ArticlePDF Available


Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial state. The results showed that all of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p<0.05-0.01; p<0.005-0.001). Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load (p<0.01). Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 diabetic rats.
Diabetes mellitus is ranked seventh among the leading
causes of death and third when it’s fatal complications
are taken into account (Trivedi et al., 2004). Traditional
preparations of plant sources are widely used almost
everywhere in the world to treat this disease.
Therefore, plant materials are considered to be the
alternative sources for finding out new leads for hypo-
/antihyperglycemic agents.
Following a standardized procedure (Ali et al., 1993)
antidiabetic plant materials are being screened in
BIRDEM for their hypoglycemic properties.
Experiment on normal, type 1 and type 2 diabetic
model rats at different prandial states have been
combined in this experimental approach, which
screens materials for hypo-/antihyperglycemic
activity as well as provide an approximate idea on the
possible target tissue(s) involved. Mangifera indica has
been reported to have hypoglycemic effect in both
laboratory animals (Ojewole et al., 2005;
Muruganandan et al., 2005; Perpetuo et al., 2003;
Aderibigbe et al., 2001; Sharma et al., 1997) and human
diabetic subjects (Mahabir et al., 1997). The purpose of
this work was to evaluate the hypo- and
antihyperglycemic effects of M. indica in normal and
both type of diabetic model rats and to find out their
possible mode(s) of antidiabetic action.
Material and Methods
Plant materials and preparation of test samples: M. indica
Linn. leaves and stem-barks were collected from the
garden of the Pritilata Hall, Jahangirnagar University,
Savar, Dhaka in the month of February 2007. Newly
grown, fresh, green leaves (931 g) and skin of the stem-
barks (893 g) of M. indica were pasted by homogeni-
zing with mortar and were suspended with water for
preparing the water extract and finally 800 mL of stem
A Journal of the Bangladesh Pharmacological Society (BDPS) Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114
Journal homepage:;
Abstracted/indexed in Academic Search Complete, Agroforestry Abstracts, Asia Journals Online, Bangladesh Journals Online, Biological Abstracts,
BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, Current Abstracts, Directory of Open Access Journals, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Google Scholar, HINARI (WHO),
International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Open J-gate, Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index
ISSN: 1991-007X (Print); 1991-0088 (Online); DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v4i2.2488
Studies on the antidiabetic effects of
Mangifera indica
and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats
Amrita Bhowmik1, Liakot Ali Khan1, Masfida Akhter2 and Begum Rokeya2
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka; 2Department of
Pharmacology, BIRDEM, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
Article Info
Received: 16 May 2009
Accepted: 16 May 2009
Available Online: 20 May 2009
Mangifera indica
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 3
Number of Refs: 14
Correspondence: BR
Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to
possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was
undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of both
ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic
and diabetic model rats in different prandial state. The results showed that all
of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic
model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p<0.05-0.01; p<0.005-
0.001). Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant
antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose
load (p<0.01). Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica
on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol
extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole
perfusion period in type 2 diabetic rats.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. You are free to copy, distribute and perform the work. You must attribute
the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
-barks and leaves water extract were collected. A
portion of stem-barks and leaves paste were dissolved
in absolute ethanol (96% ethanol) and filtered.
Suspensions were dried by using a rotary vacuum
evaporator (BUCHI Rota vapor R-114). These
semisolid extracts were again dried with Water Bath at
80ºC. The amount of total ethanol extract of stem-barks
and leaves were found to be 30.09 g and 35.29 g. These
dried extracts were kept in the Frazer and utilized for
biological screening at BIRDEM.
Animals: The experiments were carried out on Long-
Evans rats (180-220 g) of both sexes, bred at BIRDEM
animal house and maintained at a constant room
temperature of 22 ± 5ºC with humidity of 50-70% and
the natural 12 hours day-night cycle. Animals were fed
on a standard laboratory pellet diet and water ad
Induction of diabetes in rats: Type 1 diabetes was
induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of
streptozotocin (STZ, Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo,
MI USA) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight to adult
rats (3-4 months). Confirmatory fasting blood glucose
test for type 1 model rats was performed after 7 days
of STZ injection. Induction of type 2 diabetes was
performed using a single i.p. injection of STZ (90 mg/
kg body weight) to the 48 hours old pups as described
by Bonner-Weir et al., (1981). Experiments were
carried out 3 months later after performing an oral
glucose tolerance test.
Biological Testing: Experiments were carried out on
normal, type 1 and type 2 rats according to the
following scheme-
Long- Evans rats
Normal rats Type 1 rats Type 2 rats
The water extracts (leaf and stem-bark) were used at a
dose of 1 mL/9 mL water/kg body weight and 96%
ethanol extracts (leaf and stem-bark) were used at a
dose of 1.25 g/kg body weight/10 mL. Extracts of M.
indica were fed to the rats by smooth metallic tube
under mild-ether anesthesia (Mamun et al., 2001). The
control rats were given equal volume of distilled
water; positive controls were given glibenclamide (5
mg /kg) and insulin (Actrapid HM-40 IU/mL) for type
2 and type 1 model rats respectively. Blood samples
from rats were drawn by amputation of the tail tip.
Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120 min for
fasting conditions, at 0, 30, 75 min for simultaneous
feeding of extract with glucose and at 0, 60 and 105
min when the extract was fed 30 min before glucose
load (2.5 g/kg body weight).
Effects of M. indica on intestinal glucose absorption: An
intestinal perfusion technique (Swintosky and
Pogonowska-Wala, 1982) was used to study the effects of
M. indica extracts on intestinal absorption of glucose in
nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic rats fasted for 36 hours
and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/
kg). The plant extracts were added to a kreb’s solution
(g/L 1.02 CaCl2, 7.37 NaCl, 0.20 KCl, 0.065
NaH2PO4.6H2O, 0.6 NaHCO3, pH 7.4), supplemented
with glucose (54.0 g/L) and perfused at a perfusion
rate of 0.5 mL/min for 30 min through the duodenum.
The perfusate was collected from a catheter set at 40
cm. M. indica extracts were added to Kreb’s solution to
a final conc. of 25 mg/mL so that the amount of extract
in the perfused intestine is equivalent to the dose of
1.25 g/kg. The control group was perfused only with
Kreb’s buffer supplemented with glucose. The results
were expressed as percentage of absorbed glucose,
calculated from the amount of glucose in solution
before and after the perfusion.
Biochemical procedures: Serum glucose levels were
estimated on the same day by glucose oxidase (GOD-
POD) method using a commercial kit (Boehringer-
Mannheim GmbH).
Statistical analysis: Data from the experiments were
presented as mean ± Standard deviation. Statistical
analysis was done by using the Statistical Package for
Social Science (SPSS) software for windows version 12
(SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Analysis of
variance (ANOVA, Bonferroni Post Test) was done to
see any difference between the groups. The level of
significance was set at p0.05.
Streptozotocin injection to adult rats (for simulation of
type 1 diabetes) resulted in severe diabetes, which was
characterized by hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose
ranging 19.82— 23.22 mmol/L) on the 7th day. In type
2 diabetic model rats fasting glucose level was slightly
higher (6.85— 8.68 mmol/L) indicating the presence of
functioning β-cells. The water extracts and ethanol
extracts of M. indica leaves and stem-barks showed no
effect in nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model
rats in the fasting state (Table I). It is seen from the
Table 1 that glibenclamide and insulin reduced serum
Extracts were
fed simulta-
with glucose
were fed
30 min
prior to
As in normal
As in normal
Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114 111
glucose level in the fasting condition of normal and
type 1 rats respectively. Glibenclamide and insulin
showed significant hypoglycemic effects both at 60
min (p<0.02 and p<0.001) and at 120 min (p<0.001) in
normal and type1 diabetic model rats respectively.
Table II reveals that none of the extracts of M. indica
had any significant antihyperglycemic effect in
nondiabetic and type 1 model rats when fed
simultaneously with glucose load. On the contrary, all
of the extracts of M. indica showed significant
antihyperglycemic effect at 30 min (p<0.002-0.001) as
well as at 75 min (p<0.05-0.001) when fed
simultaneously with oral glucose load in type 2 model
rats (Table II). Glibenclamide showed a significant fall
in serum glucose level at 75 min (p<0.001) in normal
rats. In type 1 diabetic model rats, insulin showed
significant antihyperglycemic effect at both time points
at 30 min and at 75 min (p< 0.001).
As it is seen from Table III that none of the extracts of
M. indica showed any significant hypoglycemic effect
in nondiabetic and type 1 model rats in postprandial
condition when the extracts were fed 30 min prior to
glucose load. In type 2 model rats, it was evident that
water and ethanol extract of leaves had no significant
effect but ethanol extract of stem barks of M. indica had
significant antihyperglycemic effect at 105 min
(p<0.01) when fed prior to oral glucose load (Table III).
Glibenclamide showed significant antihyperglycemic
effect in normal rats at both time points that is at 60
min (p<0.001) and 105 min (p<0.01); at 105 min
(p<0.01) for type 2 model rats respectively. On the
other hand, insulin in type 1 diabetic model
significantly lowered serum glucose levels at both time
points i.e. at 60 min and at 105 min (p<0.01).
Figures 1 and 2 show the effect of ethanol extracts of
stem barks and leaves of M. indica on upper intestinal
glucose absorption in normal and type 2 diabetic rats
respectively. The percent of glucose absorbed across
the intestine was higher during the whole period of
perfusion in normal and type 2 rats. The
supplementation of the perfusion medium either with
ethanol extracts of barks or leaves of M. indica in
Table І: Effect of M. indica of fasting blood glucose levels (mean
±SD) of normal rats, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats
Group min 0
min 60
min 120
Nondiabetic rats
Water control (n = 6) 6.51 ± 0.74 6.30 ± 0.43 6.46 ± 0.68
Glibenclamide (n = 6) 6.71 ± 0.78 4.72 ± 0.62* 4.31 ± 2.21*
M_Indica_w_l (n = 8) 6.29 ± 0.79 6.30 ± 1.01 6.22 ± 1.09
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 7) 6.78 ± 0.83 7.00 ± 0.82 6.80 ± 0.69
M_Indica_w_b (n = 8) 6.91 ± 0.42 6.88 ± 0.88 6.96 ± 0.92
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 8) 7.03 ± 0.48 6.64 ± 0.78 6.96 ± 1.04
Type 1 diabetic model rats
Water control (n = 6) 20.57 ± 3.02 21.16 ± 2.42 19.43 ± 3.87
Insulin (n = 6) 22.24 ± 2.23 5.41 ± 4.52* 4.48 ± 3.88*
M_Indica_w_l (n = 7) 19.82 ± 4.06 19.39 ± 4.08 18.64 ± 4.17
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 6) 21.11 ± 3.71 20.66 ± 2.57 19.78 ± 2.23
M_Indica_w_b (n = 8) 20.02 ± 3.84 21.76 ± 3.62 20.06 ± 3.49
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 9) 23.22 ± 5.33 20.97 ± 4.34 18.86 ± 3.65
Type 2 diabetic model rats
Water control (n = 6) 8.68 ± 1.47 9.14 ± 2.55 9.04 ± 2.95
Glibenclamide (n = 6) 8.11 ± 1.31 7.34 ± 0.72 6.57 ± 0.93
M_Indica_w_l (n = 7) 8.41 ± 1.56 8.57 ± 2.01 7.57 ± 1.59
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 7) 7.55 ± 1.52 8.81 ± 3.06 9.09 ± 3.57
M_Indica_w_b (n = 7) 6.85 ± 1.16 6.44 ± 0.55 6.34 ± 0.53
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 7) 7.97 ± 1.82 9.30 ± 3.40 9.24 ± 2.92
ANOVA (Bonferroni test) was done as the test of significance. *p<0.01; n= num-
ber of rats
Table II: Effect of M. indica on blood glucose levels (mean ± SD) of
normal, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats when the extracts
were fed simultaneous with glucose load
Group min 0
min 30
min 75
Nondiabetic rats
Water control (n = 6) 6.37 ± 0.90 7.78 ± 1.07 7.35 ± 0.91
Glibenclamide (n = 6) 6.35 ± 1.01 7.69 ± 0.84 5.23 ± 0.70**
M_Indica_w_l (n = 7) 6.09 ± 0.96 7.40 ± 0.59 6.80 ± 0.76
M_Indica_eth_l(n = 7) 6.19 ± 1.06 8.29 ± 1.41 7.55 ± 0.74
M_Indica_w_b (n = 7) 6.46 ± 0.95 8.36 ± 0.33 7.72 ± 0.74
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 7) 6.18 ± 0.97 8.00 ± 0.82 7.53 ± 0.43
Type 1 diabetic model rats
Water control (n = 6) 24.91 ± 2.25 30.86 ± 3.28 29.22 ± 3.26
Insulin (n = 6) 23.76 ± 3.29 18.55±4.15** 8.75 ± 3.47**
M_Indica_w_l (n = 6) 22.77 ± 3.51 28.74 ± 4.40 27.18 ± 2.73
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 6) 23.77 ± 3.55 28.33 ± 3.46 26.68 ± 2.90
M_Indica_w_b (n = 6) 23.82 ± 1.92 28.89 ± 1.83 25.44 ± 3.79
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 6) 22.50 ± 2.62 29.08 ± 3.76 26.60 ± 1.61
Water control (n = 6) 8.60 ± 0.90 15.35 ± 2.05 15.55 ± 1.75
Glibenclamide (n = 6) 7.47 ± 1.42 13.78 ± 2.48 11.66 ± 1.95
M_Indica_w_l (n = 6) 6.65 ± 1.24 9.63 ± 2.63** 9.81 ± 2.66**
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 6) 7.82 ± 1.55 10.66±1.58** 10.88 ± 2.54*
M_Indica_w_b (n = 6) 8.26 ± 1.66 10.64 ±1.63** 10.46 ± 1.18**
M_Indica_eth_b(n = 6) 8.02 ± 1.58 10.31 ± 1.51* 11.58 ± 2.52*
ANOVA (Bonferroni test) was done as the test of significance. *p < 0.05-0.01, ** p <
0.001; n= number of rat
Type 2 diabetic model rats
112 Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114
normal rats did not affect the amount of absorbed
glucose throughout the whole period of experiment in
normal rats (Figure 1). However, in type 2 diabetic
models, supplementation of the medium with ethanol
extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption
during the whole perfusion period (13-15% reduction
after 25-30 min) (Figure 2).
The present study was undertaken to investigate the
hypo-/antihyperglycemic activity of M. indica leaf and
bark extracts in nondiabetic, type 2 and type 1 diabetic
model rats. Glibenclamide was used as a standard
drug for type 2 model rats and insulin for type 1 model
rats. It is well established that glibenclamide, a long-
acting sulfonylurea, acts mainly by augmenting insulin
secretion. On the other hand, insulin activate glucose
uptake in various cells including muscles and
adipocytes, stimulates hexose uptake, lipogenesis and
inhibit lipolysis and stimulate protein synthesis.
Administration of glibenclamide to type 2 rats and
insulin to type 1 rats almost normalizes serum glucose
Our results demonstrate that all the extracts of M.
indica leaves and stem barks showed significant
antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic model rats
when the extracts were fed simultaneously with
glucose. Single oral administration of a dose of 250
mg/ kg body weight produces a potent and strong
hypoglycemic effect in type 2 rats. The obtained results
are supported by the finding of other investigators
(Sharma et al., 1997; Aderibigbe et al., 2001).
Hypoglycemic activity that is found when given with a
simultaneous glucose load in diabetic rats indicates
that the extracts may interfere with the intestinal
glucose absorption in the gut by various mechanisms
(Nahar et al.. 2000; Vinik and Wing, 1990; Lempcke,
1987). It may be postulated that the extracts of M. indica
might stimulate glycogenesis in the liver, which is
enhanced by feeding (Creutzfeld et al., 1979). This
effect was confirmed by Perpetus et. al where they
showed that blood glucose level of diabetic rats
consuming mango flour for 90 days decreased 66% in
Table III: Effect of M. indica on blood glucose levels (M±SD) of
normal, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic model rats when the extracts
were fed 30 minutes before to glucose load
Group min 0
min 60
min 105
Nondiabetic rats
Water control (n = 6) 5.75 ± 1.09 7.66 ± 0.63 7.39 ± 1.61
Glibenclamide (n = 6) 5.31 ± 1.01 5.38±0.50** 5.04 ± 0.95*
M_Indica_w_l (n = 7) 6.64 ± 0.83 7.77 ± 0.89 7.59 ± 0.81
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 7) 6.84 ± 0.72 8.20 ± 0.65 8.19 ± 0.5
M_Indica_w_b (n = 7) 6.38 ± 0.99 7.99 ± 0.50 7.73 ± 0.74
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 7) 6.50 ± 0.94 7.45 ± 0.79 6.96 ± 1.53
Type 1 diabetic model rats
Water control (n = 6) 24.78 ± 5.33 30.09 ± 4.55 27.09 ± 4.91
Insulin (n = 6) 22.19 ± 1.92 7.00 ± 2.37* 5.34 ± 1.20*
M_Indica_w_l (n = 6) 22.12 ± 4.39 28.94 ± 3.41 25.86 ± 2.89
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 6) 22.04 ± 3.30 23.72 ± 2.17 23.30 ± 2.77
M_Indica_w_b (n = 6) 24.95 ± 2.84 30.21 ± 2.76 25.69 ± 3.73
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 6) 21.23 ± 2.56 24.62 ± 4.52 23.90 ± 5.19
Water control (n = 6) 8.41 ± 1.16 15.46 ± 3.76 16.66 ± 2.28
Glibenclamide (n = 6) 7.49 ± 1.62 11.80 ± 1.20 10.13 ± 1.41*
M_Indica_w_l(n = 7) 6.55 ± 0.49 12.93 ± 2.67 12.73 ± 2.53
M_Indica_eth_l (n = 7) 7.09 ± 1.16 11.14 ± 2.78 14.98 ± 3.17
M_Indica_w_b (n = 7) 6.73 ± 1.39 12.79 ± 3.19 15.73 ± 2.23
M_Indica_eth_b (n = 7) 7.16 ± 1.72 13.40 ± 2.75 11.32 ± 3.12*
ANOVA (Bonferroni test) was done as the test of significance. *p <0.01, **p <0.001; n=
number of rats
Type 2 diabetic model rats
Figure 1: Effect of the M. indica on upper intestinal glucose absorption on
normal rats
Results are presented as mean ± SD (n=6). Rats were fasted for 36 hours and intestine
was perfused with glucose solution (54 g/L) with or without ethanol extracts of M.
indica (25 mg/mL). k_g= Krebs buffer supplemented with glucose; K_g_e1 = Ethanol
extract of leaves; K_g_e2 = Ethanol extract of stem barks
Figure 2: Effect of the M. indica on upper intestinal glucose absorption
on type 2 diabetic rats
Results are presented as mean ± SD (n=6). Rats were fasted for 36 hours and
intestine was perfused with glucose solution (54 g/L) with or without ethanol
extracts of M. indica (25 mg/mL). k_g= Krebs buffer supplemented with glucose;
K_g_e1 = Ethanol extract of leaves; K_g_e2 = Ethanol extract of stem barks
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
% of glucose absorption
Time (min)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
% of glucose absorption
Time (min)
Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114 113
comparison to control rats. It was also observed that
hepatic glycogen level of those diabetic rats was 64%
greater then control. The author claimed that this
increase in glycogen level might have contributed to
the reduction of blood glucose level in these animals.
Ethanol extract of stem bark of M. indica was also
effective in type 2 diabetic model rats when fed 30 min
might be due to a systemic action, i.e. as a result of the
stimulation of pancreatic β-cells and improving the
insulin secretory capacity or enhancement of insulin
action by the extract. This effect could not be
confirmed by our study since serum insulin level after
a single feeding was not determined. It has been
claimed that the chronic intraperitoneal administration
of mangiferin (a xanthone glucoside, isolated from the
leaves of M. indica) at a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg once
daily for 28 days exhibited antidiabetic activity by
lowering fasting plasma glucose level significantly at
different time intervals in STZ diabetic rats and
improved glucose tolerance. The accumulating eviden-
ces suggest that both pancreatic and extra pancreatic
mechanisms might be involved in its antidiabetic or
antihyperglycemic action (Muruganandan et al., 2005).
One of the objectives of the present study was to
investigate whether the hypoglycemic effect is related
to the inhibition of glucose absorption in the gut. This
was investigated in gut perfusion experiment where
the ethanol extracts of stem barks showed gradual
decrease in glucose absorption. Aderibigbe et al.
claimed that hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous
extract of leaves of M. indica was compatible with
chlorpropamide (an oral hypoglycemic agents) and the
action may be parts due to an intestinal reduction of
the absorption of glucose. Therefore, the activity of the
extracts of M. indica does not seem to be mediated by
increasing insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity since
it is not active in type 1 model rats.
Thus it may be concluded from the present study that
the antidiabetic activity of M. indica is probably at
least, partly due to inhibition of glucose absorption in
the gut.
We gratefully acknowledge the financial and logistic supports
provided by the International Program in the Chemical
Sciences (IPICS), Uppsala University Sweden and Diabetic
Association of Bangladesh.
Aderibigbe AO, Emudianughe TS, Lawal BAS. Evaluation of
the antidiabetic action of Mangifera indica in mice.
Phytotherapy Res. 2001; 15: 456-58. doi:10.1002/ptr.859
Ali L, Khan AKA, Mamun MIR, Mosihuzzaman M, Nahar N,
Nur-E-Alam M, Rokeya B. Studies on hypoglycemic effects
of fruit pulp, seed and whole plants of Momordica charantia
on normal and diabetic model rats. Planta Medica. 1993; 59:
408-12. doi:10.1055/s-2006-959720 PMid:8255932
Bonner-Weir S, Trent DF, Honey RN, Weir GC. Responses of
neonatal rat islets on streptozotocin-limited beta cell
regeneration and hyperglycemia. Diabetes. 1981: 30, 64-69.
doi:10.2337/diabetes.30.1.64 PMid:6112177
Creutzfeld W. The incretin concept today. Diabetologia 1979;
16: 75-85. doi:10.1007/BF01225454 PMid:32119
Lempcke B. Control of absorption: Delaying absorption as a
therapeutic principle. In: Structure and function of the Z
small Intestine. Cospary WF (ed). New York, Elsevier,
1987, pp 263-80.
Mahabir D, Gulliford MC. Use of medicinal plants for
diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago. Rev Panam Salud
Publica. 1997: 3: 174-79.
Mamun MIR, Rokeya B, Choudhury NS, Muniruzzaman M,
Nahar N, Ahmed MU, Mosihuzzaman M, Ali L, Khan
AKA, Khan SH. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Pterospermum
acerifolium Wild and Pterospermum semisagittatum Ham
Diabetes Res. 2001; 35: 163-70.
Muruganandan K, Srinivasan S, Gupta PK, Gupta JL. Effect of
mangiferin on hyperglycemia and atherogenicityin
streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 93:
497-501. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.12.010 PMid:15740886
Nahar N, Rokeya B, Ali L, Hassan Z, Nur-e-Alam M,
Choudhury NS, Khan AKA, Mosihuzzaman M. Effect of
three medicinal plants on blood glucose levels in
nondiabetic and diabetic model rats. Diabetes Res. 2000: 35:
Ojewole J. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic
effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark
aqueous extract. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2005:
27: 547-54. doi:10.1358/mf.2005.27.8.928308 PMid:16273134
Perpetuo JM, Salgado JM. Effect of mango (Mangifera indica
Linn) ingestion on blood glucose levels of normal and
diabetic rats. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 2003; 58: 1-12.
doi:10.1023/A:1024063105507 PMid:12859008
Swintosky J, Pogonowska-Wala E. The in situ rat gut
technique: A simple, rapid, inexpensive way to study
factors influencing drug absorption rate from the intestine.
Pharmacy Int. 1982: 3: 163-64.
Sharma SR, Dwivedi SK, Swarup D. Hypoglycemic potential
of Mangifera indica leaves in rats. Pharmaceutical Biol. 1997;
35: 130-33. doi:10.1076/phbi.
Trivedi NA, Majumder B, Bhatt JD, Hemavathi KG. Effect of
Shilajit on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan–
induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2004; 36: 373-76.
Vinik A, Wing RR. In: Diabetes mellitus: Theory and practice.
Rifkin H, Porte D Jr. (eds). 2nd ed. New York, Elsevier,
1990, pp 465-97.
114 Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114
... Noratto and Timsina et al., (2015) determined that ethanol extract had significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cells and the bioactive fraction from the crude extract had antiproliferative effects with an IC50 value of<10μg/ml [10][11]. Bhowmik et al., (2009) found that Single oral administration of a dose of 250 mg/ kg body weight produces a potent and strong hypoglycemic effect in Type-2 diabetes on rats. Similar result was found by Reda MY, (2010) [12]. ...
... Bhowmik et al., (2009) found that Single oral administration of a dose of 250 mg/ kg body weight produces a potent and strong hypoglycemic effect in Type-2 diabetes on rats. Similar result was found by Reda MY, (2010) [12]. Beltrana AE et al., (2004) reported that anti-inflammatory action of mangiferin is related with the inhibition of NOS and cyclooxygenase-2 expression [13]. ...
The present study was undertaken to explore the phytochemical screening, anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of the hydro-methanolic leaves extract of Mangifera indica using standard screening methods such as disc diffusion and DPPH methods. In phytochemical screening, Mangifera indicaextract showed presence of secondary metabolites such as carbohydrate, phenols, tanins and proteins whereas Saponins were absent. It also showed antibacterial activities against almost all the test organisms. The extracts possessed potent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity against the positive control standard Ascorbic acid. Results denote the presence of hydroxyl radical scavenging principles in the extracts.
... The observed lowering of blood sugar by the extract may be achieved through various individual mechanisms or a combination of mechanisms. The extract may have potentiated pancreatic secretion of insulin, increased glucose uptake from serum, or decreased glucose absorption from gut (Farjou et al., 1987;Nyunai et al., 2009;Bhowmik et al., 2009). Studies are now being actively pursued in our laboratory to isolate the bioactive phytochemical(s) responsible for the observed antihyperglycemic activity. ...
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to conduct antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity studies with methanolic extract of rhizomes of Kaempferia rotunda, a plant used in folk medicines of Bangladesh for treatment of high blood sugar level and pain. Antihyperglycemic activity studies were conducted in glucose-loaded mice in oral glucose tolerance tests. Mice were given various doses of extract, followed by glucose (2g/kg body weight), 60 min after administration of extract. Serum glucose levels were measured 120 minutes after glucose administration. Antinociceptive activity studies were conducted in intraperitoneally acetic acid injected mice through measurement of reductions in abdominal writhings caused by acetic acid-induced gastric pain. Following a period of 1 h after oral administration of various doses of extract, all mice received intraperitoneal injection of 1% acetic acid at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight. To ensure bio-availability of acetic acid, a period of 5 min was given to each animal following which period the number of writhing times was counted for 10 min. The extract caused dose-dependent significant lowering in serum glucose levels in mice (P<0.05), when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight to glucose-loaded mice as compared to control animals. Highest lowering of serum glucose (39.6%) was observed at an extract dose of 400 mg. In comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, lowered serum glucose levels by 42.4%. The extract also demonstrated dose-dependent significant antinociceptive activity (P<0.05), when administered to mice compared to control animals. At a dose of 400 mg extract per kg body weight, the number of abdominal writhings was inhibited by 69.4% as compared to 73.4% inhibition obtained with a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, administered at a dose of 400 mg per kg body weight. The significant antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity demonstrated by the extract validates the use of rhizomes of K. rotunda in folk medicines of Bangladesh for treatment of high blood sugar levels as commonly observed in diabetic patients, and pain, and merits further scientific studies leading to the identification of relevant bioactive constituents.
... These results was confirmed by previous studies that examined the effect of leaves powder, water extract and ethanolic extract on diabetic rats. The main reason that mango leaves have anti-diabetic properties is their active constituents principally mangiferin in addition to other constituents as anthocyanidins including cyanidin, delphinidin and peonidin, leucoanthocyanins, gallic tannins, catechin and flavonoids as quercetin [38][39][40][41]. ...
Full-text available
Background and Objective: High fructose consumption has increased worldwide. It causes various metabolic, genetic and histologic alterations. Alternative medicine, primarily herbal plants, has been proposed to alleviate the negative effects of high fructose consumption. The main objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of supplementation or treatment with mango leaves against high fructose induced alterations in male rats. Methodology: Mango leaves nutritional and active components were determined. A total of sixty male adult rats were used in this study. Fifteen rats were kept as healthy (negative control group; rats fed on balanced diet) while in others metabolic alterations were induced by consumption of high fructose diet ad libitum. Rats fed on high fructose diet were splited into 3 groups (15 rats in each), one group set as positive control group; rats fed on high fructose diet only and the other 2 groups; mango treated group; rats fed on high fructose diet until induction of hyperglycemia (one month and half) then fed on high fructose diet with replacement of fiber with 5% mango leaves and mango supplemented group; rats fed on high fructose diet with 5% mango leaves replacing fiber. Results: Mango leaves contain significant amounts of crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, crude fiber, ash, total flavonoids and polyphenols that controlled and corrected the following high fructose consumption results. Consumption of high fructose diet significantly (p≤0.05) increased final body weight (FBW), body weight gain (BWG), abdominal circumference (AC), Lee index and body mass index (BMI). High fructose also significantly (p≤0.05) increased levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and adipocyte size as well as blood histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme activity. High fructose consumption contrarily caused significant decrease (p≤0.05) in levels of quantitative insulin check index of insulin sensitivity (QUICKI), adiponectin, muscular insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) gene expression as well as blood reduced glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, microscopic examinations of the pancreatic and adipose tissues corroborated the biochemical findings. Conclusion: Mango leaves are a cheap source of macro and micronutrients as well as active constituents. By limiting metabolic and genetic abnormalities caused by high fructose consumption, either mango leaf supplementation or therapy improved and ameliorated all biochemical and microscopic data. The mango leaves supplemented group showed the most improvement.
... Furthermore, liver glycogen estimate demonstrated a stimulatory impact on hepatic glycogenesis, which might be the cause of the blood glucose reduction (Bhowmik et al., 2009). Montagut et al. (2010) discovered that the insulin-mimetic characteristics of grape seed oligomers procyanidin extract increased cellular glucose absorption in insulin-sensitive L6E9 and 3T3L1 cell lines (Montagut et al., 2010). ...
Full-text available
Grape seeds (GSs) have been claimed for antidiabetic effects since long. Due to its rich phytochemical potential, current study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of GSs powder (GSP) (OPC 95%) on neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ) induced T2DM rats. STZ (90 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally in 48 h old rat pups. After 3 months, 24 T2DM rats were selected by OGTT for 28-days experiment and divided into four groups (n=6): group I: Normal water control [NWC], group II: Diabetic water control [DWC] (10 mL ddH 2 O/kg bw), group III: Gliclazide treated [GT] (20 mg/kg bw) and group IV: GSP treated group (1.25 g/kg/ bw). Blood were collected by tail cut and cardiac puncture method during the begging and end of the experiment respectively and thereafter serum was separated. Liver was also collected and all samples stored at-20°C freezer until the measurement of fasting serum glucose (FSG), lipid profile, insulin level and liver glycogen content by following standard methods. Statistical analysis was performed considering one-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Oral consumption of GSP significantly (P<0.009) reduced FSG and increased serum insulin (p<0.001) compared with base line value. GT group also ameliorated FSG significantly (p<0.001) compared to DWC group. Moreover, liver glycogen content was also improved by 16% compared with DWC group. Additionally, TG, TC and LDL were significantly reduced (p<0.002, p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively), HDL was increased by 4% through consecutive GSP treatment. Current results suggest that GSP possesses a significant hypoglycemic effect in T2DM rats.
... The reported phytochemical constituents include vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols, sterols, amino acids, flavonoids, and terpenes [122]. The reported pharmacological properties include antidiarrheal, gastroprotective, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, anticancer, antiparasitic, antifungal, anti-HIV, antibacterial, and antispasmodic properties [120,123,124]. ...
Full-text available
Background: The growth or multiplication of harmful microorganisms in addition to harmful human activities has led to many disorders in humans. Consequently, there is a search for medications to treat these disorders. Interestingly, medicines of plant origin are known to be among the most attractive sources of new drugs and have shown promising results in the treatment of various diseases including peptic ulcers. This review, therefore, is aimed at obtaining knowledge on some Ghanaian ethnomedicinal plants used to treat peptic ulcers, their folkloric uses, their phytochemicals, and their antiulcer and related pharmacological activities as well as finding areas for prospective studies. Methods: Published peer-reviewed articles on ethnomedicinal plants used for the management of peptic ulcers in Ghana from 1967 to 2020 were sourced and used for the study. Results: In this review, 13 plants were identified which belong to 10 different families including Sapindaceae, Apocynaceae, and Bignoniaceae. The parts most often used for most preparations were the leaves (53%), followed by stem bark and roots (both having the same percentage of use of 17.6%), the whole plant (5.9%), and the rhizomes (5.9%). Azadirachta indica was the only plant that had undergone some patient studies in addition to animal studies. Conclusion. A discussion of various antiulcer activity studies using ulcer models carried out on selected medicinal plants used for the management of peptic ulcer disease in addition to brief information on their folkloric uses and their phytochemical and other pharmacological properties is presented. These medicinal plants may be used in developing herbal products for the management of peptic ulcer disease.
... The stem-barks ethanol extract showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load. The stem-barks ethanol extracts reduced glucose absorption during the whole perfusion period in type 2 diabetic rats (95). The effect of mangiferin on the atherogenic potential was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. ...
Full-text available
This review presented a comprehensive overview of the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Mangifera indica, which used for therapeutic purposes as traditional medicine across the world by various cultures. Phytochemical screening of Mangifera indica showed it contained steroids, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phlobatannins, terpenoids, volatile oil, phenol, resins, saponins, protein, carbohydrates and glycosides. Mangifera indica possessed many pharmacological effects included antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, immune- modulatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, reproductive, dermatological, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anti- obesity, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, CNS and neuro- protective, gastrointestinal, anti-anemic and anti-snake venom activitiy. In the current review, databases including Web Science, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct, were searched to investigate the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Mangifera indica.
... On the contrary, the present study found no hypoglycemic effect after oral administration of extract before loading glucose in OGTT model. However, hypoglycemic effect was detected when the extract and glucose were simultaneously co-administered in DM mice which is in accordance with the results found in previous studies (Bhowmik et al., 2009, Hossain et al., 2010). The overall blood glucose level, represented as AUCglucose (0-120 min), in extract-treated mice at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg was significantly reduced by about 13.43% when compared with diabetic control mice. ...
Full-text available
The objectives of study were to evaluate and compare the antioxidant, total phenolic, total flavonoid, mangiferin content and antidiabetic activities of five young mango cultivars leaf extract, namely, ‘Apple’, ‘Nam Dok Mai’, ‘Bao’, ‘OkRong’ and ‘Kiew Savoey’. Antioxidant effect was investigated by DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing power (FRAP) assays. Inhibitory on α-glucosidase activity and type of enzyme inhibition were evaluated by using Lineweaver Burk plot analysis. Mangiferin, major active compound, was quantified by HPTLC method. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic effect was determined using streptozotocin (STZ) –nicotinamide (NA) -induced type 2 diabetic mice. Young mango cv. ‘Apple’ leaf extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity in all assays. Moreover, it contains highest amounts of total phenolic and mangiferin to the values of 311 mg GAE/g extract and 197 mg/g extract, respectively. It possessed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.50 µg/mL. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis demonstrated a non-competitive inhibition of αglucosidase activity with the inhibition constant (Ki) of 2.98 µg/mL. Coadministration of young mango cv. ‘Apple’ leaf extract at dose of 1,000 mg/kg significantly reduced the total blood glucose level by 13.43% in STZ-NA-induced type 2 diabetic mice when compared with control diabetic mice in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) model. Inhibition of glucose absorption may be one of the possible mechanism of its hypoglycemic effect. In conclusion, young mango cv. ‘Apple’ leaf extract possesses the strongest antioxidant and antidiabetic activities which has a potential to develop as nutraceutical products.
Full-text available
In this study, the medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus were inventoried. The ethnopharmacological information was obtained from 470 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus in different areas in the West Algeria. The results indicated that only 28,30% of patients interviewed used medicinal plants as treatment of diabetes. 60 medicinal plants were cited. Two of them, Dried figs (Ficus carica) and seeds of colocynth or handal (Citrullus colocynthis L. Shard), were selected for phytochemical analysis and pharmaco-toxicological analysis in the different models of Wistar rats. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, triterpenes and especially reducing sugars in the extracts of figs (Ficus carica) and alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the different extracts of the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis. Analysis of antidiabetic effect of extracts of figs (Ficus carica) showed an increase in blood sugar one hour after intraperitoneally administration of 0,95g/kg b.w aqueous crude extract or intra gastric administration of 10g/kg pc fruit juice for normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. This hyperglycemia is rapidly corrected term cost for 3 hours and reached normal values in the medium period for two weeks. The acute toxicity study of three extracts from the seeds of colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) reported an LD50 of 698mg/kg b.w for total alkaloids and an LD50 of 166 and 113 mg/kg b.w for ethanolic and chloroformic glycosides cucurbitacins extract, respectively. With a remarkable disorder liver plasma biochemical parameters (GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase) and renal plasma parameters (creatinine). In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 60mg/kg b.w of total alkaloids or 20mg/kg b.w of glycosides cucurbitacins for normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats showed antihyperglycemic effect. They hyperglycemia decreased 42% and 32%, respectively, after 3 hours. This decrease persists one week in diabetic rats treated with the alkaloids and 2 weeks in diabetic rats treated with ethanolic glycosides. Also, both extracts showed the ability to correct hyperglycemia induced by oral administration of glucose (OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test) in normal rats. However, higher doses (> 100mg/kg b.w) of cucurbitacins glycosides extracted from the seeds of colocynth cause a risk of severe hypoglycemia. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, ethnopharmacology, antidiabetic plants, Citrullus colocynthis, Ficus carica, phytochemistry, acute toxicity, Streptozotocin.
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of hot water extracts of 22 medicinal plants used traditionally to treat diabetes on Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity both in vitro and in vivo in high fat fed (HFF) obese-diabetic rats. Fluorometric assay was employed to determine the DPP-IV activity. For in vivo studies, HFF obese-diabetic rats were fasted for 6 hours and blood was sampled at different times before and after the oral administration of the glucose alone (18mmol/kg body weight) or with either of the four most active plant extracts (250mg/5ml/kg, body weight) or established DPP-IV inhibitors (10µmol/5ml/kg). DPP-IV inhibitors: sitagliptin, vildagliptin and diprotin A, decreased enzyme activity by a maximum of 95-99% (P<0.001). Among the 22 natural anti-diabetic plants tested, A. Latifolia exhibited the most significant (P<0.001) inhibitory activity (96 ± 1%) with IC50 and IC25 values of 754μg/ml and 590μg/ml. Maximum inhibitory effects of other extracts: A. marmelos, M. indica, C. colchinchinensis, T. foenum-graecum and A. indica were (44 ±7%; 38 ± 4%; 31±1%; 28±2%; 27±2%, respectively). A maximum of 45% inhibition was observed with >25µM concentrations of selected phytochemicals (rutin). A. latifolia, A. marmelos, T. foenum-graecum and M. indica extracts improved glucose tolerance, insulin release, reduced DPP-IV activity and increased circulating active GLP-1 in HFF obese-diabetic rats (P<0.05-0.001). These results suggest that ingestion of selected natural anti-diabetic plants, in particular A. latifolia, A. marmelos, T. foenum-graecum and M. indica can substantially inhibit DPP-IV and improve glucose homeostasis, thereby providing a useful therapeutic approach for the treatment of T2DM.
Full-text available
Objective: To conduct an ethnobotanical survey and document the traditional anticancer and antidiabetic plants used by the local tribes of Mizoram, Northeast India. Methods: A systematic survey was conducted in rural and urban areas of Mizoram by interviewing traditional practitioners, and cancer and diabetes patients. A detailed literature search was carried out using MEDLINE and SCOPUS and available literatures were selected and included in the study. The use value (UV) of the selected plants was calculated based on the number of citations per species given by informants. Results: Data was obtained for 201 traditional medicinal plants from Mizoram, Northeast India. These plants were from 72 different families and belonged to 140 genera. Of these, 103 plants were reported for the first time as possessing either anticancer or antidiabetic potential, and 105 plants were identified that were used for the treatment of both diseases. Three plants (Phlogacanthus thysiformis, Solanum gilo and Lobelia angulata) with antidiabetic potential, and six plants (Dillenia scabrella, Circium sinesis, Eupatorium nodiflorum, Pratia begonifolia, Vernonia teres and Plantago erosa) with both as anticancer and antidiabetic potential were documented for the first time. Conclusion: In this study, we documented several explored and unexplored medicinal plants that may be useful for the management of cancer and diabetes. This study suggests that there is a broad scope fordeveloping potent anticancer and antidiabetic agent from the flora of Mizoram, Northeast India.
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of shilajit (a herbomineral preparation) on blood glucose and lipid profile in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its effects on the above parameters in combination with conventional antidiabetic drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of a single dose of alloxan monohydrate 5% (125 mg/kg, i.p.). Effects of three different doses of shilajit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, orally), alone for 4 weeks and a combination of shilajit (100 mg/kg/day, orally) with either glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, orally) or metformin (0.5 g/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks were studied on blood glucose and lipid profile. RESULTS: In the diabetic rats, all the three doses of shilajit produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and also produced beneficial effects on the lipid profile. The maximum effect was observed with the 100 mg/kg/day dose of shilajit. Combination of shilajit (100 mg/kg) with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day) or metformin (0.5 gm/kg/day) significantly enhanced the glucose-lowering ability and improvement in lipid profile than any of these drugs given alone. CONCLUSION: Shilajit is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves the lipid profile.
Hypoglycaemic activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mangifera indica tender leaves was studied in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the extract was administered only once in doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg per os. The highest decrease (37.73%) in plasma glucose levels was obtained with 250 mg dose after 8 h of administration. In diabetic rats, the extract produced significant antihyperglycaemic effect within 3 days when given at 250 mg/kg/day per os for 10 days. LD 50 of the extract was above 4.64 gm/kg per os.
The effects of the intake of flour obtained from mango pulp (Tommy Atkins cultivar) (6.85% soluble fiber, 11.96% insoluble fiber, 2.53% protein, 1.3% total lipids and 2.52% ash) on weight gain, dietary intake, glycemia and hepatic glycogen were studied in normal and diabetic rats. The diabetic animals eating diets containing 5, 10 and 15% mango flour during the 30 day study showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05)="" in="" blood="" glucose="" level="" in="" comparison="" to="" the="" diabetic="" controls="" eating="" a="" diet="" containing="" 0%="" mango.="" in="" the="" second="" study,="" diets="" with="" 0="" and="" 5%="" mango="" flour="" were="" fed="" to="" diabetic="" rats="" to="" see="" if="" the="" 5%="" mango="" diet="" would="" still="" reduce="" blood="" glucose="" over="" a="" longer="" period.="" the="" blood="" glucose="" level="" of="" the="" rats="" consuming="" mango="" at="" the="" end="" of="" ninety="" days="" was="" 66%="" lower="" than="" that="" in="" the="" controls.="" in="" this="" study,="" it="" was="" also="" observed="" that="" the="" hepatic="" glycogen="" level="" of="" the="" animals="" fed="" mangos="" was="" 64%="" greater="" than="" in="" the="" controls,="" which="" might="" have="" contributed="" to="" the="" reduction="" in="" blood="" glucose="" in="" these="" animals.="" in="" addition,="" the="" animals="" fed="" mango="" had="" a="" higher="" serum="" insulin="" level="">p < 0.05)="" than="" those="" in="" the="" control="" group.="" the="" results="" from="" this="" research="" suggest="" that="" mango="" flour="" can="" possibly="" help="" in="" the="" treatment="" of="">
1. The insulinogenic factor of the gastrointestinal mucosa named "incretin" is only one part of the complex enteroinsular axis. --2. Of the chemically defined gastrointestinal hormones GIP is the strongest incretin candidate. --3. Because of the dual function of GIP as gastrone and insulinotropic substance several safeguards against GIP-mediated insulin hypoglycaemia exist. --4. No pathological condition has yet been found which is causally related to hyper- or hyposecretion of GIP. However, an exaggerated GIP response (usually secondary to the disease) may participate in the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinaemia of patients with obesity and duodenal ulcer. --5. The injection of GIP antibodies only partially abolishes the incretin effect. Therefore, GIP, although important, is not the only incretin.
Streptozotocin (SZ) was given to 2-day-old neonatal rats, and, during their subsequent development, the interrelationships between plasma glucose, plasma insulin, pancreatic islet morphology, and hormone content were examined. At 4 days of age, a peak of hyperglycemia was observed (SZ, 349 plus or minus 8 mg/dl versus control (C), 127 plus or minus 2) that was associated with a marked reduction of B-cell numbers (SZ, 26.5 plus or minus 2.6% B-cell per islet versus C, 72.8 plus or minus 0.8%). By 10 days of age the SZ animals became normoglycemia with partial recovery of the B-cell number (SZ, 39.6 plus or minus 2.1% versus, C, 64.0 plus or minus 2.6%). By six weeks hyperglycemia returned (SZ, 345 plus or minus 5.2 mg/dl versus C, 171 plus or minus 6.2) with B-cell number of the SZ being 72% of the C (SZ, 48.8 plus or minus 2.4% versus C, 67.5 plus or minus 1.5%). This hyperglycemia and reduced B-cell number persisted to at least 13 wk age. Despite a marked reduction of pancreatic insulin content observed during development, there was little effect upon glucagon or somatostatin content. At 6 wk of age, the plasma insulin concentration was only 30% of C, which suggests as insulin secretory defect beyond that which could be accounted for by the modest B-cell reduction. The present study indicates that even though active regeneration of B-cells occurred after early injury, the capacity for ultimate normalization was limited. The resultant moderate reduction in B-cell number may be associated with a functional defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
Extracts of Momordica charantia fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant were tested for their hypoglycemic effects on normal and diabetic rat models. The results show that during the oral glucose tolerance test the peak blood glucose values in rats are obtained much earlier (15-45 min) than in human subjects (around 60 min). Pulp juice of M. charantia lowered fasting blood glucose levels in normal rats (p < 0.05 at 120 min); the effect was more pronounced with the saponin-free methanol extract of the pulp juice (p < 0.05 at 60 min and p < 0.01 at 120 min). The pulp juice also had a significant hypoglycemic effect in the glucose-fed normal rats when the extract was fed 45 minutes before the oral glucose load [percentage increments over basal value (M +/- SE): 85 +/- 10 in the control group vs. 54 +/- 7 in the pulp juice group, p < 0.01]. In the IDDM model rats the pulp juice had no significant effect on blood glucose levels either in fasting or postprandial states. In the NIDDM model rats the saponin-free methanol extract of juice produced a significant hypoglycemic effect both in fasting (p < 0.05 at 120 min) and in postprandial states (sum of percentage increments over basal value: 140 +/- 26 in the control vs. 71 +/- 7 in the pulp juice group, p < 0.05). Methanol extracts of seed and of whole plant, and saponin-free methanol extract of whole plant produced no hypoglycemic effects in normal or IDDM model rats either in fasting or in postprandial states.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines) was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81%) reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41%) took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines.