Article

Propolis as an alternative treatment for cutaneous warts

Authors:
  • Faculty of Medicine, Assiut Universtiy
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Abstract

Warts are common problems affecting adults and children. Multiple treatment options are available, but no single therapy stands out as uniformly effective. Propolis and Echinacea are relatively safe immunomodulators with antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Propolis and Echinacea in treating different types of warts. In a single-blind, randomized, 3-months trial, 135 patients with different types of warts received oral Propolis, Echinacea, or placebo. In patients with plane and common warts treated with Propolis, cure was achieved in 75% and 73% of patients, respectively. These results were significantly better than those associated with Echinacea treatment or placebo. We conclude that Propolis is an effective and safe immunomodulating therapy for plane and common warts.

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... Echinacea (purple coneflower) is a member of the Compositae family (166) .Three main medically important species are E. purpurea, E. ...
... It influences immune function through T-cell activation, increase in number and activity of macrophages, production of TNF and IFN-γ, and inhibition of hyaluronidase produced by bacteria and viruses (166) . Zedan et al. compared Propolis (Bee Propolis ® ) 500 mg, Echinacea purpurea 600 mg and placebo all single oral dose for 3 months or till complete cure for treatment of plane, plantar and common warts. ...
... They observed a significant difference between Propolis and Echinacea in common and plane warts (P < 0.05 for each) and significant difference between Propolis and placebo in common and plane warts (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between Echinacea and placebo in the treatment of any type of wart (166) . ...
Article
Introduction: Genital warts are a troublesome therapeutic issue. Pulsed-dye laser (PDL) is a non-ablative therapeutic tool for viral warts. Intralesional Candida albicans (C. albicans) immunotherapy has yielded promising results in treatment of various types of warts. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of PDL versus C. albicans immunotherapy for treatment of genital warts. Methods: Forty adult patients with genital warts were divided into two equal groups; the first was treated using PDL and the second using intralesional C. albicans antigen injection. Treatments were performed at 3-week intervals until complete lesion resolution or for a maximum of three sessions. Results: PDL yielded higher complete clearance rates (95%) than C. albicans antigen (50%; p = 0.001), which in turn had the advantage of treating distant and internal genital warts. Apart from pain during the session in PDL, both modalities were well tolerated with no recurrence in cured patients during the 16-week follow-up period. Conclusions: PDL and C. albicans antigen injection are safe and effective treatment alternatives for genital warts. PDL yielded better frequencies of clearance, but C. albicans antigen has additional advantages, including a single injection site and treating distant and internal mucosal uninjected warts, which are usually difficult to treat.
... Echinacea (purple coneflower) is a member of the compositae family. [52] Three main medically important species are E. purpurea, E. augustifolia and E. pallida. Earlier it was mostly used for prevention and treatment of common cold and upper respiratory tract infections. ...
... It influences immune function through T-cell activation, increase in number and activity of macrophages, production of TNF and IFN-γ, and inhibition of hyaluronidase produced by bacteria and viruses. [52] Zedan et al. compared Propolis (Bee Propolis ® ) (Pollen Assiut, Egypt) 500 mg, Echinacea purpurea 600 mg and placebo all single oral dose for 3 months or till complete cure for treatment of plane, plantar and common warts. [52] They observed significant difference between Propolis and Echinacea in common and plane warts (P < 0.05 for each) and significant difference between Propolis and placebo in common and plane warts (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). ...
... [52] Zedan et al. compared Propolis (Bee Propolis ® ) (Pollen Assiut, Egypt) 500 mg, Echinacea purpurea 600 mg and placebo all single oral dose for 3 months or till complete cure for treatment of plane, plantar and common warts. [52] They observed significant difference between Propolis and Echinacea in common and plane warts (P < 0.05 for each) and significant difference between Propolis and placebo in common and plane warts (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between Echinacea and placebo in the treatment of any type of wart. ...
Article
Cutaneous warts are known to be recurrent and often resistant to therapy. Resistant warts may reflect a localized or systemic cell mediated immune (CMI) deficiency to HPV. Many modalities of treatment are in use; most of the provider-administered therapies are destructive and cause scarring, such as cryotherapy, chemical cauterisation, curettage, electrodessication and laser removal. Most patient-applied agents like podophyllotoxin have the risk of application-site reactions and recurrence. Thus immunotherapy is a promising modality which could lead to resolution of warts without any physical changes or scarring and in addition would augment the host response against the causative agent, thereby leading to complete resolution and decreased recurrences. Immunomodulators can be administered systemically, intralesionally or intradermally, and topically. A few agents have been tried and studied extensively such as cimetidine and interferons; others are new on the horizon, such as Echinacea, green tea catechins and quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and their efficacy is yet to be completely established. Though some like levamisole have shown no efficacy as monotherapy and are now used only in combination, other more recent agents require large and long term randomized placebo-controlled trials to clearly establish their efficacy or lack of it. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulators that have been used for the treatment of warts and the studies that have been conducted on them.
... [118] Propolis for wound healing 500 mg propolis/day 500.0 [119] Clinical trial with asthmatic patients 1 sachet with 260 mg propolis/day 260.0 [115] Pilot clinical trial with Brazilian propolis for treatment of Helicobacter pylori 20 drops, 3× /day˜350.0 [120] Brätter et al. [117] evaluated the oral administration of 500 mg of propolis for 13 days in healthy volunteers focusing on the evaluation of the immune response (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8). ...
... Finally, Zedan et al. [119] evaluated the administration of 500 mg of propolis/day in 45 patients aiming to offer an alternative treatment to cutaneous healings. The study compared propolis with echinacea and placebo, and propolis demonstrated to be more efficient than the other groups, especially in usual and superficial healings ( Table 5). ...
... 74 In this study, however, propolis was formulated with other natural products and associated with interferon, making it impossible to dissect its individual contribution to therapeutic success. Zedan et al. 75 conducted an open-label, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to investigate the effect of the dietary supplementation of propolis as an alternative treatment for cutaneous warts. In the case of flat and common warts, propolis treatment seemed effective in 75% and 73% of cases, respectively. ...
... In the case of flat and common warts, propolis treatment seemed effective in 75% and 73% of cases, respectively. 75 In consideration of the oral administration, an immunomodulatory and disease-modifying effect, rather than a direct antiviral one, cannot be excluded. To date, due to the absence of in vitro studies corroborating possible direct antiviral mechanisms, clinical evidence is insufficient to establish propolis efficacy against HPV. ...
Article
Full-text available
Propolis is a complex natural product that possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, and antiviral properties mainly attributed to the high content in flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives. The chemical composition of propolis is multifarious, as it depends on the botanical sources from which honey-bees collect resins and exudates. Nevertheless, despite this variability propolis may have a general pharmacological value , and this review systematically compiles, for the first time, the existing preclinical and clinical evidence of propolis activities as an antiviral and immunomodulatory agent, fo-cusing on the possible application in respiratory diseases. In vitro and in vivo assays have demonstrated propolis broad-spectrum effects on viral infectivity and replication, as well as the modulatory actions on cytokine production and immune cell activation as part of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Clinical trials confirmed propolis undeniable potential as an effective therapeutic agent; however , the lack of rigorous randomized clinical trials in the context of respiratory diseases is tangible. Since propolis is available as a dietary supplement, possible use for the prevention of respiratory diseases and their deleterious inflammatory drawbacks on the respiratory tract in humansis considered and discussed. This review opens up newperspectives on the clinical investigation of neglected pro-polis biological properties which, now more than ever, areparticularly relevant with respect to the recent outbreaks of pandemic respiratory infections.
... Altogether, these anti-viral activity have the potential for effective and novel properties against a variety of viruses including coronavirus. Indeed, propolis acts against cutaneous warts with an efficacy of up to 75% (Zedan et al. 2009). In this instance, propolis acted as an immunomodulator to lessen warts. ...
Article
Full-text available
This current study review provides a brief review of a natural bee product known as propolis and its relevance toward combat-ing SARS-CoV viruses. Propolis has been utilized in medicinal products for centuries due to its excellent biological properties. These include anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and bactericidal activities. Furthermore, studies on molecular simulations show that flavonoids in propolis may reduce viral replication. While further research is needed to validate this theory, it has been observed that COVID-19 patients receiving propolis show earlier viral clearance, enhanced symptom recovery, quicker discharge from hospitals, and a reduced mortality rate relative to other patients. As a result, it appears that propolis could probably be useful in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Therefore, this review sought to explore the natural properties of propolis and further evaluated past studies that investigated propolis as an alternative product for the treatment of COVID-19 symptoms. In addition, the review also highlights the possible mode of propolis action as well as molecular simulations of propolis compounds that may interact with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The activity of propolis compounds in decreasing the impact of COVID-19-related comorbidities, the possible roles of such compounds as COVID-19 vaccine adjuvants, and the use of nutraceuticals in COVID-19 treatment, instead of pharmaceuticals, has also been discussed.
... Propolis administration to melanoma-bearing mice submitted to stress stimulated IL-2 expression, as well as Th1 cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-ã) production, indicating the activation of antitumor cell-mediated immunity. Also, propolis stimulated IL-10 expression and production, which may be related to immunoregulatory effects indicating its antitumor action in vivo [127]. On other hand, Orsatti and Sforcin [128] demonstrated the propolis immunomodulatory action in chronically stressed mice, upregulating TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA expression, contributing to the recognition of microorganisms and favoring the initial steps of the immune response during stress. ...
Research
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Bees are arthropods of Hymenoptera order and are classified into two groups based on their type of life: solitary and social life. Propolis is produced by bees that live socially, from the harvesting of products derived from plants and used to seal and protect the hive against intruders and natural phenomena [1]. Propolis term derives from the Greek Pro, "opposite, the entry" and polis, "city or community" [2,3]. Propolis is a natural substance collected by Apis mellifera bees in several plant species. It has been used in folk medicine for centuries [2,4]. Characteristically, it is a lipophilic material, hard and brittle when cold, but soft, flexible and very sticky when warm. Hence the name "beeswax" [5]. It has characteristic odor and shows adhesive properties of oils and interact strongly with skin proteins [6]. The composition of propolis is complex [7,8].
... Apitherapy is the medical use of various products of honey bee including raw honey (antioxidant properties and preventive effects against disease of honey recently has been highlighted, Samarghandian et al., 2011), pollen (Kas'ianenko et al., 2011, royal jelly (have antitumor and antibacterial activity and a capacity to stimulate collagen production, Park et al., 2011), wax (Illnait et al., 2005), propolis (Ku et al. 1999;Chuu et al., 2012) and venom (Boyle et al., 2012). The therapeutic potential of apitherapy is still partially understood; however, the anecdotal evidence according to the American Apitherapy Society (Christopher, 1997) depicts its effectiveness in treating many diseases including rheumatic diseases (Liu et al., 2008), neurological diseases as multiple sclerosis (Wesselius et al., 2005;Mirshafiey, 2007;Bowling, 2010;Hegazi et al., 2010), treatment of central post stroke pain (Yun and Sun, 2010) and dermatological conditions as eczema, psoriasis (Cherniack, 2010), cutaneous warts (Zedan et al., 2009) and herpes virus infection (Loyrish, 1961;Christopher, 1997). ...
... 11 Propolis may also be an effective and safe immunomodulating therapy for flat and common warts. 12 Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is highly contagious and is spread by direct contact. There are two types of herpes simplex virus. ...
Article
Ocular complications of infectious skin diseases are a common occurrence. Managing the inflamed or infected eye in the emergency setting presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the emergency physician. Infectious agents may affect any part of the eye. Ocular findings may be the first sign of many infectious diseases, such as, for example, gonorrhea or chlamydia infection. Understanding the various forms of ocular involvement in these conditions is important, because untreated ophthalmic involvement can lead to severe vision loss. This review focuses on the significant ocular manifestations of the most common infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections, that both ophthalmologists and dermatologists may encounter.
... Propolis has antibacterial, antiviral, [11] anti-parasitic and anti-cancer properties. I have used propolis to treat external warts, [12] otitis media [13] and autoimmune diseases, especially psoriasis [14]. More individuals should be using propolis every day. ...
... 3 Several treatment options are developed for eradication of genital warts including keratolytic agents, podophyllum, topical imiquimod, intraleison interferon alpha, 5-fluorouracil cream, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and simple excisional surgery. [15][16][17][18] Although each of these treatment modalities is efficacious in some patients, 19 no single therapy stands out as uniformly effective 20 and most of the conventional therapies for female genital warts have high recurrence rates. 21 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser has been introduced to ablate the visible warts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Genital warts are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease affecting 1% of the population. A prospective, open-label controlled trial was performed to compare topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. Methods: Seventy patients were enrolled in the study after convenience sampling. Right-sided lesions of the patients were treated by CO2 laser every 3 weeks. The left-sided lesions of the same patients were treated by topical 5% KOH solution twice a day using a toothpick with cotton wrap on the tip. The patients were visited at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after initiation of the treatment and followed up for 6 months after the last visit. Results: Out of seventy patients, sixty three completed the study and were analyzed. A total of 56 KOH treated-patients (88.9%) showed complete response. On the other hand, 56 laser-treated patients (88.9%) presented complete clearing of the lesion. There was not any difference in response to both modalities of treatment. Complications of KOH solution and CO2 laser were 24% and 19% respectively (P>0.05), but serious adverse events were not observed. The patients under KOH treatment displayed a recurrence rate of 11.1% (7 cases), while the same patients with CO2 laser therapy demonstrated a recurrence rate of 7.9% (5 cases) (P=0.54). Conclusion: Topical 5% KOH solution was as effective as CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. There was not any serious complication in the application of KOH solution. This could be used as a new treatment for genital warts.
... Plane warts are a frequent therapeutic problem; however, they regress spontaneously through the cell-mediated and humoral immunity (6)(7)(8)(9)13). A wide armamentarium of surgical, physical, chemical, and immunological therapies have been used but none of them proved to be uniformly efficient (1,6,(14)(15)(16). Different types of warts may need different site-dependent treatments and therapy does not affect transmissibility (16). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Plane warts are considered a common therapeutic problem. An extensive armamentarium of physical, chemical, surgical, and immunological therapies have been employed, but none of them proved to be uniformly efficient. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution vs. tretinoin lotion in the treatment of plane warts. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 patients participated in a 6 week trial. They were randomly assigned to receive either 5% KOH solution (KOH group) or 0.1% tretinoin lotion (tretinoin group). The patients were assessed at the 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after the treatment period for the cure rates and clinical complications. Also, the patients were followed up for two weeks to detect any recurrence. Results: After 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment period in both groups, the mean number of lesions decreased. Reduction of lesions at the end of study was 59.8% and 64.1% in KOH and tretinoin groups, respectively but no significant difference were observed between two groups (P= 0.39). There was no relapse of lesion after two weeks follow- up period. Conclusion: Potassium hydroxide solution was found to be effective similar to 0.1% tretinoin lotion in the treatment of plane warts. In the KOH group adverse effects was relatively more than tretinoin group but, it was clinically negligible. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. All rights reserved.
... [73] Herbal preparations such as Echinacea and propolis are reported to boost the immunity when administered orally. [74] Sinecatechins are derived from green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) and is marketed as a 10% ointment. It contains around 8 catechins, the most abundant and potent of which is epigallocatechin-3-gallate. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cutaneous and genital warts are common dermatological conditions caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Although it is a benign condition, it causes disfigurement, has a tendency to koebnerize, and can be transmitted to others. This makes adequate and timely treatment important. There are several conventional treatments available with variable response. Topical and systemic immunotherapy has now found a significant place in the treatment of warts because of its nondestructive action, ease of use, and promising results. Through this review, we would like to present a brief overview of the various immunotherapeutic agents used. These include more established agents such as imiquimod, Mycobacterium w vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, Candida antigen, trichophyton antigen, tuberculin, zinc, cimetidine, levamisole, HPV vaccine, and autoimplantation therapy. Other agents such as contact immunotherapy which is sparsely used now than before and newer agents such as Corynebacterium parvum, sinecatechins, echinacea, propolis, glycyrrizinic acid, and Vitamin D have also been discussed. The mechanism of action of these agents, along with their dosage, mode of administration, duration of use, expected outcomes and comparative efficacy, evidence for their use, and expected side effects, if any, are reviewed.
... Herbal preparations such as Echinacea and propolis are reported to boost the immunity when administered orally [196], act as immunomodulators and improve warts. ...
... bijenwas, koninginnegelei en bijengif. Propolis is ook een bestanddeel in (bio)cosmetica en wordt verkocht als voedingssupplement en als bestanddeel van biofarmaceutica (in de vorm van crème, zalf, tablet, syroop, spray et cetera) voor zelfbehandeling van verschillende ziekten, waaronder huidaandoeningen zoals brandwonden, beenulcera, psoriasis, atopisch eczeem, aften, wratten, herpes labialis en herpes genitalis.2 Daarnaast wordt propolis gebruikt om voedsel te conserveren, als lijmstof, om spleten te dichten, om hout te beschermen, als lak voor violen en andere instrumenten en in een groot aantal andere toepassingen.De samenstelling van propolis kan zeer sterk variëren, zowel kwalitatief als kwantitatief, en is onder meer afhankelijk van de Populus species, het seizoen waarin het exsudaat verzameld wordt, zonlicht, hoogte, ras van honingbijen en de wijze van oogsten. ...
Article
Propolis (bee glue) is the resinous substance that bees collect from living plants for the construction and adaptation of their nests. It has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties and may have a wide range of other beneficial biological activities. Propolis is available as dietary supplement, in products for the protection of health and prevention of diseases, in biopharmaceuticals, and as a constituent of (bio)cosmetics. Contact allergy to and allergic contact dermatitis from propolis has been well-documented, both as occupational disease in beekeepers and in consumers, especially from the use of propolis and propolis-containing products for medicinal purposes. In groups of patients routinely patch tested for suspected contact dermatitis, prevalence rates in recent studies were mostly 2% or higher. In Germany, the UK, USA and Canada, therefore, the propolis test material (10% in petrolatum) has been added to the baseline series. No data from the Netherlands are available. About half of the patients reacting to propolis also have a positive patch test to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru), either from common ingredients (pseudo-cross-reactivity) or from true cross-sensitivity to (substituted) cinnamic acids. The most important sensitizers in propolis are esters of caffeic acid such as methylbutenyl, phenethyl, benzyl and geranyl caffeate.
... A complete clinical response to intravenous cidofovir (Kottke et al., 2006) as therapy for treatment-resistant and/or widespread cutaneous human papillomavirus infection is effective. Propolis (Zedan et al., 2009) and Echinacea are relatively safe immune modulators with antiviral properties for common warts. A study where children's warts were treated with garlic (Silverberg, 2002;Dehghani et al., 2005) found that 100% of the warts were cleared with no significant side effects other than complaints of the smell and once instance of mild skin irritation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Viral warts are benign proliferations of the skin and mucosa caused due to the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). Cutaneous manifestations like flat warts are a common presenting complaint in children and adolescent. may present with irregular borders. Warts are clinically physicians. No sing presents a 9 to wart therapy.
... A complete clinical response to intravenous cidofovir (Kottke et al., 2006) as therapy for treatment-resistant and/or widespread cutaneous human papillomavirus infection is effective. Propolis (Zedan et al., 2009) and Echinacea are relatively safe immune modulators with antiviral properties for common warts. A study where children's warts were treated with garlic (Silverberg, 2002;Dehghani et al., 2005) found that 100% of the warts were cleared with no significant side effects other than complaints of the smell and once instance of mild skin irritation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Viral warts are benign proliferations of the skin and mucosa caused due to the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). Cutaneous manifestations like flat warts are a common presenting complaint in children and adolescent. may present with irregular borders. Warts are clinically physicians. No sing presents a 9 to wart therapy.
... Propolis ile tedavi edilen siğil hastalarında, sırasıyla hastaların yaklaşık %75'inde iyileşme sağlandığı tespit edilmiş. Bu sonuçlar ile Propolis'in siğiller için etkili ve güvenli bir immünomodülatör tedavi olduğu sonucuna varılmış (22). ...
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Summery Propolis is consist of various amounts of resins and beeswaxes that produced by the honeybees from different natural plants, as leaf buds and flowers. They have been used in medical folk or medical traditional since times of ancient. The medical application of propolis, clinically, as a natural dental medicine in the different dental specialities like oral hygiene, periodontology and oral mucosa pathologies, oral surgery, orthodontics, restorative dentistry; endodontics and prosthetic dentistry. Propolis (bee glue) is used as treated the oral diseases in terms of antimicrobial activity of propolis associate with flavonoids and hydroxyl cinnamic acid, and lower associated risks. The dentistry application of propolis is probably the more well scientifically documented and now applied practically in many countries, commonly, the propolis is applied in the different dental specialties as periodontology, oral mucosa pathology, oral surgery, orthodontics and prosthodontics. Traditional uses of propolis probably has been more commonly used in wood preservatives or varnishes. Propolis is used for Musical instruments by most stringed instrument maker to enhance the appearance of the wood grain. Agriculture indication of propolis increases of weight gain, development rate and productivity of different animals.
Article
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among patients with dermatologic conditions has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and pattern of CAM use in patients referred to the dermatology department of a tertiary care center. Patients referred to the dermatology department of an academic tertiary referral center between February 2, 2010, and February 10, 2010, were invited to participate in an 86-question survey regarding CAM use during the previous year. A total of 300 patients completed the survey, of whom 154 (51%) were women. Eighty-two percent (n = 247) of the respondents had used some type of CAM during the previous year. The most frequently used treatment and technique was massage therapy (33%), and the most commonly used vitamin was vitamin C (31%). Herbs or other dietary supplements were used by 58% (n = 173) of patients. Seventy-eight percent (n = 235) of patients stated that physicians should consider incorporating CAM approaches into their treatment recommendations, and 89% of patients (n = 267) stated that our dermatology department should study CAM approaches in research studies. CAM utilization is high among patients at a large academic dermatology department. Patients indicated a strong preference for having CAM approaches incorporated into their treatment recommendations and believed in the value of clinical studies to further refine the role of CAM.
Article
Propolis, a waxy substance produced by the honeybee, has been adopted as a form of folk medicine since ancient times. It has a wide spectrum of alleged applications including potential anti-infection and anticancer effects. Many of the therapeutic effects can be attributed to its immunomodulatory functions. The composition of propolis can vary according to the geographic locations from where the bees obtained the ingredients. Two main immunopotent chemicals have been identified as caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and artepillin C. Propolis, CAPE, and artepillin C have been shown to exert summative immunosuppressive function on T lymphocyte subsets but paradoxically activate macrophage function. On the other hand, they also have potential antitumor properties by different postulated mechanisms such as suppressing cancer cells proliferation via its anti-inflammatory effects; decreasing the cancer stem cell populations; blocking specific oncogene signaling pathways; exerting antiangiogenic effects; and modulating the tumor microenvironment. The good bioavailability by the oral route and good historical safety profile makes propolis an ideal adjuvant agent for future immunomodulatory or anticancer regimens. However, standardized quality controls and good design clinical trials are essential before either propolis or its active ingredients can be adopted routinely in our future therapeutic armamentarium.
Article
This is a commentary of a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as: Gibbs S, Harvey I. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001781. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001781.pub2. Further information for this Cochrane review is available in this issue of EBCH in the accompanying Summary article. Copyright © 2011 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Cochrane Collaboration
Article
Viral warts are a common skin condition, which can range in severity from a minor nuisance that resolve spontaneously to a troublesome, chronic condition. Many different topical treatments are available. To evaluate the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts in healthy, immunocompetent adults and children. We updated our searches of the following databases to May 2011: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2010), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), and CINAHL (from 1981). We searched reference lists of articles and online trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts. Two authors independently selected trials and extracted data; a third author resolved any disagreements. We included 85 trials involving a total of 8815 randomised participants (26 new studies were included in this update). There was a wide range of different treatments and a variety of trial designs. Many of the studies were judged to be at high risk of bias in one or more areas of trial design.Trials of salicylic acid (SA) versus placebo showed that the former significantly increased the chance of clearance of warts at all sites (RR (risk ratio) 1.56, 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.20 to 2.03). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.43 to 5.01) and feet (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.55), suggested it might be more effective for hands than feet.A meta-analysis of cryotherapy versus placebo for warts at all sites favoured neither intervention nor control (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.23). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 15.94) and feet (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.07), again suggested better outcomes for hands than feet. One trial showed cryotherapy to be better than both placebo and SA, but only for hand warts.There was no significant difference in cure rates between cryotherapy at 2-, 3-, and 4-weekly intervals.Aggressive cryotherapy appeared more effective than gentle cryotherapy (RR 1.90, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.15), but with increased adverse effects.Meta-analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy and SA at all sites (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.71) or in subgroup analyses for hands and feet.Two trials with 328 participants showed that SA and cryotherapy combined appeared more effective than SA alone (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43).The benefit of intralesional bleomycin remains uncertain as the evidence was inconsistent. The most informative trial with 31 participants showed no significant difference in cure rate between bleomycin and saline injections (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.78).Dinitrochlorobenzene was more than twice as effective as placebo in 2 trials with 80 participants (RR 2.12, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.26).Two trials of clear duct tape with 193 participants demonstrated no advantage over placebo (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.51 to 4.05).We could not combine data from trials of the following treatments: intralesional 5-fluorouracil, topical zinc, silver nitrate (which demonstrated possible beneficial effects), topical 5-fluorouracil, pulsed dye laser, photodynamic therapy, 80% phenol, 5% imiquimod cream, intralesional antigen, and topical alpha-lactalbumin-oleic acid (which showed no advantage over placebo).We did not identify any RCTs that evaluated surgery (curettage, excision), formaldehyde, podophyllotoxin, cantharidin, diphencyprone, or squaric acid dibutylester. Data from two new trials comparing SA and cryotherapy have allowed a better appraisal of their effectiveness. The evidence remains more consistent for SA, but only shows a modest therapeutic effect. Overall, trials comparing cryotherapy with placebo showed no significant difference in effectiveness, but the same was also true for trials comparing cryotherapy with SA. Only one trial showed cryotherapy to be better than both SA and placebo, and this was only for hand warts. Adverse effects, such as pain, blistering, and scarring, were not consistently reported but are probably more common with cryotherapy.None of the other reviewed treatments appeared safer or more effective than SA and cryotherapy. Two trials of clear duct tape demonstrated no advantage over placebo. Dinitrochlorobenzene (and possibly other similar contact sensitisers) may be useful for the treatment of refractory warts.
Article
Propolis (bee glue) is the resinous substance that bees collect from living plants for the construction and adaptation of their nests. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and may have a wide range of other beneficial biological activities. Propolis is available as a dietary supplement, in products for the protection of health and prevention of diseases, in biopharmaceuticals, and as a constituent of (bio)cosmetics. In this article, the following aspects of propolis are reviewed: the nature and chemical composition, its biological properties and applications, contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (sensitizing potential, products causing contact allergy, clinical picture, frequency of sensitization, coreactivity and cross-reactivity, the allergens in propolis), and other adverse effects.
Article
Context: Bee products are frequently suggested as possible treatments for dermatological problems by protagonists of apitherapy, which is a discipline within the field of complementary and alternative medicine. Unfortunately, apitherapists do not support their health claims. This review was to identify potential uses of bee products in the field of dermatology. Evidence Acquisition: Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, case-control studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the topics were identified using various search engines. Results: Evidence suggests that bee products may be a reasonable treatment option for wound infections, burns, radiodermatitis, infections with herpes viruses, atopic dermatitis, rosacea, scars, cutaneous warts, acne, psoriasis, facial wrinkles, and intertrigo. Conclusions: There are several applications for bee products in the field of dermatology, for instance treatment of wound infections with honey and herpes infections with propolis.
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Summery Propolis is consist of various amounts of resins and beeswaxes that produced by the honeybees from different natural plants, as leaf buds and flowers. They have been used in medical folk or medical traditional since times of ancient. The medical application of propolis, clinically, as a natural dental medicine in the different dental specialities like oral hygiene, periodontology and oral mucosa pathologies, oral surgery, orthodontics, restorative dentistry; endodontics and prosthetic dentistry. Propolis (bee glue) is used as treated the oral diseases in terms of antimicrobial activity of propolis associate with flavonoids and hydroxyl cinnamic acid, and lower associated risks. The dentistry application of propolis is probably the more well scientifically documented and now applied practically in many countries, commonly, the propolis is applied in the different dental specialties as periodontology, oral mucosa pathology, oral surgery, orthodontics and prosthodontics. Traditional uses of propolis probably has been more commonly used in wood preservatives or varnishes. Propolis is used for Musical instruments by most stringed instrument maker to enhance the appearance of the wood grain. Agriculture indication of propolis increases of weight gain, development rate and productivity of different animals.
Chapter
Natural remedies have for centuries played a significant role in traditional medicine and continue to be a unique reservoir of new chemical entities in drug discovery and development research. Propolis is a natural substance, collected by bees mainly from plant resins, which has a long history of use as a folk remedy to treat a variety of ailments. The highly variable phytochemical composition of propolis is attributed to differences in plant diversity within the geographic regions from which it is collected. Despite the fact that the last five decades has seen significant advancements in the understanding of the chemistry and biological activity of propolis, a search of the literature has revealed that studies on African propolis to date are rather limited. The aim of this contribution is to report on the current body of knowledge of African propolis, with a particular emphasis on its chemistry and biological activity. As Africa is a continent with a rich flora and a vast diversity of ecosystems, there is a wide range of propolis phytochemicals that may be exploited in the development of new drug scaffolds.
Article
For the past 10 years, beekeeping has increased due to a growing awareness of the disappearance of bees since Colony Collapse Disorder. Most of the disappearance of honey bees can be attributed to the use of pesticides. Apitherapy is the science and art of maintaining health with the use of products from the honeybee hive: honey, bee pollen, propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom. We have been beekeeping for the last 10 years. We use every product from the beehive for both personal and patient use.
Article
Objectives To assess the value of bee products with respect to antiviral efficacy against herpes viruses. Design A systematic review was done using the JUSTfind System of the Justus-Liebig-University Gießen and Scopus. Results Three trials on honey and 6 trials on propolis were conducted. Each trial provided evidence that these two bee products are interesting alternatives to acyclovir, especially propolis, which was found to be superior to acyclovir in 4 trials. Conclusions The evidence from these trials suggests that propolis is the best of all natural possibilities in the treatment of herpetic skin lesions, especially those related to HSV-1. Future studies should analyse if propolis could be an adjunct to treatment with acyclovir. For lesions in the oral cavity, honey could be an interesting alternative.
Book
Full-text available
Summery Propolis is consist of various amounts of resins and beeswaxes that produced by the honeybees from different natural plants, as leaf buds and flowers. They have been used in medical folk or medical traditional since times of ancient. The medical application of propolis, clinically, as a natural dental medicine in the different dental specialities like oral hygiene, periodontology and oral mucosa pathologies, oral surgery, orthodontics, restorative dentistry; endodontics and prosthetic dentistry. Propolis (bee glue) is used as treated the oral diseases in terms of antimicrobial activity of propolis associate with flavonoids and hydroxyl cinnamic acid, and lower associated risks. The dentistry application of propolis is probably the more well scientifically documented and now applied practically in many countries, commonly, the propolis is applied in the different dental specialties as periodontology, oral mucosa pathology, oral surgery, orthodontics and prosthodontics. Traditional uses of propolis probably has been more commonly used in wood preservatives or varnishes. Propolis is used for Musical instruments by most stringed instrument maker to enhance the appearance of the wood grain. Agriculture indication of propolis increases of weight gain, development rate and productivity of different animals.
Book
Full-text available
Summery Propolis is consist of various amounts of resins and beeswaxes that produced by the honeybees from different natural plants, as leaf buds and flowers. They have been used in medical folk or medical traditional since times of ancient. The medical application of propolis, clinically, as a natural dental medicine in the different dental specialities like oral hygiene, periodontology and oral mucosa pathologies, oral surgery, orthodontics, restorative dentistry; endodontics and prosthetic dentistry. Propolis (bee glue) is used as treated the oral diseases in terms of antimicrobial activity of propolis associate with flavonoids and hydroxyl cinnamic acid, and lower associated risks. The dentistry application of propolis is probably the more well scientifically documented and now applied practically in many countries, commonly, the propolis is applied in the different dental specialties as periodontology, oral mucosa pathology, oral surgery, orthodontics and prosthodontics. Traditional uses of propolis probably has been more commonly used in wood preservatives or varnishes. Propolis is used for Musical instruments by most stringed instrument maker to enhance the appearance of the wood grain. Agriculture indication of propolis increases of weight gain, development rate and productivity of different animals.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of thos paper was to determine the effect of oral supplementation (OS) with a nutraceutical, containing methionine, Echinacea, zinc, probiotics and other antioxidant and immunostimulating compounds, on the response of cutaneous warts to conventional standard therapy (CST). This was an open-label study in adults and adolescents aged 14 years or more and with a body weight ≥40 kg, who had at least one cutaneous viral wart. Eligible patients were consecutively allocated to CST (topical therapy with a preparation containing salicylic acid and lactic acid or liquid nitrogen cryotherapy) alone or CST combined with nutraceutical OS for 4 months. A total of 172 patients were enrolled: 83 received CST alone and 89 CST+OS. During the 6-month observation period, a statistically significant reduction of the mean number of warts was obtained in each treatment group and subgroup. The addition of nutraceutical OS was associated with a significantly lower number of warts at 6 months as compared to CST alone. Complete remission was obtained in 54.5% and 86% of patients in the CST group and CST+OS arm, respectively (P<0.001). The influence of the nutraceutical on the response rate appeared to be more prominent in the subgroup of patients treated with topical therapy. The development of new warts during the study period occurred significantly less frequently with CST+OS compared to CST (9% versus 25%; P=0.004). No adverse events possibly related to the nutraceutical administration were observed. Our pilot experience seems to suggest that nutraceutical OS is safe and beneficial in patients with cutaneous warts, and capable of enhancing the response to CST.
Article
Full-text available
The overall objective of the guideline is to provide up-to-date, evidence-based recommendations for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). The document aims to • offer an appraisal of all relevant literature up to 30 January 2020, focusing on any key developments, • address important, practical clinical questions relating to the primary guideline objective, and • provide guideline recommendations and if appropriate research recommendations.
Article
Background: Common warts, or verrucae vulgaris, occur most often in children. However, many adults are plagued by this ubiquitous viral infection. Various modalities have been used to treat warts, but none is uniformly effective or directly antiviral. A recent study showed cimetidine to be effective in the treatment of multiple warts in children. Anecdotal reports have suggested that the administration of high doses of cimetidine, through various proposed immunomodulating mechanisms, can improve recalcitrant warts in adults. There have been no data published to date supporting these claims. Observations: An open-label study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of high-dose cimetidine in 20 adult patients with recalcitrant warts. Of the 18 patients who completed the study, 16 patients (84%) had either dramatic clinical improvement or complete resolution of their wart lesions after 3 months of cimetidine therapy without any adverse effects. No patient demonstrated disease progression while receiving the medication and complete responders remained free of lesions at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: This study further confirms that highdose cimetidine therapy appears to be beneficial and safe in the treatment of recalcitrant warts in adults. Further placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine its true efficacy.(Arch Dermatol. 1996;132:680-682)
Article
Cimetidine, an H2-receptor antagonist, has been used successfully to treat patients with mucocutaneous candidiasis, common variable immunodeficiency, herpes simplex, and herpes zoster because of its immunomodulatory effects. Recently, some trials have suggested that cimetidine may also be useful for the treatment of warts. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cimetidine is effective in the treatment of warts. Seventy patients with multiple warts were included in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment groups equally. The groups received cimetidine, 25 to 40 mg/kg daily, or placebo for 3 months. Patients were examined at monthly intervals. At the end of the therapy, 28 cimetidine-treated and 26 placebo-treated patients were examined to determine the efficacy of treatment. Cure rates obtained were 32% (9 of 28) in the cimetidine-treated group and 30.7% (8 of 26) in the placebo-treated group. No significant difference was found between cimetidine and placebo in effectiveness (p = 0.85). Our results show that cimetidine is no more effective than placebo in the treatment of patients with common warts.
Article
Common warts, or verrucae vulgaris, occur most often in children. However, many adults are plagued by this ubiquitous viral infection. Various modalities have been used to treat warts, but none is uniformly effective or directly antiviral. A recent study showed cimetidine to be effective in the treatment of multiple warts in children. Anecdotal reports have suggested that the administration of high doses of cimetidine, through various proposed immunomodulating mechanisms, can improve recalcitrant warts in adults. There have been no data published to date supporting these claims. An open-label study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of high-dose cimetidine in 20 adult patients with recalcitrant warts. Of the 18 patients who completed the study, 16 patients (84%) had either dramatic clinical improvement or complete resolution of their wart lesions after 3 months of cimetidine therapy without any adverse effects. No patient demonstrated disease progression while receiving the medication and complete responders remained free of lesions at 1-year follow-up. This study further confirms that high-dose cimetidine therapy appears to be beneficial and safe in the treatment of recalcitrant warts in adults. Further placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine its true efficacy.
Article
Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Use of propolis by humans has a long history, predated only by the discovery of honey. Use of products containing propolis have resulted in extensive dermal contact and it is now increasingly being used a dietary supplement. Unlike many 'natural' remedies, there is a substantive database on the biological activity and toxicity of propolis indicating it may have many antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and antitumour properties, among other attributes. Although reports of allergic reactions are not uncommon, propolis is relatively non-toxic, with a no-effect level (NOEL) in a 90-mouse study of 1400 mg/kg body weight/day.
Article
Unlabelled: Ninety men and women with recurrent genital HSV type 2 participated in a randomized, single-blind, masked investigator, controlled multi-centre study comparing the efficacy of ointment of Canadian propolis containing natural flavonoids with ointments of acyclovir and placebo (vehicle) on healing ability and capacity to remedy symptoms. Thirty individuals were randomized to each group. Treatment was intended to start in the blister phase. All participants had HSV type 2 isolated, confirmed by serum immunoglobulin levels. The participants were examined on the 3rd, 7th and 10th days of treatment by gynaecologists, dermatovenerologists or urologists at seven different medical centres. Apart from clinical symptoms the number and size of the herpetic lesions were noted. At each examination the lesions were classified into four stages: vesicular, ulcerated, crusted and healed. The study ointments were applied to affected areas four times daily. In women with vaginal or cervical lesions a tampon with the appropriate ointment was inserted four times daily for 10 days. Endpoint variables were healing time and time until loss of symptoms. Results: On Day 10, 24 out of 30 individuals in the propolis group had healed. In the acyclovir group 14 out of 30 and in the placebo group 12 out of 30 had healed. (p = 0.0015). The healing process appeared to be faster in the propolis group. In the propolis group 15 individuals had crusted lesions on Day 3 compared to 8 individuals in the acyclovir group and none in the placebo group (p = 0.0006). On Day 7, 10 participants in the propolis group, 4 in the acyclovir group and 3 in the placebo group had healed. At the initial examination all patients had local symptoms and 28% general symptoms. At Day 3, 3 patients in the propolis group had local symptoms compared to 8 and 9 in the acyclovir and placebo groups respectively. Of the women, 66% had vaginal superinfections of microbial pathogens at the initial examination. In the acyclovir and placebo groups no change in the vaginal flora was found following treatment whereas in the propolis group the incidence of superinfection was reduced by 55%. (p = 0.10 n.s.). Conclusion: An ointment containing flavonoids appeared to be more effective than both acyclovir and placebo ointments in healing genital herpetic lesions, and in reducing local symptoms.
Article
These guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts have been prepared for dermatologists on behalf of the British Association of Dermatologists. They present evidence-based guidance for treatment, with identification of the strength of evidence available at the time of preparation of the guidelines, and a brief overview of epidemiological aspects, diagnosis and investigation.
Article
An increasing proportion of the population perceive complementary medicine as a safer alternative for non-life threatening conditions such as genital herpes. The extract of the plant Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce) has been shown to have immunomodulating properties and has been advocated in the lay press for the treatment of genital herpes. This study, a single centre, prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial set out to assess whether an extract of the plant and root of E. purpurea can prevent or decrease the frequency and severity of genital herpes recurrences. These were assessed using a detailed history and clinical review of symptoms. Visual analogue scales were used for documentation and haematological and immunological parameters were measured. Over a one-year period, 50 patients took part in the study receiving 6 months' placebo and 6 months' Echinaforce each. No statistically significant benefit could be detected in this study comparing placebo versus Echinaforce in the treatment of frequently recurrent genital herpes.
Article
Propolis, a natural product from beehives, comprises a complex of chemicals, the most important group being flavinoids, which play a role in antiviral protection. To test the inhibitory effect of propolis extract against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: propolis was added to Vero cells at various times and concentrations before, at or after infection with HSV-1. In vivo: the effect of propolis was tested in newborn rats infected s.c. or i.p. and on rabbit come as infected with HSV-1. In vitro: 0.5% propolis extract caused 50% inhibition of HSV infection. There was indirect evidence for a strong interaction between the propolis extract and the surface of the Vero cells, but there was no direct interaction with HSV-1 particles. Administration of propolis before or at the time of infection yielded the most significant inhibitory effect, but even when 10% propolis extract was added 2 hours post-infection it gave 80-85% protection. In vivo: as little as 5% propolis prevented the appearance and development of symptoms of local and i.p. HSV-1 infection in rats and of corneal HSV-1 infection in rabbits. There were no cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 10% in vitro or 20% in vivo. The potent antiviral activity of propolis against HSV-1 infection in vitro and In vivo is probably due to prevention of virus absorption into the host cells and/or inhibition of an internal step(s) during the viral replication cycle.
Article
Propolis is one of the few natural remedies that has maintained its popularity over a long period of time. The pharmacologically active molecules in the propolis are flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters. These components have multiple effects on bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, propolis and its components have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Moreover, propolis has been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, clinical studies to substantiate these claims are required.
Article
Preparations from Echinacea purpurea are among the most widely used herbal medicines. Most uses of E. purpurea are based on the reported immunological properties. A series of experiments have demonstrated that E. purpurea extracts do indeed demonstrate significant immunomodulatory activities. Among the many pharmacological properties reported, macrophage activation has been demonstrated most convincingly. Phagocytotic indices and macrophage-derived cytokine concentrations have been shown to be Echinacea-responsive in a variety of assays. Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and natural killer cells has also been reasonably demonstrated. Changes in the numbers and activities of T- and B-cell leukocytes have been reported, but are less certain. Despite this cellular evidence of immunostimulation, pathways leading to enhanced resistance to infectious disease have not been described adequately. Several dozen human experiments--including a number of blind randomized trials--have reported health benefits. The most robust data come from trials testing E. purpurea extracts in the treatment for acute upper respiratory infection. Although suggestive of modest benefit, these trials are limited both in size and in methodological quality. Hence, while there is a great deal of moderately good-quality scientific data regarding E. purpurea, effectiveness in treating illness or in enhancing human health has not yet been proven beyond a reasonable doubt.
Article
The effect of polyphenolic compounds isolated from propolis and propolis itself was investigated on the growth and metastatic potential of a transplantable mammary carcinoma (MCa) of CBA mouse. Metastases in the lung were generated by intravenous injection of tumor cells (2 x 10(5)). A water-soluble derivative of proplis (WSDP), caffeic acid (CA), caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and quercetin (QU) were given to mice per os before tumor cells inoculation. Tested compounds significantly decreased the number of tumor nodules in the lung. According to the results obtained the antitumor activity of tested compounds can be related to the immunomodulatory properties of the compounds, their cytotoxicity to tumor cells, and their capacity to induce apoptosis and necrosis. The experimental data support that WSDP, CA, CAPE and QU could be potentially useful in the control of tumor growth in experimental models.
Article
In vivo study has been conducted on 47 healthy women and men in order to investigate whether daily intake of powdered propolis extract during 30 days has any influence on the following blood parameters: activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, concentration of plasma malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, uric acid, ferritin and transferrin, together with routine red blood cell parameters. The effect of daily propolis intake seems to be time and gender related. For the men test group after the initial 15 days of propolis treatment, 23.2% (p=0.005) decrease in concentration of malondialdehyde was observed. After 30 days of treatment, statistically significant (p=0.010) 20.9% increase in superoxide dismutase activity and change in some of the red blood cell parameters were detected. For the women test group, the propolis treatment did not induce a change in any of the measured parameters.
Article
Patients and clinicians experience the frustration of cutaneous viral warts caused by infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV).Warts appear in various forms on different sites of the body and include common warts (verruca vulgaris), plane or flat warts, myrmecia, plantar warts, coalesced mosaic warts, filiform warts, periungual warts, anogenital warts (venereal or condyloma acuminata), oral warts and respiratory papillomas. Cervical infection with HPV is now known to cause cervical cancer if untreated. A review of the medical literature reveals a huge armamentarium of wart monotherapies and combination therapies. Official evidence-based guidelines exist for the treatment of warts, but very few of the reported treatments have been tested by rigorous blinded, randomized controlled trials.Therefore, official recommendations do not often include treatments with reportedly high success rates, but they should not be ignored when considering treatment options. It is the purpose of this review to provide a comprehensive overview of the wart treatment literature to expand awareness of the options available to practitioners faced with patients presenting with problematic warts.
Article
Propolis has been used empirically for centuries and it was always mentioned as an immunomodulatory agent. In recent years, in vitro and in vivo assays provided new information concerning its mechanisms of action, thus a review dealing with propolis and the immune system became imperative. This review compiles data from our laboratory as well as from other researchers, focusing on its chemical composition and botanical sources, the seasonal effect on its composition and biological properties, its immunomodulatory and antitumor properties, considering its effects on antibody production and on different cells of the immune system, involving the innate and adaptive immune response. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated the modulatory action of propolis on murine peritoneal macrophages, increasing their microbicidal activity. Its stimulant action on the lytic activity of natural killer cells against tumor cells, and on antibody production was demonstrated. Propolis inhibitory effects on lymphoproliferation may be associated to its anti-inflammatory property. In immunological assays, the best results were observed when propolis was administered over a short-term to animals. Propolis antitumor property and its anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic potential are discussed. Since humans have used propolis for different purposes and propolis-containing products have been marketed, the knowledge of its properties with scientific basis is not only of academic interest but also of those who use propolis as well. This review opens a new perspective on the investigation of propolis biological properties, mainly with respect to the immune system.
Adjuvante Immuntherapie mit verschiedenen Echinacin®-Darreichungsformen
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British Association of Dermatologists guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts
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