Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 236(1):59-66 · January 2010with75 Reads
DOI: 10.2460/javma.236.1.59 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6-omega-3 fatty acid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. 127 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis in 1 or more joints from 18 privately owned veterinary clinics. Dogs were randomly assigned to be fed for 6 months with a typical commercial food or a test food containing a 31-fold increase in total omega-3 fatty acid content and a 34-fold decrease in omega-6-omega-3 ratio, compared with the control food. Dog owners completed a questionnaire about their dog's arthritic condition, and investigators performed a physical examination and collected samples for a CBC and serum biochemical analyses (including measurement of fatty acids concentration) at the onset of the study and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks afterward. Dogs fed the test food had a significantly higher serum concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids and a significantly lower serum concentration of arachidonic acid at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. According to owners, dogs fed the test food had a significantly improved ability to rise from a resting position and play at 6 weeks and improved ability to walk at 12 and 24 weeks, compared with control dogs. Ingestion of the test food raised blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and appeared to improve the arthritic condition in pet dogs with osteoarthritis.
    • "Correspondingly, according to a previous study of the supplementation of fish oil omega-3 fatty acid in feed for OA dogs for 90 days, significant weight-bearing improvements were found in those that consumed such feed (Roush et al., 2010a). In addition, its following study demonstrated that dogs with OA fed on omega-3 supplement possessed significantly better ability to rise from resting position, walk, and play than those fed on control feed (without omega-3 addition) (Roush et al., 2010b). Such painfulness diminished because omega-3 PUFA tenanted high potential to lessen OA pathology in the natural scenario as confirmed by physiological markers such as type II collagen, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and so on. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 concentrate on pain management in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) at the coxofemoral joint. Totally, 31 dogs with confirmed coxofemoral OA were orthopedically evaluated for pain scores at walk and trot (1-6), joint manipulation (1-3), and examining range of motion (1-4). Besides, blood collection was performed on the first and the last visits. Omega-3 concentrate was orally given to all dogs at one capsule per 10 kgBW since the first visit on a daily basis for four consecutive weeks. On a weekly basis, pain scores were assessed for all dogs. Results exhibited that the pain scores at walk and trot, joint manipulation, and examining range of motion between the beginning and the end of the study significantly declined from 3.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "Canine osteoarthritis is a progressive condition that leads to joint inflammation, cartilage damage, pain, and disability. Treatment is focused on the management and control of disease progression and clinical signs (McLaughlin, 2000; Roush et al., 2010). For many years, the mainstay of medical therapy has been nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which act by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes needed to produce prostanoids (Bergh & Budsberg, 2005; Curry et al., 2005; Innes et al., 2010), particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that plays a pivotal role in the development of joint inflammation and pain (Lin et al., 2006 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new anti-inflammatory drug for pain (grapiprant) was recently shown to have minimal side effects following chronic (9-month) daily oral dose of 6 or 50 mg/kg suspension. The current study compares the pharmacokinetics of the formulation used in the chronic safety study to those of the tablet formulation that will be marketed upon FDA approval. Sixteen Beagle dogs were randomized to receive single doses of either 6 or 50 mg/kg grapiprant as both suspension and table formulations within a cross-over design with a 15-day washout. Clinical observations were vomiting in one high-dose suspension dog and loose stools in two dogs, one in each 6 mg/kg formulation group. For both formulations, grapiprant reached a maximum concentration within two hours. The tablet formulation had better bioavailability, with AUClast values 34% higher at 6 mg/kg and 64% higher at 50 mg/kg compared to the suspension. Results on Day 0 were similar to those reported on Day 15, suggesting little to no accumulation. Using conversion factors of 1.34 and 1.64, these findings suggest that the 6 and 50 mg/kg suspension doses are equivalent to 4.5 and 30 mg/kg tableted doses, respectively. Combining these findings with the 9-month safety study demonstrates that safety was evaluated at doses approximately 15-fold above the demonstrated therapeutic dose of 2 mg/kg and 10-fold over the 'safety dose', defined as the maximum dose a dog of any body weight could receive when dosed at 2 mg/kg with whole or half-tablets.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016
    • "Strengths of the study include the methods of assessing discomfort, lameness, and joint health which were based on previously validated techniques [2,[6][7][8]16,[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. Having outcomes assessed by a single (blinded) investigator eliminated bias [2,8,18]. The use of a refined visual analogue and scoring scale, a validated composite score, and force plate analysis may be helpful in future studies to examine differences in investigators' and owners' assessments . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs is a prevalent and serious condition. The most common treatment for the clinical signs of OA in dogs is the administration of nonsteroidal antiiflammatory pharmaceuticals. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have been shown to reduce the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. Objective: The primary goals of this study were 1) to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the clinical signs of OA in dogs, 2) to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the arachadonic acid (ARA)/ (EPA+DHA) algorithm and 3) to correlate alterations in the ARA/(EPA+DHA) with changes in the clinical signs of canine OA. Methods: Seventy-eight client owned dogs were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Dogs were randomized to placebo oil or triglyceride n-3 oil (providing an average dose of 69mg EPA+DHA/kg/day). Orthopedic examinations and blood analyses were performed at baseline, day 42, and day 84. A single investigator confirmed a diagnosis of OA of the coxofemoral joints and/or stifle joints in all dogs. Results: Seventy-four dogs completed the trial. All clinical outcomes for measuring discomfort, lameness, and joint severity at day 84 and all blood metrics at day 42 and day 84 significantly (p<0.05) improved compared with placebo. No major side effects were observed. Conclusion and clinical relevance: This study demonstrated that the daily supplementation of a dogs diet with EPA and DHA shifts the blood fatty acid concentrations correlating to relief of clinical signs associated with OA in dogs.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016
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