Endocrine Aspects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Context: Some endocrine and metabolic disorders are associated with a high frequency of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and treatment of the underlying endocrine disorder can improve and occasionally cure OSA. On the other hand, epidemiological and interventional studies suggest that OSA increases the cardiovascular risk, and a link between OSA and glucose metabolism has been suggested, via reduced sleep duration and/or quality. Evidence Acquisition: We reviewed the medical literature for key articles through June 2009. Evidence Synthesis: Some endocrine and metabolic conditions (obesity, acromegaly, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary disease, etc.) can be associated with OSA. The pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA in these cases are reviewed. In rare instances, OSA may be improved or even cured by treatment of underlying endocrine disorders: this is the case of hypothyroidism and acromegaly, situations in which OSA is mainly related to upper airways narrowing due to reversible thickening of the pharyngeal walls. However, when irreversible skeletal defects and/or obesity are present, OSA may persist despite treatment of endocrine disorders and may thus require complementary therapy. This is also frequently the case in patients with obesity, even after substantial weight reduction. Conclusions: Given the potential neurocognitive consequences and increased cardiovascular risk associated with OSA, specific therapy such as continuous positive airway pressure is recommended if OSA persists despite effective treatment of its potential endocrine and metabolic causes. "Apropos of sleep, that sinister adventure of all our nights, we might say that men go to bed daily with an audacity that would be incomprehensible if we did not know that it is the result of ignorance of the danger." Charles Baudelaire, in "Fusées, IX"
Available from: Atul Malhotra
- "Major risk factors that contribute to OSA pathogenesis include aging, male sex, and obesity. About 60–70% of patients with OSA are obese, and obesity is the most common metabolic disorder    . The pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA are both complex and incompletely understood, with differences between afflicted adults as compared to children. "
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underdiagnosed common public health concern causing deleterious effects on metabolic and cardiovascular health. Although much has been learned regarding the pathophysiology and consequences of OSA in the past decades, the molecular mechanisms associated with such processes remain poorly defined. The advanced high-throughput proteomics-based technologies have become a fundamental approach for identifying novel disease mediators as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for many diseases, including OSA. Here, we briefly review OSA pathophysiology and the technological advances in proteomics and the first results of its application to address critical issues in the OSA field.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Available from: Omer Araz
- "Hypothyroidism and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are both common health problems and often occur together [1,2]. An estimated rate for combination of these diseases through patients referred to a sleep laboratory is 1.6–11% [3,4]. "
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Hypothyroidism and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are both common health problems and can be seen together. Each of these 2 diseases can cause pulmonary hypertension (PH). We aimed to determine whether hypothyroidism with OSA has a significant effect on the frequency and severity of PH.
A total of 236 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group I, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (n=149); Group II, Hypothyroidism (n=56); and Group III, Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypothyroidism (n=31). All patients underwent polysomnography and echocardiography and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine 4 (FT4) were analyzed.
There were 167 male and 69 female participants, and the mean age was 47.8±11.5 (Group I: 81.9% male, 18.1% female; Group II: 44.6% male, 55.4% female; Group III: 64.6% male, 35.4% female). Distribution of mean pulmonary arterial pressure on echocardiography was statistically different among the 3 groups (x2=14.99, p=0.006). When adjusted according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), age, and body mass index (BMI), a significant relation with PH was determined (p=0.002).
The combination of hypothyroidism with OSA is associated with an increased frequency and severity of PH. When PH is found out of line with the severity of OSA, thyroid dysfunction should be investigated.
Available from: Jorge Iriarte
- "Moreover, obesity is strongly related to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which has also been identified as an independent risk factor for stroke and all-cause mortality . The physiopathology might be based on the alterations on the modulation of the autonomic function during sleep apnea , although endocrine pathways may also be involved  . Besides, central sleep apnea which is another cause of SD, has been found to be a risk factor for stroke, independently of other risk factors . "
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ABSTRACT: Sleep loss refers to sleep of shorter duration than the average baseline need of seven to eight hours per night. Sleep loss and sleep deprivation have severe effects on human health. In this article, we review the main aspects of sleep loss, taking into account its effects on the central nervous system. The neurocognitive and behavioral effects of sleep loss are well known. However, there is an increasing amount of research pointing to sleep deprivation as a risk factor for neurologic diseases, namely stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, headache, epilepsy, pain, and somnambulism. Conversely, sleep loss has been reported to be a potential protective factor against Parkinson's disease. The pathophysiology involved in this relationship is multiple, comprising immune, neuroendocrine, autonomic, and vascular mechanisms. It is extremely important to identify the individuals at risk, since recognition and adequate treatment of their sleep problems may reduce the risk of certain neurologic disorders.
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