No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: a comparative study. Eur J Nutr

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institute, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 9, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany.
European Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.47). 08/2010; 49(5):301-10. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-009-0088-9
Source: PubMed


The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce.
Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed.
In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in both intervention groups, without differences between the two farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans.
Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.

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    • "Total glutathione of washed packed erythrocytes, i.e. the sum of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH), was measured by enzymatic colorimetric procedure (SigmaeAldrich , Steinheim, Germany). Plasma quercetin concentration was analyzed by HPLC/MS (HPLC: Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany; MS: 3200 QTrap; AB Sciex, Darmstadt, Germany) after treatment with a betaglucuronidase/sulfatase mixture (from Helix pomatia; SigmaeAldrich) and extraction into ethylacetate as described previously [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aimsThe polyphenol quercetin may prevent cardiovascular diseases due to its vasorelaxant and anti-oxidative properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin on risk factors of atherosclerosis, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, depending on the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype.Methods and resultsIn a double-blind crossover study 49 healthy male subjects with APOE genotype 3/3 (n = 19), 3/4 (n = 22) and 4/4 (n = 8) consumed 150 mg/d quercetin or placebo for 8 weeks each, intermitted by a three-week washout phase. After each intervention, endothelial function, anthropometry, metabolic and inflammatory parameters were measured in the fasting and postprandial state following a standardized lipid-rich meal.Endothelial function was not changed. In all subjects combined, quercetin significantly decreased waist circumference (P = 0.004) and postprandial systolic blood pressure (P = 0.044). Postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased after quercetin as compared to placebo consumption (P = 0.025). Quercetin also moderately increased levels of TNFα (P = 0.024). There was a significant gene–diet interaction for waist circumference and for body mass index (BMI).Conclusions Quercetin supplementation improved some risk factors of cardiovascular disease, yet exerted slightly pro-inflammatory effects. Genotype-dependent effects were seen only on waist circumference and BMI.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
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    • "After overnight fasting, all the subjects consumed 300 mL of Golden Delicious AJ, tap water, or Catarina AJ, and a blood sample was collected just before (baseline) and 1 hour after drinking. This protocol was chosen based on the maximal antioxidant capacity and phenolic concentration in serum 1 hour after intake of fruit or juice [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. The participants served as their own control because we compared all the data obtained after either AJ or water consumption with the respective baseline values. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is hypothesized that apples of 2 Brazilian cultivars with different content of sugars and antioxidant compounds promote similar effects on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in human serum after acute intake. Nine healthy women ingested 300 mL of Golden Delicious or Catarina apple juice (AJ) or water, and blood samples were collected before and 1 hour after intake. After intake of both AJ, a similar and significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity and ascorbic and uric acid levels and a significant decrease in serum lipid peroxidation was observed. The increase in serum antioxidant capacity after consumption of both AJ was correlated directly with the uric acid levels and inversely with serum lipid peroxidation. In summary, the acute intake of AJ of 2 cultivars promoted a similar effect on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in human blood serum.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Nutrition research
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