No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: A comparative study

ArticleinEuropean Journal of Nutrition 49(5):301-10 · August 2010with38 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s00394-009-0088-9 · Source: PubMed
The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce. Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed. In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in both intervention groups, without differences between the two farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans. Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.
    • "As depicted inTable 4 , most of the human intervention studies on the health effects of agricultural practice have also focused on the antioxidant activity/status. However , despite the results on antioxidant activity observed in the in vitro studies, animal studies [19, 36, 63] and most of the human intervention studies [33, 37, 59, 60, 70] examining the antioxidant status/activity have reported no difference due to cultivation system. This could be due to short intervention periods or a diluting effect of the subject's habitual diets. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consumption of organic foods has been increasing over the last decades and organic products are becoming more visible on the market. Consumers perceive that organic foods are of betterquality, more nutritious and healthier, and these perceptions are some of the main drivers of the organic market. Scientific research on organic foodstuffs is contradictory, and knowledge regardingthe effect of cultivation system on the nutritive value and the possible relationship with human health could be further explored. Although some systematic differences in the nutritional content,i.e. nitrogen, protein, vitamin C, phosphorous and phenolic compounds of plant products grown under different cultivation systems have been observed, it is a difficult task to prove the claim thatorganic food improves human well-being or health after consumption. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on nutritional quality of food, comparing conventional andorganic agriculture; i.e. the nutrient content of plant products and livestock products, digestibility or bioavailability of the nutrients, preference and the potential health effects after consumption.We established a systematic approach for the identification of components and nutrients that can affect human health, and considered different models (animal and human) in which the potentialhealth effects had been tested. In addition, we found it essential to identify suitable health-related biomarkers as measures for nutritive quality. Reviewing the existing scientific literature onpotential relationships between agricultural practice and health, nutritional factors such as vitamin E/antioxidant status and the fatty acid composition appear to be interesting in relation to cultivationsystems effect on health. It was concluded that while agricultural practice (i.e. organic and conventional) together with other factors, such as year, location and genotype had an effect on thenutritional quality of the foods, no clear effect could be established on health-related biomarkers.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
    • "Total glutathione of washed packed erythrocytes, i.e. the sum of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH), was measured by enzymatic colorimetric procedure (SigmaeAldrich , Steinheim, Germany). Plasma quercetin concentration was analyzed by HPLC/MS (HPLC: Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany; MS: 3200 QTrap; AB Sciex, Darmstadt, Germany) after treatment with a betaglucuronidase/sulfatase mixture (from Helix pomatia; SigmaeAldrich) and extraction into ethylacetate as described previously [22]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aimsThe polyphenol quercetin may prevent cardiovascular diseases due to its vasorelaxant and anti-oxidative properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin on risk factors of atherosclerosis, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, depending on the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype.Methods and resultsIn a double-blind crossover study 49 healthy male subjects with APOE genotype 3/3 (n = 19), 3/4 (n = 22) and 4/4 (n = 8) consumed 150 mg/d quercetin or placebo for 8 weeks each, intermitted by a three-week washout phase. After each intervention, endothelial function, anthropometry, metabolic and inflammatory parameters were measured in the fasting and postprandial state following a standardized lipid-rich meal.Endothelial function was not changed. In all subjects combined, quercetin significantly decreased waist circumference (P = 0.004) and postprandial systolic blood pressure (P = 0.044). Postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased after quercetin as compared to placebo consumption (P = 0.025). Quercetin also moderately increased levels of TNFα (P = 0.024). There was a significant gene–diet interaction for waist circumference and for body mass index (BMI).Conclusions Quercetin supplementation improved some risk factors of cardiovascular disease, yet exerted slightly pro-inflammatory effects. Genotype-dependent effects were seen only on waist circumference and BMI.
    Article · May 2013
    • "Moreover, in one study, the infants of mothers who consumed organic dairy products were less likely to experience eczema at two-year follow up (Kummeling et al., 2008). However, on the negative side, studies have failed to discover statistically significant relationships between organic and conventionally grown foods in the following instances: polyphenol content or antioxidant activity for apples (Briviba et al., 2007; Stracke et al., 2010b; Valavanadis, Vlachogianni, Psomas, Zovoili, & Siatis, 2009); total phenolics, antioxidant activity, β-carotene, lycopene, or ascorbic acid for two varieties of tomatoes (Jurosek, Lumpkin, Yang, Ledesma, & Ma, 2009); and carotenoid contents or antioxidant activity in carrots (Stracke et al., 2010a). The outcomes of other studies have been mixed (Chassy, Bui, Renaud, Van Horn, & Mitchell, 2006; Lombardi Boccia, Lucarini, Lanzi, Aguzzi, & Cappelloni, 2004; Smith-Spangler et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sweetwater Organic Community Farm is an organic farm and environmental education center located in Tampa, Florida. The farm employs the community supported agriculture (CSA) model, in which members pay a single fee before the growing season begins and receive a weekly or biweekly share of the ongoing harvest in return. Using multiple ethnographic methods, this research aimed to understand the daily operations at Sweetwater as well as the perceptions of staff and CSA members. Findings indicated that there were myriad perceived advantages of organic agriculture but also imposing challenges that needed to be overcome. Moreover, staff members acknowledged the challenges associated with the CSA model such as pleasing and educating members and, for members, having to pick up at designated times and locations. Still, staff members also noted countless benefits, including the opportunity to connect to your food, farmers, environment, and community. In surveys, CSA members indicated that they were overwhelmingly satisfied the CSA model and Sweetwater. Complexities were uncovered that are often overlooked in the literature and merit further exploration. Among these were the pressure on farmers that resulted from receiving payments upfront and the willingness of individuals to become members without understanding the CSA model. There is a need for more studies to longitudinally examine changes in social support, food system knowledge, and eating habits that may occur over the course of the growing season.
    Full-text · Thesis · Nov 2012 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
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