In-line coupling headspace liquid-phase microextraction with capillary electrophoresis
An analytical technique of in-line coupling headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) with capillary electrophoresis (CE) was proposed to determine volatile analytes. A special cover unit of the sample vial was adopted in the coupling method. To evaluate the proposed method, phenols were used as model analytes. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the configuration of acceptor phase, kind and concentration of acceptor solution, extraction temperature and time, salt-out effect, sample volume, etc. The optimal enrichment factors of HS-LPME were obtained with the sample volume of about half of sample vials, which were confirmed by both the theoretical prediction and experimental results. The enrichment factors were obtained from 520 to 1270. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were in the range from 0.5 to 1 ng/mL each phenol. The recoveries were from 87.2% to 92.7% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 5.7% (n=6). The proposed method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of the phenols in tap water, and proved to be a simple, convenient and reliable sample preconcentration and determination method for volatile analytes in water samples.