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Global Evaluation of genetic variability in Jatropha curcas

  • Facultad de Agronomia Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala
  • Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas
Global Evaluation of genetic variability in
Jatropha curcas
L.R. Montes1,2,3, C. Azurdia3, R.E.E. Jongschaap1, E.N. van Loo1, E. Barillas4, R. Visser2 & L. Mejia3
Jatropha curcas
is a multi-purpose tree, originally growing in
countries of the equatorial Americas, from where it has been
spread to other tropical countries (Heller, 1996). Jatropha
seeds are rich in oil and when extracted, pure plant oil can be
used directly to produce light, warmth and electricity, or it can
be used as a feedstock for bio-diesel. For this reason Jatropha
is an attractive crop and it is rapidly introduced in commercial
plantations and various rural development programs, as it may
contribute with income generation and efficiency increase of
rural and agricultural processes.
J. curcas
is a wild species and no varieties with
desirable traits for specific growing conditions are available,
which makes growing Jatropha a risky business (Jongschaap
et al.
, 2007). The low phenotypic and genetic variability found
in materials from Africa and Asia (e.g. Basha and Sajutha,
2007) display the need for new sources of genetic variation in
J. curcas
that can be used in breeding programs. Such genetic
variation was identified in Latin America, especially in
Wageningen UR Plant Breeding
P.O. Box 16
6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Tel: 0317 48 60 81 – Fax: 0317 48 34 57
Low genetic variation found in African and Indian
accessions of
J. curcas
High genetic variation found in Guatemalan and other Latin
American accessions of
J. curcas
New molecular marker technology (patent free): conserved
sequence based on NBS-gene family.
Intercrossing ‘elite’
J. curcas
(e.g. ‘Cabo verde’) with low
toxic and toxic Guatemalan accessions as starting point
for breeding.
Genetic analysis of segregating population now possible.
Basha, S. D. and M. Sujatha, 2007. Inter and intra population variability of
Jatropha curcas
(L.) characterized by RAPD and ISSR markers and devel-
opment of population-specific SCAR markers. Euphytica 156:375–386.
Heller, J., 1996. Physic nut.
Jatropha curcas
L. Promoting the conserva-
tion and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 1. Institute of Plant
Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/ International Plant
Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.
Jongschaap, R. E. E., W. J. Corré, P. S. Bindraban, and W. A. Branden-
burg, 2007. Claims and Facts on
Jatropha curcas
L. Plant Research
International B.V., Wageningen, the Netherlands, Report 158, 42 pp +
Van der Linden, C. G., D. C. A. E. Wouters, V. Mihalka, E.Z. Kochieva, M.
J. M. Smulders and B. Vosman, 2004. Efficient targeting of plant disease
resistance loci using NBS profiling. Theor. Appl. Genet . 109: 384-393.
Central America
Africa and India
Around 225 accessions of
J. curcas
have been collected from
over 30 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Samples
were analyzed (AFLP) at San Carlos University in Guatemala and
by NBS-profiling in the Netherlands at Wageningen University
and Research centre - Plant Research International (Van der
et al.
, 2004).
Wild accession of J. curcas from Guatemala (left) and accession ‘Cabo verde’ from
Nicaragua (right).
High phenotypic variation was found in all material from Latin
America, such as in plant architecture (Figure 1).
Figure 2. Dendrogram with Guatemalan accessions (left) and NBS-profiling with Central
American, African and Indian accessions (right).
Genetic variability was low in African and Indian
J. curcas
accessions, but high genetic variability was found in Latin
American accessions (Figure 2). This genetic variation will be
used in breeding programs.
1) Plant Research International B.V
2) Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
3) San Carlos University, Faculty of Agriculture (FAUSAC), Guatemala.
4) Biocombustibles de Guatemala S.A., Guatemala.
... Since they were not grown for the seeds, farmers have not deliberately selected for high seed yield (unlike other arable crops). Global effort to evaluate the genetic variability in J. curcas was initiated by Montes et al. (2008) using 225 accessions collected from 30 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The first task for breeders in Nigeria, therefore, is to identify plants with high fruit/seed yield. ...
... Our observation revealed no differences in the performance of the seeds collected from different locations in Nigeria (Ojiako et al., 2011). Montes et al. (2008) had reported low genetic variation in African and Indian J. curcas accessions. ...
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Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel. In Nigeria, the plant has traditionally been grown as live fences and hedge plants around homesteads and gardens to screen off unwanted sites or protect crops against roaming animals. Traditionally, growers are not so much concerned with selection, production, dissemination, and access to improved seeds. With increasing interest in renewable energy around the world, it has become necessary for breeders to, in the first instance, identify and characterize the available germplasm in Nigeria. Subsequently, there is need for appropriate production practices relative to the different ecological zones in order to greatly expand cultivation. During studies at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri in Nigeria, no major pests and diseases were observed. While 90 % of the seeds emerged at not more than 6 days after planting, 40 % of the seeds raised without shade emerged at 4 days after planting whereas only 20 % of those raised under shade emerged at the same time. Seed treatment resulted in less than 30% emergence and treated seeds that emerged were stunted and had scotched leaves. Multiplication by cuttings was generally faster than by seed although lodging was a problem. Cuttings measuring 60 and 90 cm performed better compared with 30 and 120 cm cuttings. Cuttings made from the semi-hard wood part of the stem produced shoots and rooted faster than those obtained from the apical and the basal points.
... Seventy two jatropha accessions collected from 13 different countries including Mexico provides genetic diversity only among Mexican genotypes and other accessions . Low genetic variation was also found in African and Indian accessions of Jatropha on the other hand Guatemalan and other Latin American accessions showed high genetic variation (Jongschaap et al., 2007;Montes et al., 2008). Surprisingly low levels of genetic diversity was found based on genetic markers revealed in Jatropha landraces from China and Indian landraces showed modest levels of genetic diversity (Basha and Sujatha, 2007;. ...
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The present study was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity among the progenies of 28 candidate plus plants (CPPs) selected from 487 populations of 20 accessions collected from seven different origins (South Africa, Cape Verde, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia). The progenies of CPPs were considered as genotypes and after diversity analysis they were grouped into five clusters. Eight genotypes were included in cluster V and were maximum number followed by seven genotypes in cluster III. The minimum number of genotypes was contained in cluster IV. The first eight principal component axes were accounted for 97.78% of the total variation with eigen values of above unity. The distance between cluster I with cluster II was maximum and the minimum distance revealed between cluster III and cluster V. The intra cluster distance within cluster I was maximum and close to cluster II. The lowest mean value for days to first flowering and first fruit maturity was found in Cluster I. The high mean values for most of the desirable characters exhibited by cluster I and II. It has been suggested that the genotypes from most diverge clusters could be utilized directly or used as parents in future breeding program.
... Such information is of vital importance for the breeding programmes for developing improved cultivars. Recently, extensive work has been initiated by a number of workers for classical and molecular characterization for understanding the extent of genetic diversity and relationships among different strains of J. curcas (Ginwal et al. 2004;Pant et al. 2006;Kaushik et al. 2006Kaushik et al. ,2007Basha and Sujatha 2007;Carvalho et al. 2008;Ranade et al. 2008;Ganesh et al. 2008;Pamidiamarri et al. 2008;Gupta et al. 2008;Gohil and Pandya 2008;Sun et al. 2008;Sunil et al. 2008;Sujatha et al. 2008;Montes et al. 2008;Dunping et al. 2009;Kumar et al. 2009;Leela et al. 2009;Ikbal et al. 2010). These studies will help assessment of wild and cultivated strains and selection of superior/elite genotypes for further improvement. ...
Jatropha curcas has been reported as an efficient substitute fuel for diesel engines. The seed oil is non-edible and the crop is capable of growing on waste lands and its cultivation thus, does not exert any pressure on agricultural land. The seed oil productivity is very low at present since most of the material studied is that available wild locally. Hence, creation of genetic variability is prerequisite for development of new variety(s). Several plant breeding methods are available to enhance the genetic variability within a crop including conventional breeding, interspecific hybridization, mutation breeding and genetic engineering. The induced mutagenesis technique for crop improvement is now well standardized. Attempts have been made to highlight different basic aspects and technical advancements of mutational technology which may serve as guideline for large scale mutagenesis work. This chapter highlights the salient features of J. curcas comprising all economic characters and also reports on the sensitivity of J. curcas to gamma rays and colchicine for genetic improvement of this crop. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. All rights are reserved.
... Mishra (2008) devised paired comparison method for selecting plus phenotypes of J. curcas with emphasis on seed and oil yield which can overcome the problem of inbreeding depression by controlling pollen source and environment effect and reduced population size. Evaluation trials in J. curcas to study degree of variability was undertaken by Montes et al. (2008) involving 225 lines collected from Asia, Africa and Latin America revealed that low genetic variability in African and Indian accessions and high genetic variability in Gautemala and Latin American lines. This confirmed the studies on evaluation of J. curcas for phenotypic and genotypic by Basha and Sujatha (2007). ...
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Major bottleneck in cultivation and commercialization of Jatropha curcas as biodiesel crop has been lack of high yielding varieties or hybrids for oil content and yield. Therefore, assessment of diversity at genotypic and molecular lever assumes greater significance as it is pre-requisite for any sound breeding programme. The diversity within the species of J. curcas as well as among species is also helpful in evolving high yielding varieties. Therefore, in this review an attempt has been made to gather research finding on species identity, taxonomy, geographical distribution and ecological requirement. Diversity has been assessed with available literature for oil content, yield and other agro-morphological traits for effective utilization in genetic improvement programme by means of conventional breeding, interspecific hybridization and biotechnological approaches. The word Jatropha derived from Greek word jatros meaning physician or doctor and trophe means nutrition or food indicating wide spectrum utilization in ethnomedicine in ancient times. Jatropha curcas is hardy plant with high adaptability due to its phenotypic plasticity and potential to grow under arid and semi-arid conditions. Recently, it received attention of the researchers and policy makers as alternative source of biodiesel. Biodiesel is expanding very fast because of demand, policy support and technological availability. Government of India launched ―National Mission on Biodiesel with a view to find a cheap and renewable liquid fuel based on vegetable oils (Shukla 2005). The shortage of raw material to produce biodiesel is major constraint (Wani et al. 2006). The oil-bearing species ranges from 100 to 300, and of them 63 belongs to 30 families and hold good promise for biodiesel production. Many developing countries using edible oil for production of biodiesel. However, India has dearth of edible oil (6.31 million tonnes) for consumption and cannot afford to use edible oils for production of biodiesel. In this back drop, Jatropha curcas has been identified as potential biodiesel crop with additional criteria to meet greening wastelands without compromising the food, fodder security and improve livehoods in arid regions of the country (Reddy et al. 2008). J. curcas also meets the American and European biodiesel standards (Tiwari et al. 2007). Botanical description J. curcas, a large shrub grows up to 3-4m high. Leaves are 3-5 lobed, cordiform, stipules deciduous.
... In the past few years, many researches focused on collection of germplasm and selective breeding. Montes et al. undertook evaluation trials in J. curcas involving 225 lines from Asia, Africa and Latin America to study degree of variability [38]. Their study revealed low genetic variability in African and Indian accessions and high genetic variability in Guatemala and Latin American lines. ...
Jatropha curcas is believed to be one of the potential biofuel crops, as it does not compete with planting lands for the edible oil plants. However, J. curcas has not been domesticated for producing biodiesel. Conventional breeding to increase the productivity of J. curcas has started since the early 2000s. Although some genetic improvement of oil yield has been made through conventional breeding, oil yield is currently still too low (≤2000 kg/ha/year) to make the biodiesel production from J. curcas sustainable. Due to the enormous potential of marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) to speed up genetic gain through early selection, genomic resources such as DNA markers, a linkage map, transcriptome sequences and a draft genome, have been developed and some are being used in genetic improvement for sustainable production of biodiesel. In this review, we present the recent advances in conventional breeding, as well as development and applications of genomic resources to improve the quantity and quality of biodiesel extracted from seeds of J. curcas. We also highlighted the requirement of a well-assembled reference genome of J. curcas and the potentials of next generation sequencing (NGS) for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and GS to speed up the increase of the yield and quality of biodiesel from J. curcas.
Jatropha curcas (Jatropha), an oilseed plant with a multitude of uses, is considered as a potential biofuel crop. The limited information of this species, low and inconsistent yields, lack of high genetic variability, and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses hamper selective breeding. J. curcas is a shrub/tree and genetic improvement and domestication are time-consuming when compared to annual food crops. Most of the programs are dependent upon the germplasm available in undomesticated condition, and the wish list for genetic improvement of the crop is exhaustive. The crop has a history of 500 years and is a new entrant for domestication. Research progress witnessed during the past few years indicate the possibility for widening the genetic base of J. curcas through conventional breeding methods complemented with mutation breeding, interspecific hybridization, and biotechnological tools. Genetic diversity analysis using molecular markers unarguably confirmed the Central American and Mexican regions as the treasure troves of J. curcas genetic diversity which need to be exploited in varietal development and hybrid breeding programs. Mutation breeding coupled with functional genomics and gene editing techniques will accelerate the development of novel germplasm with desirable traits. In interspecific hybridization, crosses involving J. integerrima were extensively studied necessitating the need for exploitation of other economically important species for trait incorporation. With a modest estimate of 6–8 years of concerted efforts, improved germplasm with desired attributes could be made available, and such improved germplasm can be used to replace the already established plantations with unproductive yields in a phased manner.
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Jatropha curcas L. is considered a promising candidate plant for biofuel production. However, data on its seed yield seem to vary greatly in different parts of the globe. Some studies indicate that low genetic diversity might be an important factor causing seed yield variation. In addition to genetic factors, abiotic factors such as rainfall or agronomic practices (e.g. planting density) may influence seed yield. Our study focused on reviewing current data on genetic diversity and other factors behind seed yield variability of J. curcas in different parts of its range, including areas both in its native and non-native range. Genetic and seed yield data were collected from published and unpublished documents available online. Our review shows that genetic diversity is significantly higher within its native range than in areas where the species has been introduced. Genetic diversity had a significant positive correlation with the mean annual seed yield. Seed yield varied greatly across the globe. Global mean (± SE) seed yield was 2218 ± 148 kg ha− 1 y− 1. Age of the plants had positive linear effects, whereas annual rainfall and plant density had quadratic effects on seed yield at global scale. The reported low genetic diversity in the non-native range of J. curcas may be explained by a low number of common ancestors and the resulting founder effect. The large variability in seed yields across the globe is probably caused by differences in plant age, varying agronomic practices, site specific climates, soil fertility and genetic factors. Although in a large proportion of Jatropha plantations worldwide the threshold level for economically feasible seed yield (2500 kg ha− 1 y− 1 or more) may not be achieved, other benefits provided by Jatropha (e.g. carbon sequestration, erosion control) may support its cultivation even on arid or semi-arid sites.
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a member of Euphorbeaceae family with multiple attributes and enormous prospective. Jatropha is now being credited as the most promising biofuel crop. It has been documented as the most suitable oil-producing plant due to its variety of potential attribute among lots of oil seed-bearing species. The oil can be extracted from the seeds of Jatropha plant and used as feedstock for bio-diesel production and other use of jatropha oil is for making soap, adhesive, foam, composite, surface coating, coloring agents, etc. Jatropha roots, shoot latex, leaf, and kernel oil have curative characteristics. Fruit shell and seed cake can be used as organic fertilizer as well as animal feed upon detoxification because they are rich in N, P, and K. Jatropha can save cost of fuel import, create employment opportunity, reduce environmental pollution, and improve the financial condition of rural peoples. Research is required to know the actual potentiality of jatropha products. Much more research on variety development and cultivation technology is needed to be done to increase seed yield of Jatropha which will enhance its economic sustainability. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights reserved.
The genetic potential of Jatropha curcas has not been realized due to several technological and economic reasons. The major limitation with genetic improvement of the crop is its exploitation in semi-wild (undomesticated) condition. Information on the extent of genetic diversity available in the crop for utilization in the breeding programmes is virtually lacking. During the past decade significant advances in crop improvement programmes have been made in several crops through the use of molecular markers. However in case of J. curcas, most of the studies with molecular markers are confined to assessment of genetic diversity in local populations and few studies were extended to global germplasm. In this chapter, the currently available information on the need for genetic improvement of Jatropha, use of different marker systems for exploitation of existing genetic diversity, and the role of genomics and marker assisted breeding in improvement of this economically important crop of the Euphorbiaceae is reviewed.
Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose plant with numerous attributes. It can potentially become one of the world’s key energy crops. Its seed weighs 0.53–0.86 g and the seed kernel contains 22–27% protein and 57–63% lipid indicating good nutritional value. The seeds can produce crude vegetable oil that can be transformed into high quality biodiesel. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 75% of the weight of the seed remains as a press cake containing mainly carbohydrates, protein and residual oil and is a potential source of livestock feed. The highly toxic nature of whole as well as dehulled seed meal due to the presence of high levels of shells, toxic phorbol esters and other antinutrients prevents its use in animal diet. The genetic variation among accessions from different regions of the world and rich diversity among Mexican genotypes in terms of phorbol ester content and distinct molecular profiles indicates the potential for improvement of germplasm of Jatropha through breeding programs. The extracts of Jatropha display potent cytotoxic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The possibilities on the exploitation potential of this plant through various applications have been explored.
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