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Abstract

The Antonine Plague, which flared up during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from 165 AD and continued under the rule of his son Commodus, played such a major role that the pathocenosis in the Ancient World was changed. The spread of the epidemic was favoured by the occurrence of two military episodes in which Marcus Aurelius himself took part: the Parthian War in Mesopotamia and the wars against the Marcomanni in northeastern Italy, in Noricum and in Pannonia. Accounts of the clinical features of the epidemic are scant and disjointed, with the main source being Galen, who witnessed the plague. Unfortunately, the great physician provides us with only a brief presentation of the disease, his aim being to supply therapeutic approaches, thus passing over the accurate description of the disease symptoms. Although the reports of some clinical cases treated by Galen lead us to think that the Antonine plague was caused by smallpox, palaeopathological confirmation is lacking. Some archaeological evidence (such as terracotta finds) from Italy might reinforce this opinion. In these finds, some details can be observed, suggesting the artist's purpose to represent the classic smallpox pustules, typical signs of the disease. The extent of the epidemic has been extensively debated: the majority of authors agree that the impact of the plague was severe, influencing military conscription, the agricultural and urban economy, and depleting the coffers of the State. The Antonine plague affected ancient Roman traditions, also leaving a mark on artistic expression; a renewal of spirituality and religiousness was recorded. These events created the conditions for the spread of monotheistic religions, such as Mithraism and Christianity. This period, characterized by health, social and economic crises, paved the way for the entry into the Empire of neighbouring barbarian tribes and the recruitment of barbarian troops into the Roman army; these events particularly favoured the cultural and political growth of these populations. The Antonine Plague may well have created the conditions for the decline of the Roman Empire and, afterwards, for its fall in the West in the fifth century AD.

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... Since historical times, emerging infectious diseases have impacted militaries, from the Plague of Athens in 430 BC during the Peloponnesian War linked to the poisoning of water reservoirs by the Spartans [1], and the similar Antonine Plague in 166 AD brought back by returning Roman soldiers from the Parthian War [2,3]. The Thirty Years War from 1618 to 1648 also saw the devastating effects of Typhus (alongside Plague and accompanying starvation) which resulted in 10 million deaths [4], overshadowing 350,000 combat deaths. ...
... Selected infectious diseases during military deployments[1][2][3][4][7][8][9]15,26,[28][29][30]39,41,44,[50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]. ...
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The communal nature of living and training environments, alongside suboptimal hygiene and stressors in the field, place military personnel at higher risk of contracting emerging infectious diseases. Some of these diseases spread quickly within ranks resulting in large outbreaks, and personnel deployed are also often immunologically naïve to otherwise uncommonly-encountered pathogens. Furthermore, the chance of weaponised biological agents being used in conventional warfare or otherwise remains a very real, albeit often veiled, threat. However, such challenges also provide opportunities for the advancement of preventive and therapeutic military medicine, some of which have been later adopted in civilian settings. Some of these include improved surveillance, new vaccines and drugs, better public health interventions and inter-agency co-operations. The legacy of successes in dealing with infectious diseases is a reminder of the importance in sustaining efforts aimed at ensuring a safer environment for both military and the community at large.
... It can lead to millions of deaths along with thousands of billions of dollars in economic losses annually [27]. Historic zoonotic disease outbreaks include the Zika virus disease, Ebola virus disease, MERS, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic or Swine Flu, SARS, the Smallpox epidemic in the former Yugoslavia, human immunodeficiency viruses/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Spanish Flu, New World Smallpox, the Black Death (Bubonic Plague), the Justinian Plague, and the Antonine Plague (Table-1) [4,16,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. The Black Death is considered the "First Great Pandemic of History," which ravaged the death of 75-200 million people in Eurasia and North Africa, peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351 (Table-1). ...
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Recurring outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses serve as a reminder that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are interconnected. Therefore, multisectoral, transdisciplinary, and collaborative approaches are required at local, regional, and global levels to tackle the ever-increasing zoonotic threat. The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 zoonosis has been posing tremendous threats to global human health and economies. The devastation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic teaches us to adopt a "One Health Approach (OHA)" to tackle a possible future pandemic through a concerted effort of the global scientific community, human health professionals, public health experts, veterinarians and policymakers through open science and open data sharing practices. The OHA is an integrated, holistic, collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach to tackle potential pandemic zoonotic diseases. It includes expanding scientific inquiry into zoonotic infections; monitoring, and regulating traditional food markets, transforming existing food systems, and incentivizing animal husbandry and legal wildlife trade to adopt effective zoonotic control measures. To adopt an OHA globally, research and academic institutions, governments and non-government sectors at the local, regional, and international levels must work together. This review aimed to provide an overview of the major pandemics in human history including the COVID-19, anthropogenic drivers of zoonoses, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse zoonoses, the concept of OHA and how an OHA could be utilized to prevent future pandemic threats to the human-animal-ecosystem interfaces. In addition, this review article discusses the strategic framework of OHA and possible challenges to implement OHA in practice to prevent any future pandemics. The practices of open data sharing, open science, and international collaboration should be included in the OHA to prevent and/or rapidly tackle any health emergencies in the future.
... According to Saez, the tragic event of the "Antonine Plague" during the 2nd century killed approximately 10% of the Roman population and played a substantial role in initiating the decline of the Roman Empire (370). The Greek surgeon Galen witnessed this outbreak, and a critical reading of his writings suggests that smallpox might have been the etiological agent (371,372). Subsequently, the plague of Cyprian, named after the bishop of Carthage, occurred on the periphery of the Mediterranean Basin from 249 to 270 (373). Although Cyprian left some testimonials about this epidemic, documentation related to this episode is extremely sparse. ...
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The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is responsible for deadly plague, a zoonotic disease established in stable foci in the Americas, Africa, and Eurasia. Its persistence in the environment relies on the subtle balance between Y. pestis -contaminated soils, burrowing and nonburrowing mammals exhibiting variable degrees of plague susceptibility, and their associated fleas. Transmission from one host to another relies mainly on infected flea bites, inducing typical painful, enlarged lymph nodes referred to as buboes, followed by septicemic dissemination of the pathogen. In contrast, droplet inhalation after close contact with infected mammals induces primary pneumonic plague. Finally, the rarely reported consumption of contaminated raw meat causes pharyngeal and gastrointestinal plague. Point-of-care diagnosis, early antibiotic treatment, and confinement measures contribute to outbreak control despite residual mortality. Mandatory primary prevention relies on the active surveillance of established plague foci and ectoparasite control. Plague is acknowledged to have infected human populations for at least 5,000 years in Eurasia. Y. pestis genomes recovered from affected archaeological sites have suggested clonal evolution from a common ancestor shared with the closely related enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and have indicated that ymt gene acquisition during the Bronze Age conferred Y. pestis with ectoparasite transmissibility while maintaining its enteric transmissibility. Three historic pandemics, starting in 541 AD and continuing until today, have been described. At present, the third pandemic has become largely quiescent, with hundreds of human cases being reported mainly in a few impoverished African countries, where zoonotic plague is mostly transmitted to people by rodent-associated flea bites.
... In Egypt and Syria, plague spreaded in 1346. Plague was caused once by the rats population density, from which fleas transmitted the disease, the human approached, the traffic from Asia to Europe developed rapidly, and the hygienic conditions and circumstances worsened 5,10 . ...
... According to Roman historian, Dio Cassius in 178 AD, during the peak of the epidemic, it consumed 2000 people a day in Rome alone. [4] It destabilized trade, wiped out whole villages and towns, decimated 90% of the Roman Army, and shrank the labor forces which probably led to the eventual decline of the great Roman Empire. As per the descriptions provided by Galen, who treated it by theory of humors, the causative agent was probably smallpox. ...
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Disease transmission occurs with a perfect balance of the epidemiological triad consisting of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the agent and host together. Conflict situation is an ideal platform that creates this confluence of agent and host in perfect environmental conditions, for pathogens to tear through soldiers and refugees alike. Classically during armed conflicts, soldiers and displaced population get exposed to unsanitary and overcrowded barracks, trenches, refugee shelters, and concentration camps with disruptive health-care services. Many get susceptible to diseases prevalent in the relocated region and some may introduce pathogens in the native population. The earlier wartime epidemics were considered as divine interventions and wrath of God. As medicinal knowledge advanced, prevention strategies evolved from isolation and quarantine to sanitary measures against miasma and further to chemoprophylaxis and immunization against the pathogen. The advent of antivector chemicals and antibiotics revolutionized the control of epidemics during the World War II. Although not infectious in origin, modern-day outbreaks are mostly health events such as posttraumatic stress disorders in postwar or war-like scenario. This article chronicles the epidemiology of the better-known wartime epidemics.
... Harper is not the only one to push an extreme position in recent years (Sabbatani & Fiorino, 2009; several contributions to Lo Cascio, 2012). Yet for many scholars, the Antonine pandemic is nearly back where Gilliam left it in 1961. ...
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This is the second of a three‐section review of Kyle Harper's The Fate of Rome in which we examine in detail Harper's treatment of two allegedly widespread and mortal Roman outbreaks of disease. In the case of the second‐century Antonine plague, we demonstrate that Harper overlooked a major controversy and instead portrayed an oversimplified narrative of a catastrophic event. In the case of the third‐century Cyprianic plague, we call attention to several glaring methodological issues in Harper's treatment of the episode, point out the absence of corresponding evidence in the papyri, and cast doubt on the linkage previously drawn between the plague and archaeology.
... Harper is not the only one to push an extreme position in recent years (Sabbatani & Fiorino, 2009; several contributions to Lo Cascio, 2012). Yet for many scholars, the Antonine pandemic is nearly back where Gilliam left it in 1961. ...
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This is the last of a three‐part review of Kyle Harper's The Fate of Rome. Here, we scrutinize Harper's treatment of the Justinianic Plague, demonstrating how he crafts a convincing narrative based on rhetorical flourishes but little evidence. We call further attention to several internal contradictions within the chapter and misinterpretations of evidence. We conclude this series of articles with a reflection on Harper's deterministic approach to environmental history. While the environment appears everywhere, agency (people: society and culture) is mostly absent. We finish by emphasizing the need to develop more nuanced causal explanations for complex historical processes and suggest that future attempts to bring together such wide‐ranging material be done within interdisciplinary research teams.
... The lowest level of practitioners was based on the so-called barbers-surgeons: they performed 1 The first crusade was announced on November 27, 1095, by Pope Urbano II, at the end of the Clermont council. 2 Based on the poor reliability of historical Medical sources, the plague episodes have been handed down time by time thanks to local chronicles, declarations, and statutes, which indirectly point out the emergence of an health care problem which was always dramatically perceived by the population. 3 During this historical period, the term "charlatan" was not perceived as a negative judgement. In fact, the charlatans took their name since they originally came from the town of Cerreto (with Cerretani as the name for the local inhabitants), located close to the city of Spoleto. 4 The low Middle Ages is known to include the period from the year 1000 until 1492. ...
Article
In past centuries, epidemics, the scourge of humankind, caused pain, anger, uncertainty of the future, social as well as economic disorder and a significant impact on their victims, involving also their spiritual sphere. The latter effect led to undoubted effects on participation in the religious and social life of communities. The custom of preparing artistic votive expressions has been lost in the mists of time and evidence of ex voto gifts, offered by believers to pagan gods, has been found in prehistoric archaeological sites. Furthermore, several finds from the Ancient Greek and Roman worlds may be observed in our museums. These remains are generally ceramic and metal artifacts, reproducing limbs and other body parts which had been healed. These elements, according to the belief of those making the offerings, had benefited from the miraculous intervention of a thaumaturgical deity. With the advent of Christianity, some pre-existing religious practices were endorsed by the new religion. Believers continued to demonstrate their gratitude in different ways either to miracle-working saints or to the Virgin Mary, because they thought that, thanks to an act of faith, their own health or that of a family member would benefit from the direct intervention of the divine entities to whom they had prayed. In the Ancient Greek world, it was believed that the god Asclepius could directly influence human events, as testified by the popularity of shrines and temples to the god, especially at Epidaurus. In the Christian world as well, particular places have been detected, often solitary and secluded in the countryside or in the mountains, where, according to tradition, direct contact was established between the faithful and Saints or the Virgin Mary Herself. Manifestations occurred by means of miracles and apparitions, thereby creating a direct link between the supernatural world and believers. Religious communities, in these extraordinary places, responded to the call through the building of shrines and promotion of the cult. Over time, the faithful reached these places of mystery, performing pilgrimages with the aim of strengthening their religious faith, but also with the purpose of seeking intercession and grace. In this case, the request for clemency assumed spiritual characteristics and also became a profession of faith. Accordingly, the shrines in the Christian world are places where supernatural events may occur. In these environments the believer resorted to faith, when medicine showed its limits in a tangible way. For the above reasons, while epidemics were occurring, the requests for clemency were numerous and such petitions were both individual and collective. In particular, by means of votive offerings (ex voto) the believers, both individually and collectively, gave the evidence of the received grace to the thaumaturgical Saint. Through the votive act, a perpetual link between the believer and the Saints or Holy Virgin was forged and a strong request for communion was transmitted. The aim of the present study is to describe the role played by votive tablets (ex voto) in the last 500-600 years, as visible evidence of human suffering. From this perspective, these votive expressions may assume the role of markers because, in accordance with the expressions of popular faith, they allow us to follow the most important outbreaks that have caused distress to Christian communities.
... The spectrum of contagious diseases is not only big and wide but has made grave marks from military ancient history to almost current events in recent years. History recorded the Plague in Athens in 430 BC as a major event of the Peloponnesian War [9],the Antonina Plague a couple of hundred years later at the Parthian War on the return of Roman soldiers [10]. One of the worst events in military history came from the Thirty Years War from 1618 to 1648 where Typhus and Plague generated 10 million deaths crushing the 350,000 combat casualties' statistics [11]. ...
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Military training environments when combined with less than optimal hygiene and psychological and physical stressors in the field make military personnel especially vulnerable to easily controllable infectious diseases. Some of these diseases can and have resulted in large outbreaks that jeopardized entire military operations. Furthermore, the constant changing environment makes the soldiers immune system immature to new pathogens. Such challenges are opportunities for the advancement of preventive and therapeutic medicine by taking it to a new level. These critical but simple changes are at the forefront of our military and the community at large in our fight against what I call "The Invisible Enemy".
... History has witnessed the weakening of the states in the face of pandemics and outbreaks. The Antonine plague of 161 AD had economically weakened the Roman Empire (3). The Byzantine empire too had suffered weakening of the economic infrastructure during the Justinian plague (4). ...
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Purpose: Quarantine is necessary to reduce the community spread of the Coronavirus disease, but it also has serious psychological and socially disruptive consequences. This is known as the quarantine paradox that also includes a surge in the cases of gender-based violence. However, there exists a clear gap of rigorous literature exploring the issue. Hence, the current paper attempts to understand gender-based violence as an aspect of the COVID-19 lockdown. It reviews the pattern of rise in gender violence cases and the resultant psychological and social issues and attempts to create awareness by initiating a discourse urging for change in the response towards the victims of gender-based violence. The paper further attempts to suggest measures to mitigate the issues arising out of gender violence during quarantine. Method: The current paper reviews the literature on the rise of gender-based violence in the times of current and past pandemics. The paper also reviews the published reports in scientific as well as mass media literatures focusing on the rise of gender-based violence during the imposed lockdown, its consequences, and the measures taken by the governments to tackle the issue. Results: The present review reveals that similar to the previous pandemics and epidemics, there has been an alarming rise in the incidents of gender-based violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present review further reveals various other risk factors that have been found attributive to the surge of gender-based violence such as economic insecurity and alcohol consumption. The results of the review indicate that despite its global prevalence, gender-based violence has been one of the most neglected outcomes of pandemics. Moreover, the legislatures and services available for such victims are often inadequate and, thus, worsening their situation. Conclusion: Pandemic situations have been found to be associated with advancements in the medical field. However, a part and parcel of this situation is the age-old practice of quarantine that has several negative outcomes. This also includes a surge in gender-based violence that raises serious concerns about the safety of women. As the legislatures provided and measures taken by the governments are falling short in dealing with the issue, a number of non-government organizations are stepping up to provide necessary services to these victims.
... This had severe repercussions on the empire with a significant reduction in their army, and caused the death of the Roman emperors of the time, Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius. The Italian paper by Sabbatani and Fiorino (2009) claims the fall of the western Roman Empire was a result of the "Antonine Plague" and weakened its state structures. This gives light to the severity of public health and the risks of continuous pandemic outbreaks, and it highlights the need for adequate preparation for such outbreaks through rigorous planning and continuous stabilised investment in healthcare systems as we consider the 21st-century impact of pandemics on society. ...
Article
Pandemics historically have killed as many people as the wars that have beset this world, yet the resources committed to pandemic prevention and response are a fraction of the resources we commit to security. This paper examines the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 by analysing the preparedness and responses of the UK, the USA, Germany, and South Korea. We will evidence that the UK and USA lacked the levels of preparedness that global health reports indicated, and that their responses were diametrically opposite of those of Germany and South Korea. We argue that decades of deregulation and privatization due to neoliberal, free-market economics by the UK and USA led to the Great Recession of 2008. This, in turn, led to economic collapse and austerity (increased neoliberalism), which negatively impacted investment in healthcare in the UK and USA. This resulted in very different levels of preparedness and responses by the four countries under the microscope.
... Galen (130-c. 201 D) the most famous physician of the Roman period emphasizes also the miasma theory as he recognizes plague, tuberculosis and skin diseases as contagious [9]. As we pass from the classical to the early centuries of the Christian era, we find the contagiousness of leprosy playing a major role in the basis of the Old Testament. ...
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From miasma to germ theory we trace the evolution of conceptions in infectious disease transmission. Starting from the unproved theories of contagiousness we move on to miasma theory, contagion theory and spontaneous generation theory up to the revolutionary germ theory of disease transmission.
... engulfed by plague and they spread the plague northward to Gaul and among troops stationed along the Rhine River. [14] The outburst of Plague of Cyprian observed in Ethiopia (250 CE) and made its place at Rome and then subsequent years travelled to Greece and Syria. This was also the most devastating taking the lives of 5,000 people per day in Rome which was continued about 20 years. ...
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The outbreak of Novel corona virus is a global health emergency which has pushed mankind in the silhouette of darkness. Humanity has accustomed to several pandemics since evolution and mankind has propensity in genes to endure and proved himself to "survival of fittest". Despite global efforts to hold the disease stretch, the outbreak is still climbing the graph as the community spreads pattern of this infection has started. In response to the emerging circumstances, this article endeavors to provide a timely and comprehensive analysis of the history of pandemics, its consequences, co-morbidities, factors involved, and potential uncertainty of the future. While, several questions emerge to be addressed in confronting advanced COVID-19 in more waves that could be more devastating for humanity. History is riddled with references to pandemics or extreme epidemics of respiratory viruses. However, we only used those episodes for which there are reasonable contemporary accounts. We are confident that this overview will support in recognizing and interpreting the vista of the threatening disease with historical reference. How to cite: Fulzele V. B, Uplanchiwar V. P, Hiradeve S. M, Gaikwad T. V. "History repeat itself"-Prospects of auxiliary waves of SARS-CoV and its influence on co-morbidities.
... It was a clear precedent for globalization, inasmuch as it generated a high mortality rate and an exodus to the countryside. Another plague of antiquity, the Justinianic one, already in Byzantine times, was the first example of bubonic plague and had devastating effects on the territory of the Empire (Hanna 2015;Sabbatani and Fiorino 2009). The final crisis of the Western Roman Empire provoked significant insecurity in the big cities and an outstanding exodus to the countryside, which was far away and without significant communication infrastructure, which therefore made it safer (Andreu Pintado and Blanco Pérez 2019). ...
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Human contact with nature is more important than ever before considering the global confinement brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic , the increased urbanization of society, and increased rates of mental disorders and threats to human well-being. This article conveys the importance of contact with nature from three perspectives: historical, sociocultural, and scientific. These perspectives convey the many ways in which contact with nature is essential to human life, the multiple ways in which this is expressed , and the broad range of benefits this has. The case for preserving the natural environment continues to be made in light of the dangers of climate change, the deleterious effects of pollution, and the importance of habitats. We add to the case by underscoring how human well-being has depended on contact with natural environments and how the need for this contact is more salient now than ever before. o Human contact with nature now is a luxury or pastime for many, which of course is odd given our evolutionary origins. We evolved completely in nature in virtually every possible way for food, clothing, living quarters , but also walking, socializing, and playing sports. We need not go back to the beginning of human evolution. Even within our current time frame of merely the past two thousand years, cities often were closely connected with nature as evident in the work of hunter-gatherers, farmers , miners, fishermen, and foresters. Unfortunately, contemporary life throughout the world has helped us lose sight of our origins and the many roles that contact with nature can play in our lives. For example, currently approximately 55 percent of the world's population lives in urban areas and this is expected to increase to 68 percent by 2050 (United Nations 2019). Opportunities for employment, education, culture , and health care are among the motives for moving to urban areas. Urban planning and development of cities often include parks and
... The Antonine plague Outbreak of the Antonine plague was known to occure in 165-180 AD as documented by Galen and therefore also said to be the plague of Galen. This plague was originated from the Roman Empire during the sovereignty of Marcus Aurelius and smallpox is thought to 10 be the main cause of this outbreak. Soldiers returning from Seleucia were responsible to bring this plague in the Empire. ...
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History of various pandemics before corona virus
Chapter
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Will COVID-19 end the urban renaissance that many cities have experienced since the 1980s? This essay selectively reviews the copious literature that now exists on the long-term impact of natural disasters. At this point, the long-run resilience of cities to many forms of physical destruction, including bombing, earthquakes and fires, has been well-documented. The destruction of human capital may leave a longer imprint, but cities have persisted through many plagues over the past millennia. By contrast, economic and political shocks, including deindustrialisation or the loss of capital city status, can enormously harm an urban area. These facts suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic will only significantly alter urban fortunes if it is accompanied by a major economic shift, such as widespread adoption of remote work, or political shifts that could lead businesses and the wealthy to leave urban areas. The combination of an increased ability to relocate with increased local redistribution or deterioration of local amenity levels, or both, could recreate some of the key attributes of the urban crisis of the 1970s.
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Epidemic is a Greek term, which alludes to any plague sickness causing a high part of mortality, or more generally, as a representative for any abrupt episode of a heartbreaking tribulation (Buchill, 523). Throughout the Biblical text, Epidemic episodes are the bookends of human presence, thought about both a piece of beginning human community, and a part of the very completion of mankind. The epidemic is a scourge happening on a scale, which passes global frontiers, typically influencing an enormous number of individuals. In a basic manner, an epidemic is a pestilence, with higher extent regarding topographical territory, number of cases and long periods of enduring representing death (Samal, 165). Human populace has experienced numerous epidemics from the dawn of history, be it the previous type of smallpox, tuberculosis or the ongoing occurrence of Coronavirus, so the Human history is plagued by the deadly epidemics of catastrophes that caused the demise of empires and kingdoms, which were once dominant, prosperous, and the best example. This paper will discuss the impact of the Epidemic throughout history on the different flourished empires and how the scourge destroyed the economic, political and military systems of many empires such as Greek, Roman, Aztec and others. It also tries to outline how the Epidemic devastated the tremendous armies in short times, and killed great talent leaders before performing their tasks and getting their aims, for instance Alexander the Great.
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During the second and third centuries CE, multiple interment graves were incorporated into the höyük at Oymaağaç-Nerik, adjacent to the nearby Roman town Neoklaudiopolis (modern day Vezirköprü). These graves have been categorically and chronologically divided into earlier Roman period multigenerational tombs and later imperial period mass burials. Osteological examination of skeletal remains from the mass burial graves thus far implicates epidemic disease or famine as the cause of death for, minimally, these 120 individuals. Despite the commingled state of human remains within these graves, demographic burial profiles could be constructed from the preserved skeletal elements. For this study, specifically, preliminary anthropological data have been compared between several mass graves and multigenerational tombs. Disproportionate representations of adults and juveniles between mass and multigenerational graves highlight the theoretically transformative role that epidemic disease assumes against established social practices. The sudden emergence of disease at Oymaağaç demanded that local burial protocols be abandoned to more pragmatic, expedient solutions for the disposal of both adults and children; these solutions blurred sociocultural burial prescriptions and consequently transformed persons, notably children, into newly constructed entities and identities outside traditional Roman mores.
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Chapter
Morbidity and mortality conferred by infectious diseases have had devastating effects on the lives of people and populations, influencing social and political history throughout recorded time. Through modern medicine and technology, we can now prevent more infectious disease through immunizations than ever before. Vaccines save direct and indirect costs such as medical expenses to society and work days missed, with projected savings in the trillions of dollars in addition to over 700,000 lives saved in the United States for children born between 1995 and 2013 (Whitney et al., Weekly 63:352–355, 2014). A historical review of infectious diseases in society, including the great pandemics and epidemics from 300 BCE through the early eighteenth century, helps highlight how infectious disease affects lives, civilizations, and culture. Smallpox was an undeniable influence on the Americas from its beginning as Europeans colonized the New World. Inoculation by variolation was instrumental in the eventual eradication of smallpox and served as the first form of vaccination. Vaccines, first attributed to Edward Jenner, with his trials and experiments using what we now call “evidence-based medicine” were developed by way of the scientific method. Vaccine development through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has resulted in the eradication of smallpox, is close to eradicating polio, and is responsible for the elimination of many diseases locally and regionally. In the United States, there has been a 99% decrease in incidence of the nine diseases for which vaccines have been recommended for decades accompanied by a similar decline in mortality and disease sequelae (Achievements in Public Health, 1900–1999 Impact of Vaccines Universally Recommended for Children – United States, 1990–1998 [Internet]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056803.htm). These diseases include smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, paralytic poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella (including congenital rubella syndrome), and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Today, there are 26 different diseases for which there exist vaccines to prevent them. These vaccines are available worldwide with many more vaccines in clinical trials with likely approval within the next few years to the next decade.
Chapter
This chapter attempts to analyze the current COVID-19 pandemic from a historic-comparative and cross-national analytical perspective. Considering the gravest political, social, economic, and public health consequences of the present crisis, we must assume that the West, for all practical purposes, could be relegated from the landscape of the twenty-first century as a major strategic player in the Middle East and beyond. Our findings are based on the comparison of the effects of earlier pandemics on the long cycles of economic development over the last two thousand years and the multivariate analysis of COVID-19 death rates per 1 million population and COVID-19 fatality rates in a partial correlation analysis on a country-to-country basis. We debate at length the economic consequences of the past more than two millennia of pandemics and also analyze what has become known as the “Thucydides trap” of the hegemonial challenge of a rising power, inexorably leading to Great Power War, all this combined with a pandemic. So, is the ancient writer Thucydides (460 BCE–400 BCE) the prophet of events to come on a global scale? The present chapter also risks a prognosis on the overall societal effects of the pandemic, based on the Piketty time series data of the share of the richest 1% in total incomes, and estimates on the effects of the severity of the 1918–1920 pandemic on international income convergence/divergence over time, made possible by the Maddison/Barro data series. The severity of an epidemic negatively influences international income convergence over time. Equally stark lessons must be drawn from the long-term effects of the crisis of 2008. We show that already before the tsunami of the present COVID-19 crisis the crisis of 2008 hit so many countries with full force, and none the less than 35 countries did not even fully recover from the 2008 crisis, when the current COVID-19 emergency set in. With Germany quenching the Latin and Mediterranean European partner countries to the wall, European austerity measures and the economic crisis of 2008 also led to a significant weakening of national security on the European continent. Three factors will be decisive for the trajectory of the Gulf. These factors are inequality, a pattern of high economic globalization occurring with a relatively low or intermediate de jure social globalization, and a relatively high past fluctuation of economic growth, tied to export prices, which leads to quite strong economic fluctuations over time.
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The impact of COVID_19 on urban places and spaces has been significant and with the destruction of their function has changed the meaning of both of them. These changes seem to be very important urban environment and ecosystem. In the last 3 decades and the dominance of neoliberal thinking on the construction of cities in Iran urban space and short distances between houses and apartment units and the transformation of the city, this issue is very important. The purpose of this article is to challenge the misguided policies of urban planning in Iran, especially in metropolitan areas. On the other hand, how to consider Quaid 19 can be effective in reducing other similar risks. The method used in this paper is descriptive-analytical and the data used in this study are valid and official global institutions and official sources of countries. The results of this study show that medical and treatment resources without environmental and geographical understanding of this issue are not enough to reduce the number of patients and mortality. On the other hand, including health issues in urban planning and urban resource management can be very important in reducing diseases, including infectious diseases.
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Intermittent outbreaks of infectious diseases have had profound and lasting effects on societies throughout history. Those events have powerfully shaped the economic, political, and social aspects of human civilization, with their effects often lasting for centuries. Epidemic outbreaks have defined some of the basic tenets of modern medicine, pushing the scientific community to develop principles of epidemiology, prevention, immunization, and antimicrobial treatments. This chapter outlines some of the most notable outbreaks that took place in human history and are relevant for a better understanding of the rest of the material. Starting with religious texts, which heavily reference plagues, this chapter establishes the fundamentals for our understanding of the scope, social, medical, and psychological impact that some pandemics effected on civilization, including the Black Death (a plague outbreak from the fourteenth century), the Spanish Flu of 1918, and the more recent outbreaks in the twenty-first century, including SARS, Ebola, and Zika.
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Fear is a social phenomenon that develops in people facing a crisis, such as a pandemic. For instance, the entire world is currently exposed to Covid-19 pandemic, causing great fear. In the Bible, Jesus’ disciples were terrified of sinking in their boat during a storm. Although these two scenarios are different, the response is the same. Fear produces stress and anxiety disorders when not appropriately managed. This paper examines the causes of fear and how they can be addressed. Specifically, the study involves determining the cause of fear and proposing a strategy based on Hope, as described by Erich in the book Revolution of Hope which positively correlates with building fortitude and endurance. Surrendering or persisting is a dialectical choice, though theology fear does not give chances. Instead, Humans only survive by depending on God. This research was involved literature reviews by utilizing reference sources, including books, journal articles, and other scientific content.
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In high-income countries, international medical graduates (IMGs) constitute 20–31% of medical work force, especially in disciplines like psychiatry. Variations in countries of origin, languages in which they studied medicine, their religious affiliations, gender, sexual orientation, and so on, all tend to play a role in the process of acculturation and adjustment after migration in spite of resilience. IMGs are often placed in subspecialties and geographical locations that are unpopular with local graduates, thereby increasing their isolation. There is evidence to suggest that they tend to work harder and yet are more likely to be reported to the regulators. High-income countries often for their short-term benefits tend to recruit medical workforce from countries that can ill afford to lose them. Using the history of medicine in the USA as an example, this chapter highlights some of the challenges and proposes ways forward. The isolation and difficulties in acculturation may well contribute to poor mental health.
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Pour l'intelligence des forces réelles qui forgent le destin de l'homme, il n'est pas permis de négliger un facteur biologique majeur : la maladie. Au niveau individuel, l'importance du pathologique représente un fait banal. Les débuts de l'étude des incidences de la maladie sur l'histoire personnelle se confondent avec les premiers pas de la médecine, et avec les tout premiers balbutiements de l'art et de la réflexion philosophique. Par le truchement d'un effort tendant à comprendre l'influence des maladies sur l'activité des personnages célèbres, on croyait pouvoir atteindre aussi la « grande histoire ». Les maladies des chefs ne pouvaient-elles déterminer le sort des peuples ? Les historiographes grecs en étaient convaincus. Pensée légitime en une époque où l'on attribuait au génie personnel de quelques guides un rôle prépondérant sur la scène de l'histoire.
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Is 'pathocoenosis', a notion conceived and a word coined by Mirko Grmek (1969), useful as far as ancient history is concerned? The author is interested in Galenic pathocoenosis, that of doctor Galen and his Emperor Marcus Aurelius (IInd cent. A.D.), when a new 'pestilence' or 'plague' (smallpox?) devastated the whole empire, from Mesopotamia to the Danube at least.
Rivista Storica Italiana 803-819, anno 114, III
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Diseases in Europe: Equilibrium and Breakdown of the Pathocoenosis Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages
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Considerazioni storiche e biologiche sull'evoluzione del virus del vaiolo
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The plaghe under Marcus Aurelius
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La caduta dell'Impero Romano. Una nuova storia
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Diseases in Europe: Equilibrium and Breakdown of the Pathocoenosis
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Apollo Smintheus und die Bedeutung der Mause in der Mythologie der Indogermaner. Calve, 1862. Praga
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Brohmann J.V. Apollo Smintheus und die Bedeutung der Mause in der Mythologie der Indogermaner. Calve, 1862. Praga.
La peste nella storia. Epidemie, morbi e contagio dall'antichità all'età contemporanea
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