Once-Daily Atazanavir/Ritonavir Compared With Twice-Daily Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Each in Combination With Tenofovir and Emtricitabine, for Management of Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients: 96-Week Efficacy and Safety Results of the CASTLE Study

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hopital Saint-Louis 1, Av. C. Vellefaux, 75475 Paris, Cedex 10, France.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.56). 03/2010; 53(3):323-32. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c990bf
Source: PubMed


Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir demonstrated similar antiviral efficacy to twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir over 48 weeks, with less gastrointestinal disturbance and a better lipid profile, in treatment-naive patients.
International, multicenter, open-label, 96-week noninferiority randomized trial of atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once daily vs lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily, each in combination with fixed-dose tenofovir/emtricitabine 300/200 mg once daily, in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected patients. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL at 48 weeks. Results through 96 weeks are reported.
Of 883 patients enrolled, 440 were randomized to atazanavir/ritonavir and 443 to lopinavir/ritonavir. At week 96, more patients receiving atazanavir/ritonavir achieved HIV RNA <50 copies/mL (74% vs 68%, P < 0.05) in the intent-to-treat analysis. On both regimens, 7% of subjects were virologic failures by 96 weeks. Bilirubin-associated disorders were greater in patients taking atazanavir/ritonavir. Treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse events were greater in patients taking lopinavir/ritonavir. Mean changes from baseline in fasting total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides at week 96 were significantly higher with lopinavir/ritonavir (P < 0.0001).
Noninferiority of atazanavir/ritonavir to lopinavir/ritonavir was confirmed at 96 weeks. Atazanavir/ritonavir had a better lipid profile and fewer gastrointestinal adverse events than lopinavir/ritonavir.

Download full-text


Available from: Victoria Wirtz, May 01, 2014
  • Source
    • "Our data in relation to DRV/r were consistent with this report. Molina et al.[23]also reported that ATV/r showed less discontinuation than LPV/r. Treatment-related adverse gastrointestinal events such as diarrhea and nausea were re-ported less frequently during administration of ATV/r, as compared with than LPV/r; however, rash and hyperbilirubinemia were more apparent with ATV/r than with LPV/r. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved, and the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs have been reduced. However, these adverse effects still significantly influence patient compliance, increasing the risk of tolerability failure. Therefore, we investigated the adverse effects and tolerability failure causing changes in the first ART regimen, and identified the regimens that were most vulnerable to switching. Materials and methods: We enrolled patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who commenced their first ART between January 1, 2011 and July 30, 2014. Patients who started their first ART regimen at the Kyungpook National University Hospital were included in the study if they were aged ≥18 years and were followed-up for ≥12 weeks. The primary dependent variable was the duration of treatment on the same ART regimen. We analyzed the maintenance rate of the first ART regimen based on the treatment duration between these groups using survival analysis and log rank test. The frequency of the adverse effects of ART regimens was analyzed by multiple response data analysis. Results: During the investigation period, 137 patients were enrolled. Eighty-one patients were maintained on the initial treatment regimen (59.1%). In protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen group, 54 patients were maintained on the initial treatment regimen (54/98, 55.1%). In non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-and integrase inhibitor (II)-based regimen group, 15 (15/26, 57.7%) and 12 (12/13, 92.3%) patients were maintained on the initial treatment regimen, respectively. Adverse effects that induced ART switching included rash (16/35, 45.7%), gastrointestinal discomfort or pain (7/35, 20%), diarrhea (7/35, 20%), hyperbilirubinemia (6/35, 17.1%), headache or dizziness (3/35, 8.5%). Among the treatment regimens, the group receiving an II-based regimen showed the least switching. The group receiving PI-and NRTI-based regimens were most likely to switch due to adverse effects during the early treatment period. However, after about 18 months, switching was rarely observed in these groups. Among the PI drugs, darunavir/ritonavir showed fewer drug changes than atazanavir/ritonavir (P = 0.004, log rank test) and lopinavir/ritonavir (P = 0.010). Among the NNRTI drugs, rilpivirne produced less switching than efavirenz (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Adverse effects to ART resulted in about a quarter of patients switching drugs during the early treatment period. II-based regimens were advantageous because they were less likely to induce switching within 18 months of treatment commencement. These findings indicated the importance of considering and monitoring the adverse effects of ART in order to improve adherence.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • Source
    • "In addition, although the comparison of the incidence rate of AIDS events in Aquitaine and IPEC initially suggested that AIDS events occurred at much higher frequency in the latter, after adjustments for other characteristics (immunological and virological profile as well as time since first HIV positive test), this finding did not hold, suggesting that environment is not a primary determinant of the occurrence of AIDS severe diseases in a population highly exposed to effective antiretroviral combinations [16]. Universal access to cART in both settings as well as more potent and user-friendly cART regimens readily available along the study period [17-20] have indeed contributed to these findings. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In high-income settings, the spectrum of morbidity and mortality experienced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has switched from predominantly AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related conditions. In the context of universal access to care, we evaluated whether that shift would apply in Brazil, a middle-income country with universal access to treatment, as compared to France. Methods Two hospital-based cohorts of HIV-infected individuals were used for this analysis: the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort in South Western France and the Evandro Chagas Research Institute (IPEC) Cohort of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Severe morbid events (AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) were defined as all clinical diagnoses associated with a hospitalization of ≥48 hours. Trends in the incidence rate of events and their determinants were estimated while adjusting for within-subject correlation using generalized estimating equations models with an auto-regressive correlation structure and robust standard errors. Result Between January 2000 and December 2008, 7812 adult patients were followed for a total of 41,668 person-years (PY) of follow-up. Throughout the study period, 90% of the patients were treated with cART. The annual incidence rate of AIDS and non-AIDS events, and of deaths significantly decreased over the years, from 6.2, 21.1, and 1.9 AIDS, non-AIDS events, and deaths per 100 PY in 2000 to 4.3, 14.9, and 1.5/100 PY in 2008. The annual incidence rates of non-AIDS events surpassed that of AIDS-events during the entire study period. High CD4 cell counts were associated with a lower incidence rate of AIDS and non-AIDS events as well as with lower rates of specific non-AIDS events, such as bacterial, hepatic, viral, neurological, and cardiovascular conditions. Adjusted analysis showed that severe morbidity was associated with lower CD4 counts and higher plasma HIV RNAs but not with setting (IPEC versus Aquitaine). Conclusions As information on severe morbidities for HIV-infected patients remain scarce, data on hospitalizations are valuable to identify priorities for case management and to improve the quality of life of patients with a chronic disease requiring life-long treatment. Immune restoration is highly effective in reducing AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbid events irrespective of the setting.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
  • Source
    • "Of the protease inhibitors, darunavir-ritonavir and atazanavir-ritonavir are the most widely recommended, owing to their once-daily dosing and favorable efficacy and safety profiles versus lopinavir-ritonavir shown in randomized trials.22,23 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the UK, the annual cost of treatment and care for people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency virus (AIDS) rose by over 600% from £104 million in 1997 to £762 million in 2010; approximately two-thirds of the £762 million cost of treatment and care in 2010 was for the procurement of antiretrovirals and other related drugs. The number of people accessing care for HIV/AIDS rose from 22,000 in 2000 to 65,000 in 2009. Adoption of "test and treat" guidelines for treating all HIV-infected people with antiretrovirals would further increase the burden of costs. Given the current economic situation, there is now a new focus on strategies for treatment and care of people with HIV-1 infection which can maintain efficacy but at a lower cost. In this review, we propose three strategies which could potentially lower the costs of treatment and care, ie, stopping testing CD4 counts for patients with full HIV RNA suppression on antiretroviral treatment and recent CD4 counts above 350 cells/μL; more widespread use of generic antiretrovirals as replacements for patients currently taking patented versions; and use of darunavir-ritonavir monotherapy as a switch option for patients with full HIV RNA suppression on other antiretrovirals and no history of virological failure. However, it is important that high standards of clinical care are maintained despite cost-saving measures. Antiretrovirals with generic alternatives may have toxicity issues, eg, zidovudine and nevirapine. There could be ethical issues in starting patients on these drugs if they are currently tolerating other treatments. The use of darunavir-ritonavir monotherapy is not consistently recommended in international HIV treatment guidelines.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research
Show more