Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0559, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 04/2010; 58(7):3996-4000. DOI: 10.1021/jf9029332
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of dementia is increasing with expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to address this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominently anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, anthocyanins have been associated with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers, mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, benefits that would be expected to mitigate neurodegeneration. This study investigated the effects of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice in a sample of nine older adults with early memory changes. At 12 weeks, improved paired associate learning (p = 0.009) and word list recall (p = 0.04) were observed. In addition, there were trends suggesting reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.08) and lower glucose levels (p = 0.10). We also compared the memory performances of the blueberry subjects with a demographically matched sample who consumed a berry placebo beverage in a companion trial of identical design and observed comparable results for paired associate learning. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms.

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Available from: Robert Krikorian, Jul 31, 2014
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    • "The 43 interventions investigated the effect of oral supplements, food/drink modification (including their use for people with swallowing problems), eating assistance and social support. Most interventions occurred within residential institutions of various types, but three interventions on people with MCI were in the community414243, one a treatment centre (assumed to be an outpatient setting[72]), one in day cen- tres[48]and one unclear[55]. Included studies were mostly small (from five to 515 participants, with only seven having ≥100 participants[31,35,46,47,58,64,73]and none were at low risk of bias. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Eating and drinking difficulties are recognised sources of ill health in people with dementia. In the EDWINA (Eating and Drinking Well IN dementiA) systematic review we aimed to assess effectiveness of interventions to directly improve, maintain or facilitate oral food and drink intake, nutrition and hydration status, in people with cognitive impairment or dementia (across all settings, levels of care and support, types and degrees of dementia). Interventions included oral nutrition supplementation, food modification, dysphagia management, eating assistance and supporting the social element of eating and drinking. Methods: We comprehensively searched 13 databases for relevant intervention studies. The review was conducted with service user input in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration's guidelines. We duplicated assessment of inclusion, data extraction, and validity assessment, tabulating data, carrying out random effects meta-analysis and narrative synthesis. Results: Forty-three controlled interventions were included, disappointingly none were judged at low risk of bias. Oral nutritional supplementation studies suggested small positive short term but unclear long term effects on nutritional status. Food modification or dysphagia management studies were smaller and of low quality, providing little evidence of an improved nutritional status. Eating assistance studies provided inconsistent evidence, but studies with a strong social element around eating/drinking, although small and of low quality provided consistent suggestion of improvements in aspects of quality of life. There were few data to address stakeholders' questions. Conclusions: We found no definitive evidence on effectiveness, or lack of effectiveness, of specific interventions but studies were small and short term. People with cognitive impairment and their carers have to tackle eating problems despite this lack of evidence, so promising interventions are listed. The need remains for high quality trials tailored for people with cognitive impairment assessing robust outcomes. Systematic review registration: The systematic review protocol was registered (CRD42014007611) and is published, with the full MEDLINE search strategy, on Prospero [1].
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · BMC Geriatrics
    • "Recent reports suggest that anthocyanins are a main contributors to the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables [1], such as the inhibition of cancer cell growth [2] [3], improvement of atherosclerotic and diabetic conditions [4], prevention of cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by norepinephrine [5], and improvement of depressive symptoms [6] [7]. Blueberries are one of the richest sources of anthocyanins, making them a potential candidate for use in supplements and functional ingredients. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A considerable body of evidence has associated the consumption of blueberries to health-related benefits, mainly because of their anthocyanin content. The extraction of these compounds could contribute to their application in functional foods and value-added products. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from lowbush blueberries in a bench-scale system. METHODS: Two statistical design methods, namely full factorial and Box-Behnken, were used for the screening and optimization of the variables that significantly affect the UAE of anthocyanins. Extraction temperature, time, solvent concentration (acidified ethanol), and solvent to solid ratio were selected to determine higher anthocyanin extraction (assessed by the pH-differential method). RESULTS: When evaluated by response surface methodology, solvent to solid ratio and solvent concentration had a significant effect on UAE followed by ultrasound bath temperature. The mathematical model indicated that the highest anthocyanin extraction would be obtained with 60% acidified ethanol, solvent to solid ratio of 50 mL/g, at 65◦ C for 11.5 min. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-assisted extraction was shown to be an effective method of extracting total anthocyanins from Nova Scotia lowbush blueberries. A statistical model to predict optimum conditions for extraction was developed using a Box Behnken design.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Berry Research
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    • "Most of the beneficial effects attributed to polyphenols are related to the antioxidant and biological properties conferred by their chemical features. For these reasons, there has been a great interest over the past few years in the research for applications of polyphenols in the food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries (Krikorian et al., 2010; Spencer, Vauzour, & Rendeiro, 2009). However, polyphenols are soluble in water while sparingly soluble in more lipophilic media, which may compromise their effective application in lipophilic systems, such as fats, oils, lipid-based foods, cosmetic formulations and emulsions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The acylation of procyanidin B4 with a saturated fatty acid chloride containing 18 carbon atoms was studied in order to obtain procyanidin B4 3-O-di-stearic acid conjugate. This compound was structurally characterised by mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Derivatization of malvidin-3-glucoside using stearoyl chloride in acetonitrile was also performed yielding mono-, di- and tri-stearic ester derivatives. The novel derivatives obtained revealed significant antioxidant activity, although lower than the respective precursors. However, the chemical modification of anthocyanins and procyanidins (water soluble pigments) to more lipophilic compounds has the advantage of increased bioavailability in biological matrices, and to potentiate their application in food matrices and cosmetic products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Food Chemistry
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