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Abstract

A suite of biomarkers was measured in caged mussels at areas impacted by different anthropogenic activities along the Greek coastline to assess biological effects of environmental pollution. Mussels were caged at coastal sites in the vicinity of major cities, in areas influenced by major industries, agricultural practices and in islands away from known sources of pollution. Biomarkers indicative of neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AchE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT), phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics (glutathione S-transferase, GST), metal exposure (metallothioneins, MTs) and protein synthesis (RNA:DNA ratio) were measured to assess effects of various types of pollutants. AchE activity proved to be the most responsive biomarker with decreased values at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities. Decreased CAT and GST activities and increased MTs levels were recorded at a number of anthropogenic-impacted sites. RNA:DNA ratio showed a biphasic response as both high and low values were found at impacted sites. Principal component analysis clearly distinguished sites receiving pollution inputs from non-polluted sites. The combination of the selected biomarkers used in caged mussels resulted useful in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollution.

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... Changes at the organism level are possible to lead to changes at the population and community levels. For the assessment of the good chemical and ecological status of water bodies, biomarkers can be used as an early warning signaling agent [5]. They constitute a useful index of the environmental disturbance having an especially good response to heavy metals, thus operating as a useful monitoring tool [6]. ...
... In order to address the question and to study the possible mercury contamination in the coastal waters, a three-month field experiment was carried out using caged mussels. Following the methodology introduced by Tsangaris et al. [5,7] mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis L. were employed as biomarkers which initially had approximately 60 mm shell length and were supplied from an aquaculture farm in Kitros Pierias, Central Macedonia, Greece. Three sampling sites near the coastline were chosen at areas possibly affected by the point source of wastewater treatment (WWT) of the island (Figure 1). ...
... The first part of the analysis of the solid tissue samples took place at the laboratory of Microbial Communities and Habitats in Aquatic Environments (MiCHAEL), at the Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, University of Thessaly. The method of simultaneous DNA and RNA extraction was applied to mussel's tissue according to Tsangaris et al. [5]. Comparative biochemistry and physiology C-toxicology and pharmacology (151:369-378) along with the corresponding protocol was applied using the Quick-RNA/DNA™ Miniprep Kit, which provides a quick method for the isolation of high quality genomic DNA and total RNA from small amounts of cells and tissue. ...
Article
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In Skiathos Island the water is not potable due to mercury contamination and salinization. The mercury’s origin is natural due to the existence of cinnabar in the Skiathos aquifer as a mineral in the Earth’s crust. The possibility of mercury contaminants ending up in the coastal area was investigated through a field experiment. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were employed as mercury monitoring biomarkers at the outflow of the wastewater treatment of the island. Using the RNA:DNA ratio, it was revealed that the organisms were stressed after three months of exposure to Skiathos’ coastal waters. The mercury concentration was directly measured at the bulk mussels’ tissue showing differences between the station located at the outflow of the WWT and the reference station. Although the results may imply mercury contamination in the coastal area of the island, the precise origin of the mercury in mussels is difficult to define.
... This enzyme is also capable of removing reactive forms of oxygen such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in a biological system, which reduces oxidative stress in an organism including bivalves (Chakraborty et al., 2010;Manduzio et al., 2005). CAT activity is not specific to a group of contaminants but to oxidative stress and can be induced by a wide range of contaminants including organic xenobiotics namely PCBs, PAHs and phenols (André et al., 2011;Khessiba et al., 2005;Van der Oost et al., 2005), trace metals (Akcha et al., 2000;Livingstone, 2001;Roméo et al., 2003), as well as abiotic environmental parameters (Khessiba et al., 2005). This activity is not only used as a marker involved in the defense against oxidative stress, but it is also a very seasonal phenomenon in bivalve molluscs (Lesser and Kruse, 2004). ...
... In fact, all the studies carried out on the response of biomarkers in molluscs from Agadir Bay have reported that the periods of maximum enzymatic activity coincide with the spawning periods in these species (Banaoui et al., 2004a;Najimi et al., 1997). Catalase activity shows a bell-shaped response in mussels towards toxic chemicals with an increase in activity at the beginning, due to enzymatic induction, followed by a decrease in activity due to the rate generated by the products of catabolism and/or direct inhibition by toxic chemicals (Dagnino et al., 2007;Tsangaris et al., 2010). Several authors have recorded the same trend in mussels from polluted sites as a result of the duration of exposure to pollutants (Nesto et al., 2004;Regoli et al., 2004;Roméo et al., 2003). ...
Article
The present study aims to assess the effects of contamination of the Agadir bay coasts using bivalves as a biomonitoring sentinel species. Seasonal variations of biochemical composition in terms of total protein content and oxidative stress biomarkers including glutathione-S-transferase, malondialdehyde, catalase and acetylcholinesterase were evaluated in the soft tissues of Scrobicularia plana and Donax trunculus specimens. The latter were collected from two sites in Agadir bay during two-year span (2018–2020). The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) was performed to classify the stress response in both species and to assess the level of exposure to xenobiotics. The data showed maximum annual values of acetylcholinesterase and malondialdehyde for Donax trunculus in Agadir beach (AG) with 6.25 nmol/mn/mg and 3 nmol/mg of protein, respectively. Those of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase for Scrobicularia plana in Oued Souss estuary (OS) were of 4.41 μmol/mn/mg and 14.43 nmol/mn/mg of protein, respectively. The studied species are considered good indicators in aquatic ecosystems.
... For this reason, inhibition of ChE activity has been used as an early-warning and specific response biomarker for neurotoxic effects, especially to organophosphates and carbamates (Venturino et al., 2003). However, a decline in ChE activity is not specific to this class of pesticides, since it also occurs after exposure to certain metals (Bonacci et al., 2009;Tsangaris et al., 2010). As such, over recent years, the cholinesterase assay has evolved into a promising tool to discern potential biological effects of metals like Cd and copper (Cu) in bivalves (Moncaleano-Niño et al., 2018), as well as to arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), Cu and Cd in fish (Roy et al., 2006;Richetti et al., 2011;Padrilah et al., 2017) and to Zn, Cu and Cd in amphibians (Carvalho et al., 2020). ...
... Cholinesterases (ChEs) are sensitive to many contaminants, including pesticides and metals including Cd (Mohamed et al., 2008;Bonacci et al., 2009;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Moncaleano-Niño et al., 2018). The different patterns in ChE activity with and without eserine inhibition suggest that total cholinesterase (T-ChE) in H. plecostomus is composed of both eserine-sensitive (Es-ChE) and -resistant (Er-ChE) fractions. ...
Article
Environmental risk assessment in aquatic ecosystems typically uses biomarkers to detect interactions between potential hazards and biological systems. Next to knowing environmental contaminant levels in tissues and the environment, it is important to link to potentially deleterious effects at higher levels of biological organisation such as biochemistry, physiology and overall health status. In this laboratory study we assessed the toxicity of waterborne cadmium (Cd) over an exposure range of 0 - 100 µg l⁻¹ for nine days to the loricariid suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus. We evaluated the integrated response of the fish at the biochemical to physiological level by means of a suite of tissue biomarkers of exposure and effects, including Cd concentrations in gills, liver metallothioneins (MT) and cholinesterase activity (ChE) in brain, before and after the inhibition of the alkaloid eserine, as well as whole-fish resting oxygen consumption rates and ingestion rate. Tissue biomarkers (MT and ChE) showed a non-monotonic relationship, with maximum/minimum responses at intermediate doses. i.e. 10 and 50 µg l⁻¹, whereas biomarker responses of fish exposed at 100 µg l⁻¹ more closely resembled biomarker responses seen at lower concentrations (< 10 µg l⁻¹). Conversely, the oxygen consumption rate peaked at 100 µg l⁻¹, suggesting a higher metabolic cost for higher metal exposure, with no significant correlation with fish body condition and food intake. Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) values peaked at the intermediate exposure concentration of 50 µg l⁻¹ Cd. The non-monotonic dose-response of the biochemical biomarkers of exposure, together with the higher metabolic rates of fish exposed to 50 - 100 µg l⁻¹ of Cd and the non-significant effects on the more relevant physiological and histological variables suggests that H. plecostomus is capable of biochemically and physiologically regulating moderately high Cd concentrations, thus representing a suitable indicator organism to monitor metal pollution by Cd.
... The ability of mussels to accumulate different types of organic and inorganic contaminants in their tissues is one of the main advantages they offer as pollution bioindicators (Benali et al. 2017). Moreover, their tolerance makes them suitable biological tools for different field experiments (Tsangaris et al. 2010;Fasulo et al. 2012). ...
... The data on bioaccumulation and the response of biomarkers (early signs of exposure to contaminants) should then be more reliable because most of the confounding biotic factors (e.g. sex, age, reproductive status) and abiotic factors (depth, season, period) can be controlled (Tsangaris et al. 2010;Cappello et al. 2013). ...
Article
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In the framework of the biomonitoring programme of the Gulf of Annaba (north-eastern Algeria), this study aims to assess the health status of the Gulf by transplanting the brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus 1758) for 12 weeks (June 2017–August 2017) at three sites. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and as well as a battery of enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers were measured in mussels before and after the transplantation period. Furthermore, analysis of trace metals was performed on the surface layer of the sediment of all the sites. A significant increase in the Cu and Pb concentrations in the mussel dry tissues was observed after the transplantation period and followed the order of metal contamination of the surface layer sediments, indicating a relationship between the bioaccumulation of metals and their bioavailability at each site. Unlike those of Cu and Pb, Cd and Zn concentrations did not reach significant levels of bioaccumulation at any of the three study sites. The biomarker response results were complementary to the measured metal concentrations in the mussel tissues and were associated with the metal accumulation index. Metal bioaccumulation in mussels and supporting biomarker response results identified the most important pollution point sources in the area. Graphical abstract
... The authors noteed that the activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and lipid peroxide, in particular, are significantly increased in fish exposed to PAHs, whereas catalase and glutathione reductase activities, as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) are usually not affected (Santana et al., 2018). In addition, alterations in biotransformation products and genotoxic and immunological parameters have also been reported (van der Oost et al., 2003). ...
... Although environmental monitoring studies in the literature investigating AChE activities in different organisms, such as fish (Silva Filho et al., 2004), mussels (Tsangaris et al., 2010), urchins (Cunha et al., 2005) and seabirds (Oropesa et al., 2007) in areas known to be contaminated by chemical mixtures, including metals and PAH, are readily available, in vitro studies regarding the specific effects of PAH on AChE activity are scarce. The first in vitro reports regarding the effects of PAH on AChE activity were demonstrated that several PAH inhibit AChE activity, although the magnitude of inhibition seems to vary with the analyzed PAH and has still not been elucidated (Kang and Fang, 1997). ...
... A number of studies have shown contaminant effects in marine organisms from the North Evoikos Gulf using biomarkers, i.e., measurements of cellular, biochemical, molecular, or physiological changes within an organism that are indicative of xenobiotic exposure and/or effect [74]. Mussels M. galloprovincialis, as widely used sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies [75], are the species mostly applied for the assessment of contaminant effects in Larymna bay and the metalliferous slag dumping area [42,76,77]. Both native and caged mussels by the smelting plant in Larymna bay showed negative values of their energy budget as shown by measurements of the physiological condition index Scope for Growth (SFG) reflecting overall low health status [42]. ...
... Pollution effects were also evident in caged mussels at the slag dumping area using a set of biomarkers (metallothioneins, glutathione S-transferase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase, and RNA:DNA ratio) and their integration into a biomarker index, the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) [76,77]. The IBR index indicated environmental stress at the slag disposal area and was mainly related to elevated metal concentrations in the mussel tissues [77]. ...
Chapter
This study compiles existing information on levels and impacts of contaminants, nutrients, and marine litter in North Evoikos Gulf, in order to provide an integrative assessment of pollution in the area. The North Evoikos Gulf is a semi-enclosed gulf in the Aegean Sea, with the rare characteristics of a strong tidal current occurring in alternating directions and natural enrichment of metals due to geological processes. The predominant anthropogenic pressure in the area is the operation of a mining and metallurgical industry which discharges metalliferous slag, at a designated dumping area in the sea. The current review indicates spatial variability in the intensity of anthropogenic pressures and shows that the main issues are high levels of metals principally Ni and Cr, PAHs, and nutrients in the marine area of Larymna, where the ferronickel smelting plant is located. In several cases, concentrations of contaminants are above environmental quality standards, indicating potential risks on marine communities and this is further supported by measurements of contaminant effects in sentinel species. Furthermore, dumping of slag causes cumulative disturbance on benthic communities at the disposal area, which are degraded and unstable. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in farmed fish from Larymna Bay, as well as in edible fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans caught in the slag disposal area are safe for human consumption. The eutrophication status in the area of Larymna is characterized as moderate. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs) in sediment and mussel samples indicate that the study area is not polluted by these substances. Data on marine litter are scarce showing plastic as the predominant type of seafloor litter and microplastic ingestion in fish within the range of values found in Greek coastal waters. The integrative ecological status in the area is classified as moderate as in few other Gulfs in the Aegean Sea. This study provides a current baseline for pollution pressures in North Evoikos Gulf, which can be used for management purposes in this area.KeywordsChemical pollutionMarine litterMediterranean SeaNorth Evoikos GulfReviewSolid waste dumping
... Elevated concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons (>100 μg/g) and PAH (>1,000 ng/g), indicative of both petroleum and combustion processes related to pollution, were measured, but the contamination was restricted close to the river mouth [63,64]. The same conclusion was reached by using caged mussels as pollution indicators [65,66]. In the same study organochlorinated compounds were also studied, but their concentrations were very low, indicating the absence of pollution by these substances. ...
... Within the same project, Tsangaris [65,66] found that caged mussels revealed increased inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE), decreased activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathionine S-transferase (GST). The authors mentioned that AchE is a biomarker of pesticides and general stress including heavy metals, which justifies the decreased values off Asopos river mouth. ...
Chapter
The major natural factors of the South Evvoikos Gulf are the existence of an almost closed boundary and the increase of the gulf width moving to the other boundary of the gulf; the later favors the communication with the South Aegean Sea and the entrance of the relevant water mass. In their turn, abiotic (salinity, nutrients, particulate carbon, sediments) and biotic parameters (phytoplankton, zooplankton, phytobenthos, macrozoobenthos) revealed a more or less gradual spatial variability between the two edges of the gulf. Pressures on the marine environment by human activities varied spatially, with the majority of industrial and agricultural pollutants discharged in the more confined area, either directly or indirectly by Asopos river. The impact of domestic wastes was detected along all the coasts of the gulf, where human population increases by a factor of three to ten during summer. A large number of mariculture sites are located in South Evvoikos Gulf, as well as three major ports. The environmental status of selected sites of the gulf was estimated by the combination of several ecological indices. Only the more confined area was classified to moderate status, while the majority of the gulf is in good status.
... It is an enzyme involved in the regulation of nerve impulse and its inhibition is an established biomarker of neurotoxicity of organophosphate and carbamate pesticide effects (Fulton and Key 2001). Recent studies suggest that it may also indicate general chemical toxicity (Tsangaris et al. 2010) which lead to its wide use as a biomarker for the diagnosis of other types of pollutants such as metals and PAHs (Akila et al. 2018;Grintzalis, Georgiou, and Dailianis 2012;Tsangaris et al. 2010) Thus, the main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pollution on four different biomarkers of mussels (Mytilus spp.) chronically exposed to contaminated sediments sampled from three different sites in the Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia, and one reference site in the Douro Estuary, Afurada, Vila Nova de Gaia, in Portugal. A set of biomarkers was selected among those most widely used for ecotoxicological assessment purposes and included antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (total, T-GPx, and Se-dependent, Se-GPx); a phase II detoxification enzyme: glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and the neurotransmitter catabolism enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). ...
... It is an enzyme involved in the regulation of nerve impulse and its inhibition is an established biomarker of neurotoxicity of organophosphate and carbamate pesticide effects (Fulton and Key 2001). Recent studies suggest that it may also indicate general chemical toxicity (Tsangaris et al. 2010) which lead to its wide use as a biomarker for the diagnosis of other types of pollutants such as metals and PAHs (Akila et al. 2018;Grintzalis, Georgiou, and Dailianis 2012;Tsangaris et al. 2010) Thus, the main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pollution on four different biomarkers of mussels (Mytilus spp.) chronically exposed to contaminated sediments sampled from three different sites in the Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia, and one reference site in the Douro Estuary, Afurada, Vila Nova de Gaia, in Portugal. A set of biomarkers was selected among those most widely used for ecotoxicological assessment purposes and included antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (total, T-GPx, and Se-dependent, Se-GPx); a phase II detoxification enzyme: glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and the neurotransmitter catabolism enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). ...
Article
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The hereby study was conducted to assess the chronic biological effects of potentially contaminated sediments collected at the Zarzis area, Tunisia, on the marine mussel species (Mytilus spp.). Useful information can be provided through the analysis of biomarkers that allow inferring about the presence of pollutants and their adverse effects, contributing for a better assessment of ecosystems quality and functions. Three sampling sites were chosen taking into account the putative impact of different human activities at several sites located in Zarzis area, compared to an unpolluted reference site, located in Afurada, Portugal. Physical-chemical characterization involved the survey of metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Zn, and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whose toxic effects are involved in the onset of oxidative stress. Biomarkers involving oxidative stress and neurotoxicity were quantified in haemolymph, gills and digestive glands tissues of Mytilus spp. following the chronic exposure to the distinct sediments. Organisms exposed to sediments collected at the Zarzis area presented the highest values of the tested oxidative stress biomarkers and a significant inhibition of AChE activity in comparison with the unpolluted reference site. This set of results suggests that biomarker responses representing different biological endpoints in Mytilus spp. are useful for the assessment of environmental pollution effects, namely by PAHs and metals. Our results suggest the presence of these chemicals in specific sampling sites whose sediment caused evident biological responses in mussels.
... The ability of mussels to accumulate different types of organic and inorganic contaminants in their tissues is one of the main advantages they offer as pollution bioindicators (Benali et al. 2017). Moreover, their tolerance makes them suitable biological tools for different field experiments (Tsangaris et al. 2010;Fasulo et al. 2012). ...
... The data on bioaccumulation and the response of biomarkers (early signs of exposure to contaminants) should then be more reliable because most of the confounding biotic factors (e.g. sex, age, reproductive status) and abiotic factors (depth, season, period) can be controlled (Tsangaris et al. 2010;Cappello et al. 2013). ...
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the responses of different biochemicals parameters associated with environmental pollution in the digestive gland of the gastropod mollusc Stramonita haemastoma. Physiochemical parameters and trace metal elements (Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb)) were measured in seawater. Spatiotemporal variations in reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and metallothionein (Mt) as well as the specific activities of glutathione Stransferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in digestive gland of this species during a one-year period in 2013e2014. Samples collection was conducted at three sites. The results obtained showed seasonal fluctuations in GST and CAT activities and in the rate of Mt content. In addition, intersite variations in GSH, MDA, Mt and CAT were recorded in individuals. Also, trace metal elements concentrations determined by season in the digestive gland revealed spatial and temporal variations for Cu and Zn but they are below the limit of detection for Cd and Pb. The highest values were generally recorded in spring for Cu and in winter for Zn. In this first regional study using in S. haemastoma as a model, the biomarkers measured were seen to be inducible parameters to evaluate the health state of the organism and the overall quality of the study sites.
... Les radicaux libres ainsi formés sont alors pris en charge par les enzymes du système antioxydant dont la catalase fait partie (Borković et al., 2005;Chainy et al., 2016). En effet, une augmentation de l'activité catalasique (induction de la catalase) peut traduire la forte activité de métabolisation des polluants et des toxiques dans l'organisme (Guerlet, 2007;Tsangaris et al., 2010). C'est dans cette optique, que la mesure de l'activité catalase est utilisée en tant que biomarqueur d'exposition aux contaminants générant un stress oxydant. ...
Thesis
This work aims to study the impact of the installation of seawater desalination plant in Agadir bay by drawing up the initial health state of two marine ecosystems Tifnit-Douira and Cap Ghir receiving desalination plants. Thus, a multidisciplinary study was conducted in the sentinel species Mytilus galloprovincialis, combining two complementary approaches: i) the chemical approach (physico-chemistry and chemical detection of pollutants); and (ii) the biological approach (ecotoxicological study of multi-biomarker response and reproductive biology). An inventory of macro-phyto/zoo-benthic species associated with mussel beds was also carried out to assess the biodiversity of these ecosystems. Our results related to the physicochemical approach in the two studied stations reveal values that oscillate between: 16.24 and 21.61 °C for seawater temperature; 7.39 and 8.73 for pH; 43.15 and 65.16 mS/cm for conductivity and between 27.40 and 43.75 PSU for salinity. TDS and dissolved oxygen values vary between 21.14 to 31.88 and 4.33 to 8.14 mg/l respectively. These parameters follow monthly fluctuations in the two studied ecosystems due to the marine environmental responses to changes in daily and weekly climatic conditions and also to seasonal hydrodynamic factors (currents, swell and upwellings). The study of metal pollution in both ecosystems has shown that their concentrations undergo monthly, seasonal and annual fluctuations depending on the dosed element. Cd, Pb and Cu recorded relatively high levels (2.28, 2.50 and 6.86 mg/kg respectively) with comparable annual profiles between the two stations. While Arsenic (As) oscillates between 7.97 and 12.60 mg/kg without reaching the toxicity threshold of 14 mg/kg. The measured values are significantly high, especially at Cap Ghir with a stability of the values throughout the study period. This attests to the presence of Arsenic in a natural way in the Atlantic marine ecosystem. The results obtained for the major metal elements studied showed maximums of 6.33, 145.51 and 285.74 mg/kg respectively for Mn, Fe and Zn. The revealed annual patterns appear similar between the two ecosystems with moderate seasonal fluctuations. Biomarker response measures, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in Mytilus galloprovincialis, have been shown to be present in measurable and inducible amounts. In addition, response levels fluctuate respectively between 1.94 to 8.85; 3.74 to 36.91; 3.52 to 17.94 and 1.13 to 5.91 nmol/mg protein. This is explained by the response of these molluscs, to variations in environmental conditions as well as to the presence of certain contaminants including heavy metals mainly Cadmium, and consequently to the physiological disturbances of the species during its development cycle. The study of reproductive cycle in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, testifies to a continuous sexual activity throughout the year with periods of collective egg-laying coinciding with spring and summer. The number of these collective gametic release varies between two to three periods depending on the environmental conditions, especially variations in seawater temperature. This results in a lack of collective sexual rest period in these mussel populations. The sex ratio study shows a balance between males and females of 1.14:1 in Tifnit-Douira, and it varies between 1.12:1 to 1.18:1 in Cap Ghir. The histological study allowed the detection of a single case of hermaphroditism, revealed for the first time in mussel populations in the Agadir bay. The values of the condition index are high (>60) in Mytilus galloprovincialis of the studied stations during all seasons even during laying periods. The favorable conditions of the environment allow a continuous allometric and weight growth throughout the year. Regarding biological diversity, both stations have a very high diversity of Macro-Phyto/Zoo-benthic species. Indeed, the animal kingdom is rather dominated by Crustaceans and Gastropods, while Chromophytes and Rhodophytes are the most dominant in the plant kingdom. All these results prove the well-balanced state of the environment in the two studied ecosystems Tifnit-Douira and Cap Ghir; and that permanent monitoring should be realized to protect their health state from the impact of desalination plants. Keywords: Mytilus galloprovincialis, Agadir Bay, Cap Ghir, Tifnit-Douira, Desalination, Biomarkers, Marine ecosystem, Heavy metals, Reproductive cycle, Biodiversity, Biomonitoring.
... In the low-diversity brackish-water ecosystem of the Baltic Sea the Baltic mussel (Mytilus trossulus) is an ecological key species (Koivisto and Westerbom, 2010;Väinölä and Strelkov, 2011), which has been used in biomonitoring and case studies concerning chemical contamination (e.g., Baršienė et al., 2006;Kopecka et al., 2006;Lehtonen et al., 2006a;Schiedek et al., 2006). By applying the caging approach, i.e., transplantation of bioindicator organisms, it is possible to expose them in sites of interest along a pollution gradient or hot spots; this approach has been successfully undertaken in various sea areas (e.g., Andral et al., 2004Andral et al., , 2011Regoli et al., 2004;Smolders et al., 2004;Damiens et al., 2007;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Serafim et al., 2011;Marigómez et al., 2013;Lekube et al., 2014;Moschino et al., 2016), and also in the Baltic Sea (Rank et al., 2007;Dabrowska et al., 2013;Turja et al., 2013Turja et al., , 2014Turja et al., , 2015Lehtonen et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Contamination status of coastal areas of Finland (northern Baltic Sea) markedly affected by anthropogenic activities (harbors, shipyards and maritime activity, industry, municipal and agricultural inputs, legacy contamination) was assessed for the first time using the weight of evidence (WOE) approach. The key element of the study was the caging (transplantation) of Baltic mussels (Mytilus trossulus) for the measurement of tissue accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and applying a suite of biomarkers of biological effects of contaminants. Additional variables included in the assessment were trace metals in seawater, macrozoobenthos, near-bottom oxygen levels and eutrophication indicators. The chemical parameters were supported by passive sampling of PAHs and organotins at the study sites. The integrated approach combining all the line of evidence (LOE) variables into the WOE showed separation of some sites as more affected by hazardous substances than others, with the most contaminated areas found around harbor and ship yard areas. The contaminant levels measured in the different matrices were not alarmingly high at none of the areas compared to many other areas within or outside the Baltic Sea under more heavy anthropogenic impact, rarely exceeding any given threshold values for Good Environmental Status of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. However, significant biological effects were recorded in mussels in the most contaminated sites, signifying that the combined effects caused by the contaminants and other environmental factors are disturbing the health of marine organisms in the area. The results of this successful combined application based on the mussel transplantation method and the WOE approach are highly encouraging for further trials in developing the monitoring of chemical contamination in the Baltic Sea.
... Similarly, while GABA has multiple functions in vertebrates (Watanabe, Maemura, Kanbara, Tamayama, & Hayasaki, 2002) and molluscs (Gunaratne & Katz, 2016;Nezlin & Voronezhskaya, 1997;Vaasjo et al., 2018), it also has a function in cephalopod chromatophores (Messenger, 1996). Another important neurotransmitter in vertebrates (Arvidsson, 1997;Karalliedde & Senanayake, 1989;McGehee & Role, 1995) and other molluscs (McCormack et al., 2010;Popova & Panchin, 1999;Tsangaris et al., 2010), acetylcholine, interacts with iridophores in squid that reflect different wavelengths of light (Hanlon, Cooper, Budelmann, & Pappas, 1990) and activates both white-cap papillae and chromatophores (Gonzalez-Bellido et al., 2018). Neuromodulators like nitric oxide are well described as having a variety of roles in vertebrates (Ferrando et al., 2012) and molluscs (Biggers et al., 2012;Gelperin, Flores, Raccuia-Behling, & Cooke, 2000;Röszer et al., 2004), and are no exception in cephalopods with their involvement in a variety of functions including regulation of metabolism, blood pressure, statocyst activity, and chromatophore activity (Di Cosmo, Di Cristo, Palumbo, d'Ischia, & Messenger, 2000;Mattiello et al., 2012). ...
Article
Cephalopods are radically different from any other invertebrate. Their molluscan heritage, innovative nervous system, and specialized behaviors create a unique blend of characteristics that are sometimes reminiscent of vertebrate features. For example, despite differences in the organization and development of their nervous systems, both vertebrates and cephalopods use many of the same neurotransmitters. One neurotransmitter, histamine (HA), has been well studied in both vertebrates and invertebrates, including molluscs. While HA was previously suggested to be present in the cephalopod central nervous system (CNS), Scaros et al. (2018) only recently described the localization of HA in the olfactory system of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Here, we describe the location of HA using an anti-HA antibody and a probe for histidine decarboxylase (HDC), a synthetic enzyme for HA. We extended previous descriptions of HA in the olfactory organ, nerve, and lobe, and describe HDC staining in the same regions. We found HDC-positive cell populations throughout the CNS, including the optic gland and the peduncle, optic, dorso-lateral, basal, subvertical, frontal, magnocellular, and buccal lobes. The distribution of HA in the olfactory system of S. officinalis is similar to the presence of HA in the chemosensory organs of gastropods but is different than the sensory systems in vertebrates or arthropods. However, HA's widespread abundance throughout the rest of the CNS of Sepia is a similarity shared with gastropods, vertebrates, and arthropods. Its widespread use with differing functions across Animalia provokes questions regarding the evolutionary history and adaptability of HA as a transmitter. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... However, trace metals are persistent, non-biodegradable and can be lethal for aquatic organisms if present beyond a threshold level (Chandurvelan, Marsden, Glover, & Gaw, 2015). High exposure of these metals can induce sub lethal effect at molecular and cellular levels of organisms (Tsangaris, Kormas, Strogyloudi, Hatzianestis, & Neofitou, 2010) and affect the survival capacity by reducing the susceptibility rate of organisms to disease (De Montaudouin et al., 2010). However, uptake rates have been shown to vary for organisms when subject to nonessential and trace metal exposure (Amiard, Amiard-Triquet, Berthet, & Metayer, 1987). ...
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Excessive concentrations of heavy metals impair ecosystems as some of those cause potential bioaccumulation in living beings. Fishes are the major inhabitants in water bodies which can be highly affected by these toxic pollutants. This study investigated the uptake trends of the metals copper and zinc from water in Anabas testudineous, a common fish species in Bangladesh. The accumulation of heavy metals was quantified in the species during time bound batch experiments with metal dosing. Metal uptake trend in fish muscles revealed that, uptake of Zn in fish occurred at an elevated level (~7-8 times) than that of Cu. With uptake of metals in fish muscles from water, Cu concentration in the water decreased concomitantly whereas the concentration of Zn did not change noticeably. Correlation analysis indicated significant changes in internal dynamics among water quality parameters between control and experimental tanks. Bio-concentration profile for the metals revealed very high levels for Zn (5-10 times) than those for Cu evidently due to higher amount of uptake of Zn. To summarize, dynamics of heavy metal metabolism in the fish species and their respective correlation with the water quality parameters may vary for different heavy metals and for different fish species as well.
... Metals are an important risk factor for aquatic ecosystems and the organisms in these ecosystems due to their toxic properties and non-degradability [6,7]. Since metals cause sublethal effects at the cellular and molecular levels in organisms, they can significantly increase the susceptibility of organisms to oxidative damage and diseases [8][9][10]. ...
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Atatürk Dam Lake is one of the important freshwater ecosystems in the world in terms of the size of the surface area and the biodiversity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of metal pollution in the Atatürk Dam Lake on some biochemical markers in the gills and digestive glands of mussels (Unio mancus). Mussel samples were collected in July-2018 from four stations. The metal residues (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni) in the tissues were determined by ICP-MS. The MT, reduced GSH, and MDA levels were analysed using the proposed spectrophotometric methods. According to the results, toxic metals such as Cd and Pb in both tissues were determined mostly in mussels collected from St1. The highest MT and MDA levels in the gills were determined in St3 and St2 respectively, while the highest MT and MDA levels in the digestive glands were determined in St1. Although there was no significant difference in the reduced GSH level in the gills among the stations, the highest reduced GSH level in the digestive glands was determined in St4. These results indicated that mussels are appropriate sentinel organisms for metal contamination with effects on oxidative stress and metal exposure biomarkers.
... However, the highest values of the condition index (CI) correspond to the clam populations inhabiting localities of marine influence, which could reflect the effect of salinity on the activity-related cost of osmoregulation in mussels of locations of continental influence. The CI is an ecophysiological measure of the health status of the animals that summarizes their physiological activity (growth, reproduction, secretion, etc.) under given environmental conditions and during the period of sexual dormancy; this quotient is considered a good indicator of mollusk growth (Tsangaris et al. 2010). Even though the CI has been related to gonadal development in C. elevata (Moore and Lopez 1969), this would not be the case in the present study as the sampling was carried out in April, when the organisms were out of their reproductive season, and thus the C.I. most likely would be reflecting a better physiological condition. ...
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The entire Laguna Madre of Tamaulipas is a natural protected area and a Priority Marine Region of Mexico. However, its important biodiversity and high levels of endemism are threatened by the discharge of different pollutants and activities related to the ocean oil and gas industry. Therefore, the assessment of these effects on this marine ecosystem is of paramount importance. At present, the joint approach of monitoring chemical contaminant levels, alongside the use of pollution biomarkers as surrogate measures of biological impact within the environment, provides the better evaluation of the environmental hazard. Within this context, a biomonitoring study using native Chione elevata mussels sampled from four locations along the Mexican Laguna Madre coasts evaluated whether a battery of select biomarkers was suitable for identifying and quantifying pollution-induced stress in mussels. The levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione s-transferase (GST), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were measured in soft tissues samples. Different metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe) as well as total heavy hydrocarbons were also determined in sediments. Higher concentrations of metals were observed in sampling localities with marine influence possibly related to the presence of marine grass. The concentration of total heavy hydrocarbons, as expected, was higher in sites with intensive fishing activity. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) and the condition index of mussels allowed discriminating between localities of continental and marine influence, revealing that the sampling stations with continental influence were subjected to a greater stress as a result of anthropogenic effects.
... Acetylcholine is a cholinergic neurotransmitter that can be split by the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into choline and acetate, the latter found in this study only in mussel G. In a number of ecotoxicological studies, inhibition of AChE has been used as a biomarker of neurotoxicity both in invertebrates (Tsangaris et al., 2010;Ciacci et al., 2012) and lower vertebrates (De Domenico et al., 2013), because it may compromise the normal function of nerve signal transmission. As a matter of fact, the inhibition of AChE is followed by accumulation of acetylcholine, though in some cases the opposite result of decreased acetylcholine was found, such as in G of mussels M. galloprovincialis transferred at a petrochemical site (Cappello et al., 2013b, or in G of Manila clams R. philippinarum after 24 h exposure to both low and high doses of Cu (Zhang et al., 2011). ...
Article
The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819) is a popular shellfish commonly included in human diet and is routinely used as bioindicator in environmental monitoring programmes worldwide. Recently, metabolomics has emerged as a powerful tool both in food research and ecotoxicology for monitoring mussels' freshness and assessing the effects of environmental changes. However, there is still a paucity of data on complete metabolic baseline of mussel tissues. To mitigate this knowledge gap, similarities and differences in metabolite profile of digestive gland (DG), gills (G), and posterior adductor muscle (PAM) of aquaculture-farmed M. galloprovincialis were herein investigated by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomic approach and discussed considering their physiological role. A total of 44 metabolites were identified in mussel tissues and grouped in amino acids, energy metabolites, osmolytes, neurotransmitters, nucleotides, alkaloids, and miscellaneous metabolites. A PCA showed that mussel tissues clustered separately from each other, suggesting a clear differentiation in their metabolic profiles. A Venn diagram revealed that mussel DG, G and PAM shared 27 (61.36%) common metabolites, though with different concentrations. Osmolytes were found to dominate the metabolome of all tissues. The DG exhibited higher level of glutathione and carbohydrates. The G showed greater level of osmolytes and the exclusive presence of neurotransmitters, namely acetylcholine and serotonin. In PAM higher levels of energetics-related metabolites were found. Overall, findings from this study are helpful for a better understanding of mussel tissue-specific physiological functions as well as for future NMR-based metabolomic investigations of marine mussel health and safety.
... On the other hand, there was a significant decreased in GST with petroleum station and cement workers. For SOD, the results revealed significant decrease in workers of x-ray diagnosis, but decreases non significant in other groups, which were similar to other reported results (Delfino et al., 2009 ;Hatch, 2010 ;Vujovic et al., 2010 ;Tsangaris et al., 2010 ). High-dose exposure of gasoline from petroleum stations has been associated with a number of adverse health effects, including bone marrow depression and myelogenous leukemia in both rodents and humans (Hayes et al., 2001). ...
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The study was conducted in Mosul city to show the effect of pollutants on some antioxidant enzymes which included: catlase (CAT.), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The study included (153) persons represented in four groups, three of which were subjected directly to different pollutants (petroleum station workers (n= 37), workers in x-ray diagnosis (n=39) and cement production workers (n=33)). The fourth group as a control included outside city center living (n=44). The results showed a significant decrease for CAT and GPx enzymes in all groups incomparison with control group. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in GST with petroleum station and cement workers. For SOD, the results revealed a significant increase in workers of x-ray diagnosis , but a decrease non significantly in other groups. In addition, the increase of period of pollution, produced a decrease in CAT for all groups except in petroleum station workers and workers in x-ray diagnosis. Moreover a decrease in GST, SOD and GPx for all different pollutant groups were observed. In conclusion, an increase exposure of different pollutants led to an increase in the oxidative stress in workers which decreased the antioxidant enzymes levels. This behaviors might give an indication for the oxidation that take place in exposed persons.
... A linear and significant increase in LPO and MDA contents were noticed 9 d after Pb exposure, reaching 1.9-and 1.6-fold that of control samples (Fig. 4B). Similar results were observed in other Mollusca (Geret et al., 2002;Tsangaris et al., 2010). The ROS content also increased by 2.8fold compared to controls (Fig. 4B), suggesting that lipid peroxidation might be due to the increased ROS formation under Pb exposure. ...
Article
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues. In the gills, Pb disturbed the protein metabolism, with the most significant enrichment of the "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum" pathway. The main mechanism comprised of a Pb-stimulated calcium (Ca2+) increase by the up-regulation of transporter-Ca-ATPase expression. The disturbed Ca2+homeostasis then further induced high expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, leading to ER stress in the oysters. Unfolded proteins induced ER associated degradation (ERAD), thereby preventing the accumulation of folding-incompetent glycoproteins. However, Pb mainly induced oxidative reduction reactions in the digestive gland with high accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and high expression of antioxidant enzymes. Further, Pb induced fatty acid β-oxidation and CYP450 catalyzed ω-oxidation due to increased metabolic expenditure for detoxification. The increased content of arachidonic acid indicated that Pb exposure might alter unsaturated fatty acid composition and disturb cellular membrane functions. Taken together, our results provided a new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying Pb toxicity in oysters.
... Metals can cause oxidative damage to cellular components by increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Livingstone, 2001;Lesser, 2006;Sheehan and McDonagh, 2008;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Jaishankar et al., 2014) through Haber-Weiss and Fenton-like reactions (Lloyd and Phillips, 1999;Eberhardt, 2001). Aquatic organisms have a ROS scavenging antioxidant defense system that protects against oxidative damage (Gorinstein et al., 2003;Valavanidis et al., 2006;Troschinski et al., 2014;Banni et al., 2015). ...
Article
This study investigated metal accumulation and oxidative effects in mantle, gill and digestive gland of the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra from the Argentinean North Patagonian coastline. Mussels were transplanted over an 18-month period from a site with low anthropogenic impact to a harbor site with higher seawater concentration of aluminum, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel and zinc. Total trace metal concentration in seawater did not change throughout the 18-month transplant in either site. A. atra bioaccumulated metals in digestive gland, gills and mantle at different levels. Digestive gland had the highest concentration of metals, especially towards the end of the transplant experiment in the harbor area. Mussels transplanted to the harbor site experienced an upregulation in their antioxidant system, which likely explains the lack of oxidative damage to lipids despite higher metal accumulation. These results demonstrate that A. atra selectively accumulates metals from the water column and their prooxidant effects depend on the tissue antioxidant defenses and the exposure time.
... Echols et al. (2009) had rightly observed that aquatic pollution resulting from heavy metals, hydrocarbons, radioactivity and synthetic organic chemicals occur as a result of human negligence or inappropriate use and disposal of waste. Tsangaris et al. (2010), reported a reduction in acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity in mussels caged in sites close to agricultural land as well as sites impacted by urban and industrial waste suggesting some level of neurotoxicity. Similarly, Cappello et al. (2013), reported gill tissue damage in mussels raised in cages placed in water impacted by anthropogenic factors hence a form of environmental distress was affecting the mussels. ...
Chapter
The contribution of aquaculture to global fish production has increased in the last twenty years with the production level reaching 73.8 million tonnes in 2014, about 44% of total fish production. Asian and African aquaculture production accounts for a greater proportion of growth in aquaculture output. Aquaculture contributes to livelihoods as well as revenue in several countries even though the economic conditions have been inclement and environmental problems persist. Aquaculture will have to continue to grow to meet the increasing demand for fish. But growth would not be sustainable if the planning and management are not improved significantly. There is a need for local, national and international planning and management to cater for environmental, social, economic, health and animal welfare concerns. These form the core of best management practice in aquaculture. Aquaculture can impact on the environment negatively considering genetics , water quality, ecology , health and resource use while the environment affects aquaculture on three fronts: the cultured species, culture system and overall feasibility . These put together will demand some management effort in order to ensure sustainability of aquaculture depending on the application of site selection and carrying capacity assessment, aquaculture hazard and risk analysis, ecosystem ‐based approach to aquaculture, aquaculture governance and planning, and aquaculture certification and standards. These are discussed in this chapter.
... Among the other harms, the risks of toxic metals in freshwater bodies cause adverse effect to the health of ecosystem (UNEP, 2011). The exposure to these metals can also induce harmful effects in organisms such as interruption in homeostasis and destruction in their DNA (Tsangaris et al., 2010). ...
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Study was carried out to investigate the genotoxic effect of different levels of heavy metals on gill cells of freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina), a sentinel species in aquatic environment. Freshwater mussels were exposed to none (0µg L⁻¹), low (120 µg L⁻¹), medium (240 µg L⁻¹) and high (360 µg L⁻¹) levels of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) alone and in combinations (Pb + Cr + Cu) for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Gill cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L⁻¹) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L⁻¹) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L⁻¹). Cu and Pb showed significantly higher value of % of tail DNA (56.74±1.81, 47.36±1.23) and comet tail length (41.30±0.758, 49.15±1.90), respectively, as compared to Cr and combined metal exposure (Pb + Cu + Cr). The lowest levels of DNA damage for all the parameters were observed in combined metal treatment. Genotoxic effect of metals on freshwater mussels is very important to assess the aquatic health and could be suggested as biomarker. It is concluded that the Cu and Pb induced more DNA damage as compared to Cr and combined metal exposure (Pb + Cu + Cr). Moreover, our results showed that the low dose treatment of metals have more genotoxic effect as compared to the medium and high doses.
... Òàêàÿ îöåíêà àäàïòàöèîííîãî ïîòåíöèàëà îðãàíèçìà aeèâîòíûõ è çàêëþ÷åíèå î íàëè÷èè èëè îòñóòñòâèè èõ àäàïòàöèè ê êîíêðåòíûì íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûì óñëîâèÿì îêðóaeàþùåé ñðåäû âîçìîaeíû â ñëó÷àå îäíîâðåìåííîãî ïðèìåíåíèÿ íåñêîëüêèõ áèîìàðêåðîâ äëÿ âûÿâëåíèÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ïî õàðàêòåðó ýôôåêòîâ íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûõ ôàêòîðîâ íà îðãàíèçì.  ÷àñòíîñòè, èñïîëüçîâàíèå øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåííîãî áèîìàðêåðà -öèòîõðîìà Ð-450 äàåò âîçìîaeíîñòü îöåíèòü ñòåïåíü íåãàòèâíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûõ óñëîâèé ñðåäû íà îðãàíèçì aeèâîòíûõ [1][2][3][4]. Ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, â ðÿäå èññëåäîâàíèé ïîêàçàíî èçìåíåíèå óðîâíÿ áåëêà òåïëîâîãî øîêà ñ ìîëåêóëÿðíîé ìàññîé 70 êÄà (ÁÒØ70) [5][6][7], à òàêaeå èçìåíåíèå àêòèâíîñòè ñåðîòîíèíåðãè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìû [8,9] ïîä âëèÿíèåì çàãðÿçíåíèÿ îêðóaeàþùåé ñðåäû òÿaeåëûìè ìåòàëëàìè è ïîëèàðîìàòè÷åñêèìè óãëåâîäîðîäàìè. Êðîìå òîãî, â ðàíåå ïðîâåäåííûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ, âûïîëíåííûõ ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì ñåðîòîíèí-ìîäóëèðóåìîãî àíòèêîíñîëèäàöèîííîãî áåëêà (ÑÌÀÁ) [10] è ïîëèêëîíàëüíûõ àíòèòåë ê íåìó, áûëî îáíàðóaeåíî, ÷òî ñå-ðîòîíèíåðãè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìà îðãàíèçìà îáëàäàåò àíòèìóòàãåííîé àêòèâíîñòüþ, çàùèùàþùåé îðãàíèçì îò ìóòàãåííûõ âîçäåéñòâèé [11] è, êðîìå òîãî, ñïîñîáñòâóåò àäàïòàöèè ïðåñíîâîäíûõ ðûá ê ïîâûøåííîé ñîëåíîñòè âîäû [12] è çàãðÿçíåíèþ âîäîåìîâ òîêñè÷åñêèìè îòõîäàìè [13]. ...
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Using an indirect solid-phase immunoassay (ELISA test), cytochrome P-450, serotoninmodulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) and 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) levels were analyzed in the brain and liver of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and golden carp Carassius auratus caught in reservoirs of the Arpachay river (clean zone) and Araks river (polluted zone) in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. Upregulation of cytochrome P-450 (p < 0.05) and SMAP (p < 0.01) in the common carp brain and downregulation of cytochrome P-450 (p < 0.05) and HSP70 (p < 0.05) in the golden carp liver were detected in fish caught in the Araks river reservoir as compared to levels of the same substances in fish from the Arpachay river reservoir. It is concluded that the brain plays a regulatory role in adaptation of animals to adverse environmental conditions and in protection of tissues from negative effects of pollutants.
... Despite being sensitive to organophosphate and carbamates, the specificity of ChE or AChE activity inhibition as biomarkers of exposure to this group of pesticides has become increasingly questionable, since cholinesterase activity may also be altered by exposure to other environmental toxicants, including metals or other types of biocides. For example, several studies have found that certain metals, including Cd and Cu, may cause changes in AChE and/or ChE activity in mollusks (Magni et al., 2006;Bonacci et al., 2006;Gold-Bouchot et al., 2007;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Choi et al., 2011;Cravo et al., 2012). Cd competes with essential metals in cellular metabolism, altering general patterns of protein expression (Meng et al., 2017) and cell function (Jarup and Akesson, 2009;Thévenod and Lee, 2013). ...
Article
In the present study, the sensitivity and concentration dependence of three functionally-defined components of cholinesterase activity (total: T-ChE; eserine-sensitive: Es-ChE; and eserine-resistant: Er-ChE) were quantified in the gill, digestive gland and adductor muscle of the tropical cup oyster Saccostrea sp., following acute (96 h) aqueous exposure to commercial formulations of the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos and the neonicotinoid (NN) imidacloprid (concentration range: 0.1–100 mg/L), as well as to dissolved cadmium and copper (concentration range: 1–1000 μg/L). Oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length), field-collected from a boating marina in Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) were exposed in the laboratory to each substance at five concentrations. T-ChE, Es-ChE, and Er-ChE activity were quantified in the three tissues in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration), before and after inhibition with the total cholinesterase inhibitor eserine (physostigmine, 100 µM). Oysters exposed to chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and Cd showed reduced T-ChE and Es-ChE activity in gills at highest exposure concentrations, with Es-ChE activity being inhibited proportionally more so than T-ChE, whereas Er-ChE activity showed no significant concentration-response. Digestive gland also showed diminished T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activity for highest chlorpyrifos and Cd concentrations relative to controls, but an increase of T-ChE and Er-ChE activity at the highest imidacloprid concentration (100 mg/L). For Cu, T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activities in gills and digestive gland were elevated relative to controls in oysters exposed to Cu concentrations>100 µg/L. In adductor muscle, T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE activity showed no apparent pattern for any of the four xenobiotics and concentration levels tested. Although this study confirms acute (96 h) concentration-dependent reduction of tissue T-ChE and Es-ChE activity in gills and digestive glands of Saccostrea sp. exposed to high concentrations of chlorpyrifos (100 mg/L), significant changes in T-ChE, Es-ChE and Er-ChE were also caused by exposure to Cd and Cu at concentrations>100 µg/L and by exposure to imidacloprid (100 mg/L), indicating that cholinesterase activity is not a specific biomarker of organophosphate exposure in this species, but, rather, a biomarker of diverse xenobiotic exposure.
... Òàêàÿ îöåíêà àäàïòàöèîííîãî ïîòåíöèàëà îðãàíèçìà aeèâîòíûõ è çàêëþ÷åíèå î íàëè÷èè èëè îòñóòñòâèè èõ àäàïòàöèè ê êîíêðåòíûì íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûì óñëîâèÿì îêðóaeàþùåé ñðåäû âîçìîaeíû â ñëó÷àå îäíîâðåìåííîãî ïðèìåíåíèÿ íåñêîëüêèõ áèîìàðêåðîâ äëÿ âûÿâëåíèÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ïî õàðàêòåðó ýôôåêòîâ íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûõ ôàêòîðîâ íà îðãàíèçì.  ÷àñòíîñòè, èñïîëüçîâàíèå øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåííîãî áèîìàðêåðà -öèòîõðîìà Ð-450 äàåò âîçìîaeíîñòü îöåíèòü ñòåïåíü íåãàòèâíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûõ óñëîâèé ñðåäû íà îðãàíèçì aeèâîòíûõ [1][2][3][4]. Ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, â ðÿäå èññëåäîâàíèé ïîêàçàíî èçìåíåíèå óðîâíÿ áåëêà òåïëîâîãî øîêà ñ ìîëåêóëÿðíîé ìàññîé 70 êÄà (ÁÒØ70) [5][6][7], à òàêaeå èçìåíåíèå àêòèâíîñòè ñåðîòîíèíåðãè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìû [8,9] ïîä âëèÿíèåì çàãðÿçíåíèÿ îêðóaeàþùåé ñðåäû òÿaeåëûìè ìåòàëëàìè è ïîëèàðîìàòè÷åñêèìè óãëåâîäîðîäàìè. Êðîìå òîãî, â ðàíåå ïðîâåäåííûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ, âûïîëíåííûõ ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì ñåðîòîíèí-ìîäóëèðóåìîãî àíòèêîíñîëèäàöèîííîãî áåëêà (ÑÌÀÁ) [10] è ïîëèêëîíàëüíûõ àíòèòåë ê íåìó, áûëî îáíàðóaeåíî, ÷òî ñå-ðîòîíèíåðãè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìà îðãàíèçìà îáëàäàåò àíòèìóòàãåííîé àêòèâíîñòüþ, çàùèùàþùåé îðãàíèçì îò ìóòàãåííûõ âîçäåéñòâèé [11] è, êðîìå òîãî, ñïîñîáñòâóåò àäàïòàöèè ïðåñíîâîäíûõ ðûá ê ïîâûøåííîé ñîëåíîñòè âîäû [12] è çàãðÿçíåíèþ âîäîåìîâ òîêñè÷åñêèìè îòõîäàìè [13]. ...
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With application of indirect ELISA-test levels of cytochrome P-450, sero-to¬nin-mo¬dulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) and heat shock protein with molecular mass of 70 kDa (HSP70) in the brain and liver of specimens of sazan (Cyprinus carpio Linne) and goldfish (Caras¬sius auratus), caught in the reservoirs of the rivers of Arpachay (clean zone) and Araz (polluted zone) located in Nakh¬chivan Autonomic Republic of Azerbaijan, were analyzed. Upregulation of cyto¬chrome P-450 (p<0.05) and SMAP (p<0.01) in the brain of the sazan speci¬mens and downregulation of cytochrome P-450 (p<0.05) and HSP70 (p< 0.05) in the liver of the goldfish specimens was noticed. Conclusion is made concerning regu¬latory role for the brain in adaptation of animals to adverse environmental conditions and in protection of tissues from negative effects of pollutants. Key words: cytochrome P-450, sero¬to¬nin-mo¬dulating anticonsolidation protein, heat shock protein with molecular mass of 70 kDa, industrial pollution, brain, liver.
... Whereas a drastic inhibition of AChE activity was found in site (R), site (Y) showed a comparable activity to sites (A) and (T). In fact, AChE activities in bivalves can be affected by urban and industrial pollutants as demonstrated by previous surveys (Tsangaris et al., 2010). Particularly, a decrease in AChE activity may be an indication of metal pollution. ...
... IBR, conceived as a tool for integrating the biological effects of pollutants in marine ecosystems, was first applied in blue mussels to identify diverse stress levels along the coasts of the Baltic Sea (Beliaeff and Burgeot, 2002). Later on, IBR was used to discriminate polluted coastal areas in a variety of aquatic ecosystems and using diverse sentinels species: (a) flounder, eel pout, herring and mussels in the Baltic Sea using (Broeg and Lehtonen, 2006;Lehtonen et al., 2014); (b) common goby in the Ria de Aveiro (Serafim et al., 2012); (c) mussels in the North Sea, Bay of Biscay, Baltic sea and Mediterranean Sea (Pampanin et al., 2005;Pytharopoulou et al., 2008;Raftopoulou and Dimitriadis, 2010;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Brooks et al., 2012;Marigómez et al., 2013aMarigómez et al., , 2013bIzagirre et al., 2014;Benito et al., 2019); and (d) oysters in the Shandong Peninsula and Caribbean mangroves (Xie et al., 2016;Aguirre-Rubí et al., 2018. Moreover, IBR/n has been applied to laboratory studies in a variety of species including fish, bivalves, marine gastropods and earthworms (Asensio et al., 2013;Brooks et al., 2011;Zheng et al., 2013;Kim and Kim, 2016;Wang and Cui, 2016;Devin et al., 2017;Luna-Acosta et al., 2017); and in field studies in soils using earthworms as sentinels (Berthelot et al., 2009). ...
Article
Sets of multiple biomarkers can be applied to achieve a comprehensive assessment of the biological impact of the chemical pollutants in contaminated soils. This approach requires the integration of diverse biomarker data into indices that provide early signs of ecosystem health disturbance. Within this context, this study aims at integrating multiple biomarkers in green garden snail, Cantareus apertus, on the basis of data obtained in preceding laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, snails had been treated with dietary Pb, Cd and their mixture. Prompt (1 wk) and long-lasting (8 wk) response profiles were characterized and the biomarkers integrated as Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR/n) index. The response profiles were dose and treatment time dependent in quantitative terms and also qualitatively different along the treatment time. Yet, IBR/n was sensitive to provide early (1 wk) signs of health disturbance caused by the metals, and remained sensitive in the long term (8 wk). In the field study, soil metal pollution was investigated along a distance gradient from a main roadside. Both metal levels in the soil-plant-snail system and a set of biomarkers in snails were recorded. The IBR/n revealed that disturbance in soil ecosystem health was restricted to short distances (at 20 m but not at 150 m). Therefore, IBR/ n was a suitable approach also in the complexity of the field. Moreover, together with the IBR/n index, recently developed indices of bioavailability (SET) and risk (ERITME) were applied in the field study. In accordance with the IBR/n index, the SET index also revealed an excess transfer of metals to snails limited to a short distance from the roadside and identified Cd as the priority target for soil pollution management. Likewise, the ERITME classification rank confirmed that environmental risk was the highest at 20 m away from the roadside and then decreased at 150 m and beyond. Therefore, the application of the IBR/n index together with existing indices of the bioavailability (excess transfer) and risk of contaminants represents a challenging approach for the integrated environmental risk assessment of contaminated soils.
... Because coastal environments are submitted to chronic or acute multi-xenobiotic contaminations, not a single biomarker can unequivocally measure environmental pollutions (Galloway et al., 2004). Thus, the environmental biomonitoring methodology frequently consists in the use of a set of complementary biomarkers (Broeg and Lehtonen, 2006;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Devin et al., 2014). ...
... Next to OPs and carbamates, ChE activity is known to be affected by a variety of metals, PAHs, hydrocarbons, detergents, phytotoxins, and other classes of pesticides such as neonicotinoids (Magni et al. 2006;Senger et al. 2006;Choi et al. 2011;Moncaleano-Niño et al. 2018, but see Frasco et al. 2005 for a possible methodological artifacts). An inhibitory effect of Cd on cholinesterases has been confirmed for various bivalve species, including M. galloprovincialis (Magni et al. 2006;Tsangaris et al. 2010), Adamussium colbecki (Bonacci et al. 2006;Cravo et al. 2012), Ruditapes decussatus (Cravo et al. 2012), Meretrix casta (D' Costa et al. 2017), and Saccostrea sp. (Moncaleano-Niño et al. 2018), supporting the possibility that oysters with elevated tissue Cd and relatively low ChE activities, as was the case for oysters from Barú and Ctg-2, might have been inhibited by Cd. ...
Article
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Metallothionein-like protein concentrations (MT) and three functionally defined fractions of cholinesterase activity (ChE) were quantified in gill and digestive gland homogenates of tropical cup oysters from 5 nearshore locations in the Colombian Caribbean and correlated with sediment and tissue metal (9 metals) and pesticide (22 organophosphates, OPs, and 20 organochlorines—OCPs), as well as water physical–chemical parameters (salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen). Tissue and sediment pesticide concentrations were below detection limits in all samples, whereas sediment and tissue metal concentrations exceeded environmental thresholds at several locations. Tissue MT and ChE biomarkers varied by a factor of 5–6 between locations. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity was negligible for all 5 sites, despite spatial–temporal variation in ChE activity, consistent with below-detection OP concentrations. Tissue MT and ChE biomarkers correlated with tissue and metal sediment concentrations, yet, statistically significant covariance between biomarkers and water chemistry parameters was also observed, indicating that both, metal concentrations and physical–chemical variables, are likely to be responsible for generating the observed spatial–temporal variations in biomarker patterns.
... Die Ergebnisse haben prognostische und diagnostische Aussagekraft und können als Indikatoren für Umweltbelastungen herangezogen werden. Die Parameter bilden entweder unspezifische Wirkungen ab oder reagieren sehr spezifisch auf eine Einwirkung von Stoffen oder Stoffgruppen (Tsangaris et al., 2010). Da bisher noch wenig zur Wirkung beziehungsweise zu Wirkmechanismen von Mikroplastik auf Muscheln bekannt ist, wurde in vorliegender Studie eine Vielzahl von Parametern untersucht, um eine umfassende Beurteilung des allgemeinen Gesundheitszustandes der Muscheln zu ermöglichen und gegebenenfalls eine Beeinträchtigung durch PVC-Mikropartikel aufzuzeigen. ...
... This is an easy-to-measure and frequently-used biomarker for evaluating nutritional status and physiological stress (Filgueira et al., 2013;Norkko and Thrush, 2006;Wilson, 1994). It can also represent overall health of an ecosystem (Damiens et al., 2007), because it reflects food availability, diet quality, and the effects of stressors (Bodin et al., 2004;Marsden and Baharuddin, 2015;Tsangaris et al., 2010). In some bivalves a correlation has been found between the CI value and trace metal contaminant concentration (Peake et al., 2006). ...
Article
This study assessed the potential of the New Zealand mud snail Amphibola crenata to act as a bioindicator of contaminated estuarine sediment. Seventeen sites with varying contaminant burdens were identified within six New Zealand regions. Attributes (population density, individual length distribution and individual dry weight condition index) were measured for field-collected A. crenata, and related to measurements of sediment trace metals and nutrients. Population density of the mud snail was relatively high in sites with elevated nutrients and organic matter. The length distribution of A. crenata showed significant regional and site-specific variations. Minimum, mean, and median shell length of A. crenata were positively correlated with sediment cadmium and zinc concentration. Overall, the sites were able to be distinguished by A. crenata population attributes and the sediment metal and nutrient content. These results suggest that A. crenata population information has potential value for assessing estuarine sediment metal and nutrient contamination.
... Ecological indicators are "characteristics of the environment that, when measured, quantify the magnitude of stress, habitat characteristics, degree of exposure to the stressor, or degree of ecological response to the exposure" (Hunsaker and Carpenter, 1990;Teixeira et al., 2016). Marine macrobenthos is a reliable tool for detecting anthropogenic pollution and assess environmental health (Pearson and Rosenberg, 1978;Crowe et al., 2004;Johnston and Roberts, 2009;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Huguenin et al., 2018;Moussa et al., 2019). The use of indicator species is a common approach to monitoring environmental changes and receiving early warning signals (Siddig et al., 2016). ...
Article
Coastal marine ecosystems in the Arctic are extremely vulnerable to human activities associated with oil and gas exploration, transportation and processing and with industrial and urban development. The effects of complex pollutant mixtures interact with environmental factors. Here we assessed the effects of two anthropogenic and one natural factor on the reproduction, development and adult shell shape of the intertidal ovoviviparous gastropod Littorina saxatilis at 12 sites in the Barents and the Norwegian Sea. The stressors studied were toxicity equivalency (TEQ) of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the proximity of the site to urban/industrial locations as a proxy for urban pollution, and salinity. Total fecundity of the snails decreased at sites with low salinity but was not affected by PAH pollution. Allometric relationships of L. saxatilis shell shape varied between sites depending on the proximity of urban/industrial locations; the intrapopulation morphological disparity increased near urban sites. The frequency of abnormal embryos per brood and the incidence of females with abnormal embryos in the brood pouch increased at urban sites, especially under conditions of low salinity, but was unrelated to PAH pollution. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the registered embryotoxic effect of the proximity to urban/industrial locations was unlikely to result in a significant reduction of the population recruitment of L. saxatilis due to the high fecundity of these snails. Elucidation of the mechanisms of low sensitivity of L. saxatilis to PAHs in concentrations registered in our study and identification of the cause of embryotoxic effects associated with the proximity of urban/industrial locations are promising directions of further studies. Our results highlight the importance of considering multiple stressors when assessing anthropogenic impacts on coastal systems. We show that L. saxatilis can be an informative indicator of coastal urban pollution across its wide distribution range.
... Reference [37] observed lower levels of cholinesterase activity at Perna perna gills in Brazilian sites, the activity of the cholinesterases were manifested in the digestive glands of the species. While [38] noted clear inhibitions of AChE in Mytilus galloprovincialis transplanted in areas impacted by different effluents from anthropogenic activities along the Greek coasts. ...
Article
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The aim of the present work was to investigate bioaccumulation and biological responses of Donax trunculus collected along the sampling area of Aghroud beach (Moroccan south). Samples were collected over a 27-month period in 2009-2011. The study focused on mercury (Hg) as a trace element known to be potential reactive oxygen species inducers. Enzymatic activities related to cellular defense systems including antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured in soft tissue. Concentrations of mercury were significantly higher in Donax trunculus in three months during sampling period. The values are respectively of 0.51 ± 0.02 μg/g wet weight at May 2009; 0.73 ± 0.008 μg /g wwt at September 2009 and 1.43 ± 0.009 μg/g wwt at August 2010. These values exceeded the environmental quality standards (0.5 mg kg−1 wwt) established by the European Union commission. Concerning this study, no significant correlation was observed between mercury and biochemical parameters measured in D. trunculus.
... Reference [37] observed lower levels of cholinesterase activity at Perna perna gills in Brazilian sites, the activity of the cholinesterases were manifested in the digestive glands of the species. While [38] noted clear inhibitions of AChE in Mytilus galloprovincialis transplanted in areas impacted by different effluents from anthropogenic activities along the Greek coasts. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present work was to investigate bioaccumulation and biological responses of Donax trunculus collected along the sampling area of Aghroud beach (Moroccan south). Samples were collected over a 27-month period in 2009-2011. The study focused on mercury (Hg) as a trace element known to be potential reactive oxygen species inducers. Enzymatic activities related to cellular defense systems including antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured in soft tissue. Concentrations of mercury were significantly higher in Donax trunculus in three months during sampling period. The values are respectively of 0.51 ± 0.02 μg/g wet weight at May 2009; 0.73 ± 0.008 μg /g wwt at September 2009 and 1.43 ± 0.009 μg/g wwt at August 2010. These values exceeded the environmental quality standards (0.5 mg kg−1 wwt) established by the European Union commission. Concerning this study, no significant correlation was observed between mercury and biochemical parameters measured in D. trunculus.
... Paramguru et al., 2005;Pontikes and Angelopoulos, 2013), systematic dumping of millions of tonnes at sea, let alone within a semienclosed Gulf such as the GOC, is not only hazardous but also wasteful. High levels of metals were found in seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) from the Bay of Antikyra (Malea et al., 1994), an area where levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were among the highest sampled throughout Greece (Botsou and Hatzianestis, 2012;Tsangaris et al., 2010Tsangaris et al., , 2011. In the present study, distribution modelling showed no strong correlation between red mud deposits and dolphin occurrence. ...
... Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is the process in which free radicals react in cell membranes and form lipid hydroperoxides resulting in cell damage, when oxidative stress reaches a certain level that may cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipid membranes. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme in the transmission of nerve impulses involved in the catalytic breakdown of acetylcholine and other choline esters; thus, they are frequently applied to assess neurotoxic effects triggered by exposure to contaminants [18,19]. ...
Article
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This study investigated the ecotoxicological effects of differently sized (4–6 µm and 20–25 µm) low-density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics (MPs), with and without adsorbed benzo-a-pyrene (BaP), in clam Scrobicularia plana. Biomarkers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase—SOD; catalase—CAT), biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases—GST), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation—LPO) and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase—AChE) were analysed in gills and digestive glands at different time intervals for a total of 14 days of exposure. In order to have a better impact perspective of these contaminants, an integrated biomarker response index (IBR) and Health Index were applied. Biomarker alterations are apparently more related to smaller sized (4–6 µm) MPs in gills and to virgin LDPE MPs in the digestive gland according to IBR results, while the digestive gland was more affected by these MPs according to the health index.
... Also, both salinity and temperature could modify AChE activity in bivalves (Pfeifer et al. 2005). Many studies have demonstrated that metals inhibit unselectively AChE activity, while organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit selectively AChE activity, leading to serious physiological deficiency in marine wildlife (Rickwood and Galloway 2004;Tsangaris et al. 2010). In addition, variation in AChE activity in mussels may be related to differences in sex, age, length, weight, or physiological conditions (Fairbrother et al. 1989). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study is the first to evaluate the ecotoxic state of the marine environment in Anza-Taghazout coasts (Morocco) after installation of two wastewater treatment plants using a natural population of marine bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis. These coasts are exposed to many discharges generating, thus, different sources of pollutants. These pollutants can modulate the physiological responses of marine bivalves to environmental stress. In this context, a multibiomarker approach consisting of a battery of biomarker evaluation was used to assess the response of these species to stress. In the whole soft tissues of M. galloprovincialis, four biomarkers were evaluated as follows: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (Cat), and malondialdehyde activity (MDA). In parallel, physico-chemical parameters were measured in the marine water of Anza-Taghazout within three selected sites: S1 considered as “hotspot” located at Anza city; S2 located near of Aourir city; and the third site, S3 “reference” located in Imouran beach. Our results showed that activities of both glutathione S-transferase and catalase were higher in M. galloprovincialis collected from site S1, but high values of malondialdehyde and acetylcholinesterase activities were observed successively at S3 and S2. Application of integrated biomarker response (IBR) index was suitable for classifying the stress response in the M. galloprovincialis but did not allow to evaluate the level of the xenobiotic exposure in the studied sites. The statistical results did not show any significant differences between the three studied sites, and therefore, S1 has recently become clean due to the installation of two wastewater treatment plants.
... Contaminants associated with anthropic activities such as pesticides, heavy metals, and hydrocarbon derivatives produce negative effects on the metabolism of various marine organisms, generating oxidative damage and stress, as well as a reduction on reproduction and survival (Regoli et al. 2002;Suderman and Marcus 2002;Hack et al. 2008;Tsangaris et al. 2010). In this sense, copepods respond fast to changes in the environment driven by compound effects of global scale hydro-climate variability and anthropogenic pressure at local/ regional scale. ...
Chapter
The Bahía Blanca Estuary encompasses an extensive flat area covered by islands, saltmarshes, mudflats, and tidal channels. This spatial heterogeneity confers to the ecosystem the capacity to hold large biodiversity; in particular, the estuary is an important habitat for numerous permanent and migratory species of commercial and ecological importance, including fishes, birds, invertebrates, and mammals. Due to its interconnection with land, large gradients of salinity, nutrients, organic carbon, and turbidity characterize the inner part of the estuary where plankton has developed eco-physiological adaptations to sustain natural populations. In addition, urban and industrial settlements within this area pose additional threats to plankton communities. In recent years, however, specific plankton groups have revealed profound changes, denoting that the present rate of environmental change is exceeding the adaptive capacity of organisms. This chapter provides a comprehensive long-term examination of the main planktonic groups (phytoplankton, microzooplankton, mesozooplankton, and jellyfish), their species diversity, and temporal and spatial dynamics. This section further examines the ecological adaptations of plankton to survive under wide environmental gradients and identifies main biological shifts, including the introduction of invasive species, species replacement, low reproductive capacity, phenological changes, and the biomass decline of specific plankton groups in the last 40 years. Experimental and long-term field observations allowed the attribution of such changes to multiple interactive effects of environmental drivers, highlighting rising water turbidity and temperature, eutrophication, pollution, and expansion of exotic species as the main sustain drivers. The assessment of environmental variability and trend feedback provides the baseline to identify key plankton vulnerabilities and to delineate effective mitigation plans within the Bahía Blanca Estuary.
... The systematic characterisation of the articles identified in our scoping review revealed a high diversity of exposure assessment approaches, comprising the sampling and analysis of 51 different chemical hazards in both environmental and human samples. While the systematic use of multiple biomarkers when assessing the effect of (environmental) pollutants has been suggested previously [108], the observed strong focus on Hg is striking. This finding may, at least partially, be explained by the adoption of the Minamata Convention on Mercury in 2013, which triggered considerable interest in Hg pollution and exposure in ASGM [102,109]. ...
Article
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Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an important livelihood activity in many low- and middle-income countries. It is widely acknowledged that there are a myriad of health risk and opportunities associated with ASM. However, little is known with regard to which aspects of health have been studied in ASM settings. We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed publications, using readily available electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) from inception to 14 July 2020. Relevant information was synthesized with an emphasis on human and environmental exposures and health effects in a context of ASM. Our search yielded 2764 records. After systematic screening, 176 health studies from 38 countries were retained for final analysis. Most of the studies (n = 155) focused on health in ASM extracting gold. While many of the studies included the collection of environmental and human samples (n = 154), only few (n = 30) investigated infectious diseases. Little attention was given to vulnerable groups, such as women of reproductive age and children. Our scoping review provides a detailed characterisation of health studies in ASM contexts. Future research in ASM settings should address health more comprehensively, including the potential spread of infectious diseases, and effects on mental health and well-being.
... It also reflects overall health of an ecosystem (Damiens et al., 2007). The CI varies with the food availability, quality of the diet and natural or anthropogenic stresses (Bodin et al., 2004;Tsangaris et al., 2010;Marsden and Baharuddin, 2014). ...
Thesis
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The present study was the first to examine the toxicological, biochemical, physiological, and population level responses of an estuarine pulmonate snail, Amphibola crenata, to trace metal and nutrient pollution using both laboratory and field-based studies. The main objectives of this study were to (a) determine toxic mechanisms of A. crenata to both acute and chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure, and to investigate bioaccumulation of Cd in different tissues as a function of exposure concentrations and time; (b) assess multiple biomarker responses of field-collected snails in relation to trace metal and nutrient pollution levels present; and (c) evaluate the potential utility of A. crenata as a bioindicator for estuarine contamination in NZ. The laboratory-based acute toxicity test showed that Amphibola crenata is highly tolerant to waterborne Cd, at least over acute (48 h) exposures. This high tolerance to Cd could be associated with large internal energy reservoirs (e.g. glycogen reserves), efficient antioxidant defences (e.g. catalase activity) and mechanisms that possibly restrict Cd exposure (e.g. mucus production and/or opercular closure). Exposure to chronic (21 days) Cd has shown more detrimental effects on mud snail health. Long-term exposure to Cd significantly induced oxidative stress in A. crenata, represented by tissue catalase activity and lipid peroxidation. Under both acute and chronic exposures, Cd induced a cascade of toxicological, physiological, and biochemical effects in A. crenata. During both exposures, individuals of A. crenata showed a significant accumulation of Cd in their tissues relation to availability of Cd in the seawater, demonstrating that this mud snail is a net accumulator of metal contaminants from their surroundings. The acute toxicity responses, however, indicated that short-term exposure to high levels of Cd may result in saturation of Cd in certain tissues including viscera and remaining tissues (i.e., kidney, mantle, remaining digestive tissues and heart) with increasing Cd concentration. During both acute and chronic exposure to Cd, oxygen consumption of mud snails was significantly reduced, with a concomitant increase in excretion rate. In addition, significant declines in O:N ratio and tissue glycogen levels were observed in Cd-exposed mud snails. The reduced O:N ratio suggests that protein is being mobilized for use as an energy source in this species, while depletion of tissue glycogen could be attributed to the utilisation of glycogen reserves by the organism through glycogenesis, to meet energy demand during stress. Catalase activity in certain tissues (e.g. viscera), haemolymph glucose, and iii protein levels of A. crenata also increased under both acute and chronic Cd exposure. Overall, the laboratory-based studies clearly demonstrated that the toxicological, biochemical, and physiological responses of A. crenata significantly in relation to the Cd exposure concentration, tissue type (e.g. toxicological and biochemical responses) and the duration of exposure. This confirms a potential use of this species as an indicator of trace metal pollution in the environment. Concentrations of different trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in field-collected snails were measured to assess the use of A. crenata as a bioindicator for trace metal pollution in New Zealand estuaries. Out of6 trace metals, there were significant correlations between metal concentrations in the sediment and snail soft tissues for Cu (R 2 = 0.43, p < 0.01), As (R 2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and Pb (R 2 = 0.3, p < 0.05). The sites were distinguished according to the metal content of the snail tissues, metal contamination in sediment, and biomarker responses. Of the biomarkers examined in field-collected snails, those with the greatest promise for detecting environmental impact, related to metal contamination, included the condition index, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, haemolymph glucose, and protein. In addition, this thesis for the first-time evaluated A. crenata population attributes (e.g. length and density) as indicators of estuarine pollution using both contrasting areas within and between estuaries. The results indicated significant site-specific and regional differences in snail population structure, and significant positive correlations between sediment total recoverable phosphorous (TRP), to snail density (R = 0.9) and shell length characteristics including minimum, mean, and median length to certain sediment trace metals (e.g. Zn and Cd). The mudsnail, A. crenata, can be an effective biomonitoring tool for New Zealand estuaries. As mud snail populations can be used to identify areas that are potentially affected by trace metals and other contaminants. Biomarkers can be used to follow the effects of habitat disturbances, or the recovery of particular areas following habitat remediation, and will provide useful information for environmental managers. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
... The low levels CI were found during summer period due to reproductive phase (after spawning period) and similar CI values were calculated during two different transplantation experiments. Similar results were reported by other authors for transplantation mussels (Peharda et al., 2007;Cravo et al., 2009;Tsangaris et al., 2010). ...
Article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the coastal region of Nemrut Bay, Eastern Aegean. Sediment and caged mussels were evaluated for sixteen PAHs. High contamination was observed in the sediment sampling sites next to the petrochemical refinery. Low molecular weight PAH levels were dominant in the sediments and the ratio LMW/HMW were higher than one, indicating petrogenic origin pollution. The m-ERM-q values of the sediments were classified as high-priority sites near the refinery while other sites were categorized as medium-low sites. 4-ring PAHs were found to be dominant in the mussels. PAHs were originated from petroleum and mixed sources (petrogenic, pyrogenic) both two transplantation experiments. The assessment of human health risk based on the Carcinogenic `Toxic Equivalents suggested that the mussels have high capability to give rise to carcinogenic risks. PAH levels in the mussels were above the Recommended Total Carcinogenic PAH limits set by the European Union.
Preprint
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Metallothionein-like protein concentrations (MT) and three functionally defined fractions of cholinesterase activity (ChE: total, eserine-sensitive, eserine-resistant) were quantified in gill and digestive gland homogenates of tropical cup oysters from 5 nearshore locations in the Colombian Caribbean and correlated with sediment and tissue metal (9 metals) and pesticide (22 organophosphates, OPs, and 20 organochlorines- OCPs), as well as water physical-chemical parameters (salinity, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Tissue and sediment pesticide concentrations were below detection limits in all samples, whereas sediment and tissue metal concentrations exceeded environmental thresholds at several locations. Tissue MT and ChE biomarkers varied by a factor of 5-6 between locations and correlated with tissue and sediment concentrations. However, statistically significant covariance between biomarkers and water chemistry parameters was also observed, indicating that both, metal concentrations and physical-chemical variables, are likely to be responsible for generating the observed spatial-temporal variations in biomarker patterns.
Article
Clam farming comprises an important part of China's economy. However, increasing pollution in the ocean caused by toxic metals has led to the bioaccumulation of toxic metals in marine animals, especially the bivalves such as clams, and the consequence of heavy metal-associated toxicity in these animals. Such toxicity can enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the tissues of the animals. In aquatic species, oxidative stress mechanisms have been studied by measuring the antioxidant and oxidative damage index in the tissues. The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of different toxic metals and the extent of oxidative stress responses in the clam Sinonovacula constricta at different growth periods (from May to October) in an aquaculture farm in Wengyang, an important economic shellfish culture zone in Zhejiang Province, China. Water and sediment samples taken from the farm were subjected to Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr assays. Overall, the levels of these metals in the water and sediment could be considered as light pollution, though the levels of Hg in the water (0.266) and Cd in the sediment (0.813) could be considered as reaching moderate pollution. In addition, the levels of these metals, H2O2, MDA and GSH content, antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD, GPx) activities as well as the level of metallothioneins (MT) mRNA in the tissues of S. constricta were also analyzed. The levels of Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr increased with increasing culturing time, and a higher level of these metals was accumulated in the visceral mass than in the foot. The levels of MDA and GSH, as well as the level of SOD activity in the viscera and foot of S. constricta increased with increasing metal accumulation. However, CAT and GPX activities, H2O2 level and the expression of MT initially increased and then decreased. This suggested that S. constricta might have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant defense in coordination with the metal sequestering response. The results also implied that toxic metal pollution should be taken into account when selecting the site to be used as an aquaculture farm. In addition, the visceral mass should be considered to be a good tissue for measuring the level of metal pollutants.
Article
Biomarkers (CAT, SOD, GPx, and AChE) were investigated in hepatopancreas and soft tissues of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and clams (Tapes decussatus) in response to metal and pesticide pollutions in Homa Lagoon. Mussel and clam samples were seasonally collected in January, May, August and November 2015. According to the results, higher metal concentrations determined in the soft tissues of both species in January. Hepatopancreas was found to accumulate higher levels of metals than soft tissue. Metal deposition potential in clams were higher than mussels. Pesticide levels were below detection limits in clams. In mussels, only 4,4′-DDE was detected in soft tissues and hepatopancreas in November. Highest AChE, CAT, SOD and GPx activities in mussels were determined in January. On the other hand, maximum AChE and CAT activities in clams were found in November. Seasonal variations of metals and biomarker levels might be related to species-specific physiology and environmental conditions.
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The aim of the present study is the first to evaluate the ecotoxic state of the marine environment in Anza-Taghazout coasts (Morocco) after installation of two Wastewater Treatment Plants using a natural population of marine bivalves M. galloprovincialis . These coasts are exposed to many discharges generating, thus, different sources of pollutants. These pollutants can modulate the physiological responses of marine bivalves to environmental stress. In this context, a multi-biomarker approach consisting of a battery of biomarkers evaluation was used to assess the response of these species to stress. In the whole soft tissues of M. galloprovincialis, four biomarkers were evaluated: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), Catalase (Cat) and malondialdehyde activity (MDA). In parallel, physico-chemical parameters were measured in the marine water of Anza-Taghazout within three selected sites: S 1 considered as ‘hotspot’ located at Anza city; S 2 located near of Aourir city and the third site, S 3 ‘reference’ located in Imouran beach. Our results showed that activities of both Gluthation-S-Transferase and Catalase were higher in M. galloprovincialis collected from site S 1 , but high values of Malondialdehyde and Acetylcholinesterase activities were observed successively at S 3 and S 2 . Application of Integrated Biomarker Response index (IBR) was suitable for classifying the stress response in the M. galloprovincialis but did not allow to evaluate the level of the xenobiotic exposure in the studied sites. The statistical results did not show any significant differences between the three studied sites and therefore S 1 has recently become clean due to the installation of two wastewater treatment plants.
Article
After World War II, thousands of tons of highly toxic chemical warfare agents (CWA) were deposited in the Baltic Sea, the main dumping site locating in the Bornholm Basin. In the present study, Baltic mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were transplanted in the area in cages at two hotspot sites and a reference site at the depths of 35 and 65 m for 2.5 months to study bioaccumulation and biological effects of CWA possibly leaking from the corroding warfare materials. No traces of degradation products of the measured phenylarsenic CWA could be detected in the tissues of mussels. Nevertheless, several biochemical and histochemical biomarkers, geno- and cytotoxicity indicators, and bioenergetic parameters showed significant responses. The Integrated Biomarker Index calculated from the single biomarkers also showed a higher total response at the two hotspot areas compared to the reference site. Although no direct evidence could be obtained confirming the responses being caused specifically by exposure to CWA, the field exposure experiment showed unambiguously that organisms in this sea area are confronting environmental stress affecting negatively their health and this is likely related to chemical contamination, which is possibly connected to the sea-dumped CWA.
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The biochemical features of metallothioneins and their functional role in the cell are described. On this basis, the potential role of MTs as a biomarker of exposure in aquatic organisms, such as fishes and molluscs, is evaluated in the light of recent knowledge about MT gene regulation and inducibility. It appears that in fish MTs should be considered as a kind of stress protein which is particularly responsive to heavy metals. In molluscs, in particular in mussels, MTs seem more specifically involved in responses to heavy metals and they should therefore be considered a biomarker of exposure to heavy metal pollution. Common techniques for MT evaluation are listed and a simple spectrophotometric method recently developed is also reported. Finally, the correct approach to the use of MTs as a biomarker of exposure in biomonitoring programmes for an assessment of the physiological status of aquatic organisms is discussed.
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The impact of river-transported metal pollution on the metal distribution in coastal sediments was studied in Southern Evoikos Gulf, Greece, a marine area characterized by relatively strong tidal currents. The river Asopos, which flows into this part of the Gulf, acts as a recipient of industrial e‚uents generated in the river drainage basin, which hosts approximately 300 industries including chemical and metal processing plants. Several trace metals (namely Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni) were found enriched in the marine sediments near the river mouth. However, only Cd and to a lesser degree Cu were related to the river-transported industrial pollution. The high Cr and Ni concentrations were of natural origin, probably from the weathering of ultramaphic rocks, which are abundant in the drainage basin of the river Asopos.