looked like
Figure 1, panel A during the switchover). However, users complained about this
approach as well because there was now no indication at all that the event was
occurring as expected. Not only was there now no basis for seeing the event, there was
no way to see departures from the expected pattern, for example, was the expected
resumption of signal transmission delayed or did the second transponder pick up as
expected? Ideally, the solution was to animate a representation like that illustrated in
Figure 2 which would provide a view of the context (scheduled transponder
switchover) and the expected pattern so that the machine monitor could direct the
human controller’s attention to abnormalities or unexpected behavior against that
common frame of reference. Note that this approach to enhancing the intelligence of
alarm systems depends on different kinds of representations of the monitored process
that provide enhanced visualization of function and malfunction (Woods 1995) and that
this approach is very different from the approach of automating fault diagnosis (Malin
et al. 1991).
4.4.5 Joint Reference: Directed attention is in part about the coordination across agents.
This kind of coordination involves joint reference -- referring to something with the
intent of directing another’s attention to it. The attention directing signal simply could
indicate something interesting or important has happened (e.g., a master warning
alarm). It could indicate that something interesting is going on here (e.g., look here). In
these forms of joint reference the first stage monitor is saying in effect, ‘something that I
think that you will find important has occurred, ask me when you get a chance and I'll
tell you what is interesting and maybe even why.’ However, the attention directing
signal can refer in part to the state or behavior that is being labeled ‘interesting or
worthy of attention’ (what is interesting). And it could include reference to, or occur in
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
20
a larger representational context that shows, the basis for why this behavior is
interesting in this context.
Note that joint reference implies some kind of shared representation of the monitored
process. What are the requirements for a shared representation of the monitored
process that supports joint reference? First, it requires an externally stored
representation of conditions and events in the referent world available to all the agents
(open tools -- Roth et al. 1987; Hutchins 1991) . This shared external representation must
support an economical description or depiction of what aspect or behavior is being
referred to as opposed to having the agents explicitly describe to one another what is
being referred to and what is interesting about the thing-referred-to. The shared
representation must also support an agent’s ability to refer to something that is visible
(perceivable) to the other agent and that is unambiguous as to what is being referred to.
Note that a shared external representation also assumes that there is a shared mindset
across the cooperating agents about the background field against which the agents can
all recognize interesting conditions or behaviors.
A shared external representation of the referent process is more than a display that is
physically available to all of the agents. It also refers to what can be seen about the
referent process and to the ability to support joint reference. For example, on
computerized flightdecks pilots interact with the automation through a control-display
unit (CDU) which consists of a multi-function keypad and LCD display. Pilots can call
one of many display pages on the LCD, and pilots can compose and enter a variety of
instructions to automated flight systems using the keyboard. While each crew member
has their own CDU, for the most part the system does not support a shared
representation, joint reference, and directed attention. When one crew member is
programming the flight computers by working through multi-function controls and
displays, as in the glass cockpits of newer commercial aircraft, it may be more difficult
for the other crew member to pick up the other’s focus and actions without explicit
attention or communication. One cannot see what the other is directing their attention
to (except very crudely); one cannot physically direct the gaze of the other to an
interesting part (at least not without a lot of spoken words); (3) one cannot see or assess
the other agent’s activities preattentively. Note the contrast with the non-computerized
representations analyzed by Hutchins (1991). Joint reference also can refer to human-
machine coordination. For example, the pilot’s ability to see the ‘activities’ of
automated systems is easily impaired by removing the external signs of those activities
(Woods et al. 1994).
Auditory media such as voice loops in space control centers can also support the
creation of a shared representation distributed across multiple cooperating agents.
While outsiders tend to see the voice loops in space control centers as very noisy,
especially when things get busy, space flight controllers find the voice loops quite
important (Murray and Cox 1989). The voice loops possess the characteristics needed to
support preattentive reference -- one can notice potentially interesting activities or
events going on within the scope of responsibility of other controllers without drawing
on limited attentional resources. This allows coordination of information and activity
across multiple controllers with interacting areas of responsibility within the spacecraft
and mission. In this case, preattentive reference directly supports the processes
involved in joint reference.
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
21
Joint reference and a common frame of reference are part of specifying and designing
coordinative structures: the architecture of roles across agents and the supporting tools
for carrying out those roles coordinated with other agents, both machine and human.
5. Conclusion
The attention directing role of alarms is recognized superficially in the design of current
alarm systems. Designers tend to think that by putting an ‘alarm’ on some condition
they have ensured that the alarmed condition will function to break the operator away
from other ongoing activities and switch their focus onto the condition alarmed.
Similarly, if an individual signal, that in hindsight turns out to be important in an
incident, is missed or misinterpreted by the practitioners, then regulators and
engineering designers tend to think that they can mandate practitioner attention to that
condition whenever it arises by turning up the perceptual salience of its associated
alerting signal in isolation of other factors.
These approaches miss the fact that attentional processes function within a larger
context that includes the state of the process, the state of the problem solving process,
practitioner expectations, the dynamics of disturbance propagation. Considering each
potentially anomalous condition in isolation and outside of the context of the demands
on the practitioner will lead to the development of alarm and diagnostic systems that
only exacerbate the alarm problem. For example, if changes tend to make the alarmed
condition a ‘normal’ occurrence, then the alarm will become part of the routine flow of
action, and it will not function to break attention away from other mental and physical
activity. In aggregate, trying to make all alarms unavoidable redirectors of attention
overwhelms the cognitive processes involved in control of attention and exacerbates the
alarm problem. One kind of operational response to this should not really be surprising
-- practitioners ignore or turn off the alarms (Sorkin and Woods 1985 showed that
ignoring alarms is related to properties of the joint cognitive system; there is also a large
body of field experience and field study results that show this response is symptomatic
of poor support for directed attention, e.g., Cook et al. 1991; Moll van Charante et al.
1993). Even if the practitioner tries to switch attention every time an interrupt occurs,
one must remember that there are costs associated with over-switching attentional focus
-- loss of coherent situation assessment, failure to pick up suspended tasks or lines of
reasoning, cognitive vagabonding (responding to every interrupt in isolation and never
developing an integrated response strategy). Alarms are examples of attention
directing cognitive tools. But one must recognize that directed attention is only
meaningful with respect to the larger context of other activities and other signals.
Understanding action in the face of diverse, changing and highly uncertain situations
depends critically on understanding how attentional processes are shaped by the tools
available in the representation of the monitored process and on understanding how
attentional control strategies shape the use or meaning of the interface mechanisms.
Acknowledgments
Ergonomics, 38(11), 2371-2393, 1995
22
Research support was provided by the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of
the NASA Ames Research Center under Grant NCA2-351, Dr. Everett Palmer technical
monitor. Additional support was provided by NASA Johnson Space Center under
Grant NAG9-390, Dr. Jane Malin technical monitor.
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Figure 1. Illustration of a prototype display from an intelligent system for monitoring
satellite communications. In the first panel, the system is quiet when it does not
recognize any anomalies. In the second panel it has detected a loss of signal from the
satellite, proposes possible hypotheses to account for this, and recommends actions for
the human space controller to initiate. The label “red” indicates aspects of the display
that change hue when the machine monitor detects a problem. (Peter Hughes, of
NASA’s Goddard SpaceFlight Center graciously shared experience with this particular
alarm problem.)
Figure 2. Illustration of a particular situation where the loss of signal from the satellite is
expected -- a transponder switchover.
... Thus, pilots only need to find the checklist whose title corresponds exactly to the fault message. However, as reported by Burian (Burian, 2006a), it is not uncommon for pilots to accomplish a wrong checklist because the warning system may point to a disturbance rather than to the main problem (Woods, 1995). This is even more problematic when pilots have to use checklists for problems not covered by the warning system 30 (Burian, 2006b). ...
... The revisited anomaly management model proposed by Carim et al. (2016Carim et al. ( , 2020 is a further elaboration of the original proposition by Woods (1994) and . According to the revisited model, a fault, whether well-or ill-structured, is presented in terms of disturbances because of the lack of linear relationship between the fault cause and symptom (Woods, 1995;Watts-Perotti & Woods, 2007). ...
... Lastly, the cognitive processes operate with the support from not only the QRH and checklist but also a range of documents, manuals, tables, previous experiences, to name a few. Those resources have not been originally designed for this particular purpose and dispersed in and outside the cockpit (Woods, 1995). 278 G. Carim et al. ...
... The inability of modern threshold alarms to support the cognitive functions required to dynamically direct attention from "something that is less important to something that is more important" [13] is still a pressing problem. The most consequential contributor to these alarms' problems is their chronic lack of informativeness [14], [15]. Alarm informativeness, or the amount of information carried with a given alarm signal, was originally defined and calculated as the proportion of times an alarm system correctly detects a targeted event that has been predetermined to be hazardous. ...
... This allowed for direct visual comparison of the alarms to the physiological data and the alarm thresholds (see dashed lines, Fig. 1). These techniques are effective strategies to mitigate the risk of operators getting lost in crowded data displays by increasing informativeness as data density increases [14], [15]. With the new vital sign and alarm datasets displayed simultaneously but independently on the same display, using primarily a point encoding for alarms and a line encoding for vital signs, we expected to realize the benefits of a configural display: reduced attentional costs, increased conveyance of data interactions, and increased detection of emergent phenomena [34]. ...
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... Both the bridge and the ECR operations have trouble handling unnecessary alarms 1), 10) . Unnecessary alarms in engine operations can be described as false alarms, as mentioned before. ...
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... For Dukaczewski (2014), some perceptive factors can be observed during the design of dynamic maps, such as: small periodic movements are usually better signs than colours or shapes in all visual field; movements with small visual amplitudes are highly detectable, while small amplitudes can present a slower time of reaction; slow linear movements can be detected with good precision, good response time and are not considered intrusive or distracting; update rates between 20 and 30 frames per minute are sufficient to induce the continuous movement perception (for "flip-book representations). Woods (1995) defined required criteria during the production of dynamic representations, especially to support the control and direction of human's attention. These criteria are related to notions of accessibility in projects; provision of partial information in the interface; and cautions for the user's mental economy while reading the visual representations without excessive cognitive effort. ...
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Technical Report
The development of the airplane has been markedby steady improvement in performance and mission capability. This improvementhas been accompaniedby more and more complex systems, the control of which requires that the flight crew be furnished with an ever-increasing numberof cockpit instruments, controls, displays, and switches.
A study to gain insight into the way “process-alarm systems” are actually used and evaluated in practice, and to know how busy the human operator is in dealing with the system is presented. Observations and interviews were carried out with eight experienced control room operators from a fertilizer plant. For 63 h all the warning signals of the conventional system were recorded and rated by the operators. The method of observation is briefly described. The actual ratings were compared with those assumed in advance. The results indicated that in the fertilizer plant the process-alarm system was mainly used as a monitoring tool and not as an alarm system requiring action. Therefore “annunciator system” would be a better term. The number of warning signals recorded was surprisingly high. Suggestions are given to reduce this number; e.g., annunciator systems can be improved by reducing the number of irrelevant cluster and oscillation signals. In interviews outside the control room favorable and less favorable aspects of the system were discussed with the operators and critical incidents (human errors) were analyzed. Five incidents are briefly described. On the basis of this study, the various functions of the annunciator system are discussed. A plea is made for further research in the laboratory, so as to tackle some of the “interface” problems that were found.
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One result of recent research on human error and disaster is that the design of the human-machine system, defined broadly, modulates the potential for erroneous action. Clumsy space use of technological powers can create additional mental burdens or other constraints on human performance that can increase the chances of erroneous actions by people especially in high workload, high tempo operations. This paper describes studies of a computer based automated device that combines critical incident analysis, bench test evaluations of the device, and field observation in order to understand physician-device interaction in the context of heart surgery. The results link, for the same device, user group context and three findings. First, the device exhibits classic human-computer interaction flaws such as lack of feedback on device state and behaviour. Second, these HCI flaws actually do increase the potential for erroneous actions and increase the potential for erroneous assessments of device state and behaviour. The potential for erroneous state assessment is especially troublesome because it impairs the user's ability to detect and recover from misassemblies, misoperations and device failures. Third, these data plus critical incident studies directly implicate the increased potential for erroneous setup and the decreased ability to detect errors as one kind of important contributor to actual incidents. The increased potential for error that emanates from poor human-computer interaction is one type of latent failure that can be activated and progress towards disaster given the presence of other potentiating factors in Reason's model of the anatomy of disasters.
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This paper develops a technique for isolating and studying the per- ceptual structures that chess players perceive. Three chess players of varying strength - from master to novice - were confronted with two tasks: ( 1) A perception task, where the player reproduces a chess position in plain view, and (2) de Groot's ( 1965) short-term recall task, where the player reproduces a chess position after viewing it for 5 sec. The successive glances at the position in the perceptual task and long pauses in tbe memory task were used to segment the structures in the reconstruction protocol. The size and nature of these structures were then analyzed as a function of chess skill. What does an experienced chess player "see" when he looks at a chess position? By analyzing an expert player's eye movements, it has been shown that, among other things, he is looking at how pieces attack and defend each other (Simon & Barenfeld, 1969). But we know from other considerations that he is seeing much more. Our work is concerned with just what ahe expert chess pIayer perceives.
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An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of information-presentation on task performance and operator ratings of associated difficulty. Twenty-four trainee-operators from a chemical industry had to work with three different types of annunciator systems, based either on conventional or on modern instrumentation principles. Sequential information-presentation proved to be inferior to a system based on simultaneous information-presentation both in performance and ratings.It can be concluded that task and process state determine the way in which process information should be presented to the human operator. One single type of ‘alarm” information on VDU should be avoided. A plea is made to consider both simultaneous and sequential presentation in the development of new systems. It is recommended that manufacturers, users (process industry) and researchers should co-operate more closely.