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Global Evaluation of genetic variability in Jatropha curcas

Authors:
  • Facultad de Agronomia Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala
  • Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas
Global Evaluation of genetic variability in
Jatropha curcas
L.R. Montes1,2,3, C. Azurdia3, R.E.E. Jongschaap1, E.N. van Loo1, E. Barillas4, R. Visser2 & L. Mejia3
Introduction
Jatropha curcas
is a multi-purpose tree, originally growing in
countries of the equatorial Americas, from where it has been
spread to other tropical countries (Heller, 1996). Jatropha
seeds are rich in oil and when extracted, pure plant oil can be
used directly to produce light, warmth and electricity, or it can
be used as a feedstock for bio-diesel. For this reason Jatropha
is an attractive crop and it is rapidly introduced in commercial
plantations and various rural development programs, as it may
contribute with income generation and efficiency increase of
rural and agricultural processes.
However,
J. curcas
is a wild species and no varieties with
desirable traits for specific growing conditions are available,
which makes growing Jatropha a risky business (Jongschaap
et al.
, 2007). The low phenotypic and genetic variability found
in materials from Africa and Asia (e.g. Basha and Sajutha,
2007) display the need for new sources of genetic variation in
J. curcas
that can be used in breeding programs. Such genetic
variation was identified in Latin America, especially in
Guatemala.
Wageningen UR Plant Breeding
P.O. Box 16
6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Tel: 0317 48 60 81 – Fax: 0317 48 34 57
E-mail: luisrodolfo.montesosorio@wur.nl
Conclusions
Low genetic variation found in African and Indian
accessions of
J. curcas
.
High genetic variation found in Guatemalan and other Latin
American accessions of
J. curcas
.
New molecular marker technology (patent free): conserved
sequence based on NBS-gene family.
Intercrossing ‘elite’
J. curcas
(e.g. ‘Cabo verde’) with low
toxic and toxic Guatemalan accessions as starting point
for breeding.
Genetic analysis of segregating population now possible.
Literature
Basha, S. D. and M. Sujatha, 2007. Inter and intra population variability of
Jatropha curcas
(L.) characterized by RAPD and ISSR markers and devel-
opment of population-specific SCAR markers. Euphytica 156:375–386.
Heller, J., 1996. Physic nut.
Jatropha curcas
L. Promoting the conserva-
tion and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 1. Institute of Plant
Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/ International Plant
Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.
Jongschaap, R. E. E., W. J. Corré, P. S. Bindraban, and W. A. Branden-
burg, 2007. Claims and Facts on
Jatropha curcas
L. Plant Research
International B.V., Wageningen, the Netherlands, Report 158, 42 pp +
annexes.
Van der Linden, C. G., D. C. A. E. Wouters, V. Mihalka, E.Z. Kochieva, M.
J. M. Smulders and B. Vosman, 2004. Efficient targeting of plant disease
resistance loci using NBS profiling. Theor. Appl. Genet . 109: 384-393.
Central America
Africa and India
Methodology
Around 225 accessions of
J. curcas
have been collected from
over 30 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Samples
were analyzed (AFLP) at San Carlos University in Guatemala and
by NBS-profiling in the Netherlands at Wageningen University
and Research centre - Plant Research International (Van der
Linden
et al.
, 2004).
Wild accession of J. curcas from Guatemala (left) and accession ‘Cabo verde’ from
Nicaragua (right).
Results
High phenotypic variation was found in all material from Latin
America, such as in plant architecture (Figure 1).
Figure 2. Dendrogram with Guatemalan accessions (left) and NBS-profiling with Central
American, African and Indian accessions (right).
Genetic variability was low in African and Indian
J. curcas
accessions, but high genetic variability was found in Latin
American accessions (Figure 2). This genetic variation will be
used in breeding programs.
1) Plant Research International B.V
2) Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
3) San Carlos University, Faculty of Agriculture (FAUSAC), Guatemala.
4) Biocombustibles de Guatemala S.A., Guatemala.
... Since they were not grown for the seeds, farmers have not deliberately selected for high seed yield (unlike other arable crops). Global effort to evaluate the genetic variability in J. curcas was initiated by Montes et al. (2008) using 225 accessions collected from 30 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The first task for breeders in Nigeria, therefore, is to identify plants with high fruit/seed yield. ...
... Our observation revealed no differences in the performance of the seeds collected from different locations in Nigeria (Ojiako et al., 2011). Montes et al. (2008) had reported low genetic variation in African and Indian J. curcas accessions. ...
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... Mishra (2008) devised paired comparison method for selecting plus phenotypes of J. curcas with emphasis on seed and oil yield which can overcome the problem of inbreeding depression by controlling pollen source and environment effect and reduced population size. Evaluation trials in J. curcas to study degree of variability was undertaken by Montes et al. (2008) involving 225 lines collected from Asia, Africa and Latin America revealed that low genetic variability in African and Indian accessions and high genetic variability in Gautemala and Latin American lines. This confirmed the studies on evaluation of J. curcas for phenotypic and genotypic by Basha and Sujatha (2007). ...
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Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose plant with numerous attributes. It can potentially become one of the world’s key energy crops. Its seed weighs 0.53–0.86 g and the seed kernel contains 22–27% protein and 57–63% lipid indicating good nutritional value. The seeds can produce crude vegetable oil that can be transformed into high quality biodiesel. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 75% of the weight of the seed remains as a press cake containing mainly carbohydrates, protein and residual oil and is a potential source of livestock feed. The highly toxic nature of whole as well as dehulled seed meal due to the presence of high levels of shells, toxic phorbol esters and other antinutrients prevents its use in animal diet. The genetic variation among accessions from different regions of the world and rich diversity among Mexican genotypes in terms of phorbol ester content and distinct molecular profiles indicates the potential for improvement of germplasm of Jatropha through breeding programs. The extracts of Jatropha display potent cytotoxic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The possibilities on the exploitation potential of this plant through various applications have been explored.
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