Article

BBQ charcoal combustion as an important source of trace metal exposure to humans

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Abstract

To provide information about charcoal combustion as an important source of atmospheric trace metal pollution, 11 charcoal products were combusted and PM(10) filter samples were collected. The PM-bound metal elements were extracted by microwave acid digestion and analyzed by ICP-AES. The concentrations of trace metal elements ranged from a few to 10(5)ng m(-3) in the following order of magnitude: Zn>Pb>Mg>Ba>Cu>V>Cr>Co>Cd>Ni>Mn>Se>As. Emissions of most elements from charcoal combustion were high compared to other sources. In case of Cd, Co, and Ni, their concentrations exceeded the inhalation minimum risk levels (MRLs) of the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US-ATSDR) for chronic duration exposure by a factor of 30, 3.9, and 2.2, respectively. Likewise, Cd levels exceeded the US-ATSDR MRLs for acute-duration exposure by a factor of 10, while those of Pb and Cd exceeded air quality guideline (AQG) of the World Health Organization (WHO) by a factor of 29 and 59, respectively. Mn levels also exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Reference Air Concentrations (RfCs) by a factor of 2.7. This study shows that barbecue charcoal combustion can be an important source of trace metal emissions to the atmosphere with potential health risks.

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... According to studies, metals are an expressive route of exposure to toxic compounds [19][20][21]. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers [19]. ...
... According to an estimate of daily intake for the bioaccessible trace elements in the coal samples available in the United Kingdom, As and Al are the elements that caused the most significant concern of impact on human health [19]. The Canadian government considers charcoal as a source of hazardous emissions for health; thus, its sale and advertising are under regulation [20]. ...
... As noted in other samples, the Cu levels in raw chicken show statistically significant differences in comparison with CCA-treated Eucalyptus samples (0.63 ± 0.22 mg/kg). In fact, the presence of elements such as Cu in roasted meats can be explained due to the CCA-treated eucalyptus wood [24,40], composition of the fuel itself [20], and the contamination of the electric grill [41,42,44]. ...
Article
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Data on the content of metals and metalloids in roasted meats with different types of wood and charcoal are still scarce in the literature. The concentrations of metals (Al, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, and Zn) and metalloid (As) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion, and the estimated daily intake (EDI) for adults was assessed to determine the hazard quotient (HQ). The concentrations of Al, Cr, Cu, and Fe in raw meats were below the data obtained in other countries. The concentration of As (0.17 ± 0.42-0.23 ± 0.10 mg/kg), Mg (206.77 ± 3.99-291.95 ± 8.87 mg/kg), V (0.42 ± 0.14-6.66 ± 0.80 mg/kg), and Zn (6.66 ± 0.80-48.13 ± 0.56 mg/kg) in raw meats exceeded the values in the literature. The concentrations of Mg, As, Cr, Fe, V, and Zn are high when the meat is roasted using wood. All levels of Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, V, and Zn in raw meats are lower than those of meat roasted with coal and wood. The content of As in meat roasted with Chromed Copper Arsenate (CCA) wood (15.10 ± 0.27-26.25 ± 1.47 mg/kg) is higher than meat roasted with charcoal (0.46 ± 0.09-1.16 ± 0.50 mg/kg). EDI and HQ values revealed a minimal exposure of the adult population to those metals through roasted-meats consumption. However, EDI values of As in some roasted meats are above standard limits. Roast meats with wood showed higher levels of major and trace elements than meats roasted with coal. High exposures, in the long-term, may cause damage to health.
... In this study, concentrations of 10 trace elements in solid BBQ charcoal samples were determined. Our study group has already conducted a number of studies to quantify diverse pollutants released during BBQ charcoal combustion as a potential source of trace metals [8], aromatic volatile organic compounds and carbonyls [9], and gaseous elemental mercury [10]. Although our previous studies were able to cover the emission characteristics of pollutants released from charcoal combustion, we were not able to evaluate the contents of trace elements contained in solid charcoal itself. ...
... In contrast, in charcoal combustion smoke, the mean concentrations for each metal decreased in the following order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Co > Cd > Ni > Hg > As [8,10]. However, the mean concentrations of Cr, Pb, and Hg were found to exceed the resource conservation and recovery act (RCRA) regulation [11]. ...
... In addition, Korean and Indonesian samples showed a total of 4 and 3 cases of strongly correlated pairs, respectively. This is highly comparable to the patterns seen in our previous studies in which many metallic components released during charcoal combustion exhibited strong correlations with each other (e.g., between Cu and such metals as Cr, Co, Cd, and As) [8]. This type of trend between metallic species has been commonly found, for example, in the analysis of atmospheric deposition samples at Yangtze River Delta of East China (e.g., As with Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn (r ≥ 0.393, P = 0.01)) [13]. ...
Article
In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg(-1) (As) to 118 mg kg(-1) (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.
... These weather conditions contributed to wildfires in rural areas in Bogota (SDA, 2017) and nearby municipalities and encouraged citizens to make barbecues (BBQ) across the city, which is a very common family activity in January. Both wildfires and BBQ charcoal combustion have been identified as important sources of trace metals (Susaya et al., 2010;Kabir et al., 2011;Odigie and Flegal, 2014). ...
... The most significant daily concentration of Cu throughout the year was recorded on January 3, 2016 (530 ng/m 3 ; Fig. 1), which is the first Sunday of the year on which families usually have BBQs in their homes and authorized public parks in Bogota. Consequently, the massive use of charcoal might be an important urban source of Cu, which agrees well with the results of other studies (Susaya et al., 2010;Kabir et al., 2011). Although the impact of the charcoal combustion was observed in a specific season, its contribution to the trace particles amount should not be neglected in other months because several restaurants regularly use charcoal as fuel. ...
... The high Cd enrichment (EF = 85) supports this idea because several studies have revealed the main urban sources of Cd to be anthropogenic. These include industrial (metal smelting, fossil fuel combustion, and waste incineration) (Cheng et al., 2018) and commercial activities (charcoal combustion) (Susaya et al., 2010), exhaust emissions (Jaiprakash, 2017), and the resuspension of road dust (Pant and Harrison, 2013;Ramírez et al., 2019). Copper did not exhibit a statistically significant correlation with any other element, thereby indicating the existence of a singular anthropic source. ...
Article
The deleterious health effects of thoracic fractions seem to be more related to the chemical composition of the particles than to their mass concentration. The presence of hazardous materials in PM10 (e.g., heavy metals and metalloids) causes risks to human health. In this study, twelve trace elements (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Sn, Ba, Co, As, V, and Sb) in 315 samples of ambient PM10 were analyzed. The samples were collected at an urban background site in a Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia) for one year. The concentrations and temporal variabilities of these elements were examined. According to the results, Cu (52 ng/m3), Zn (44 ng/m3), Pb (25 ng/m3), and Ba (20 ng/m3) were the traces with the highest concentrations, particularly during the dry season (January to March), which was characterized by barbecue (BBQ) charcoal combustion and forest fires. In addition, the differences between the results of weekdays and weekends were identified. The determined enrichment factor (EF) indicated that Zn, Pb, Sn, Cu, Cd, and Sb mainly originated from anthropogenic sources. Moreover, a speciation analysis of inorganic Sb (EF > 300) was conducted, which revealed that Sb(V) was the main Sb species in the PM10 samples (>80%). Six causes for the hazardous elements were identified based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model: fossil fuel combustion and forest fires (60%), road dust (19%), traffic-related emissions (9%), copper smelting (8%), the iron and steel industry (2%), and an unidentified industrial sector (2%). Furthermore, a health risk assessment of the carcinogenic elements was performed. Accordingly, the cancer risk of inhalation exposure to Co, Ni, As, Cd, Sb(III), and Pb was negligible for children and adults at the sampling site. For adults, the adjusted Cr(VI) level was slightly higher than the minimal acceptable risk level during the study period (1.4 × 10−6).
... Charcoal is preferable over wood as a cooking fuel as it is easy to handle, feasible to store, and efficient to transport. Charcoal is used worldwide for barbecuing in both indoor and outdoor settings, as it generates more heat and less smoke234. Charcoal-grilled meat is very popular worldwide, partially due to the effect of flavor enhancement through grilling [2,5]. ...
... Charcoal-grilled meat is very popular worldwide, partially due to the effect of flavor enhancement through grilling [2,5]. However, burning charcoal can emit diverse pollutants including particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO)6789101112, greenhouse gases (GHGs)13141516 , hazardous trace metals (TMs) [4,5,17,18], volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [3,19202122, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)23242526. Among those diverse pollutants, PM is the most abundant, as its concentration is proportional to the amount of charcoal consumed for cooking, regardless of the source (cook-stoves, combustors, and grills) [8,9] . ...
... j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / t r a c Charcoal combustion in cooking activities can emit a suite of TMs including Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, which in most cases exceed the permissible indoor air guideline designated by OSHA [4,11]. Other organizations like the European Union (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO) set strict guidelines to monitor airborne TM species such as As, Cd, Hg, and Ni, as they are identified or suspected to have potent carcinogenic effects on human health272829 . ...
Article
Charcoal is widely used today for both indoor and outdoor cooking activities such as household cooking, grilling, barbecuing, and broiling. As such, its combustion has been designated as sources of a diverse range of pollutants containing particulate matter (PM) and a list of hazardous trace metals (TMs) in both indoor/outdoor ambient air. In this work, we review the current status of technical tools and approaches to measure the pollution of PM and TMs emitted due to charcoal combustion with respect to available sampling, pretreatment, and analytical techniques. The reported concentration levels of those pollutants were compared in reference to guideline values. Finally, the potential health hazards of PMs and TMs emitted from charcoal are evaluated. Based on this approach, a concise view is provided to describe the diversity, level, and health hazards of particulate and metallic pollutants emitted through the combustion of charcoal in cooking activities.
... Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Te, Ba, Ce, Hg, Pb, and Bi. The listed elements were selected on the basis of their toxicity being very high, high, medium, and low [21][22][23]. The division is based on living organisms' response to selected toxic element doses. ...
... Taking into account the degree of risk to the environment and, above all, to human health, the toxic elements determined in charcoal during the analysis were divided into four groups [21][22][23]: ...
... Limit values of toxic elements in solid fuels calculated from[21][22][23][24][25][26]. ...
Article
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Thirty-one batches of commercial charcoal from various regions of Poland and Germany were tested for the presence of 20 toxic elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Elements that are toxic to living organisms were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). They were classified as elements representing a very high degree of hazard (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb), high degree of hazard (Zn, Ba, Cr, Mn, and Mo), moderate degree of hazard (Co, Ni, Sn, and Te), and a low degree of hazard for living organisms and the environment (Ag, Bi, Ce, Se, Sr, and Zr). In regard to the most toxic elements, the highest concentration in the whole tested material was recorded for Cu. In addition, considerable amounts of Ba, Mn, and Sr, i.e., elements representing a high or moderate degree of hazard, were found in the tested charcoals. Moreover, all charcoals contained a wide range of PAHs, from naphthalene to benzo(ghi)perylene, with concentrations in a range between 12.55 and 3554.11 ng/g charcoal. In total, 25 unsubstituted PAHs were identified in the charcoal extracts. PAHs distributions were dominated by five-ring PAHs. The results indicate high carcinogenicity with ∑PAHcarc/∑PAHtot close to 1, as well as high TEQ and MEQ values. Thus, prolonged exposure to charcoal and charcoal dust might cause serious health problems. This applies to employees actively involved in the production and transport of charcoal and, to a lesser extent, users of this fuel.
... Charcoal is used for cooking at grillroom restaurants in Turkey and is also used extensively for barbecuing in households and restaurants worldwide. Charcoal contains many different types of hydrocarbons , sulfur compounds, organic and inorganic chemicals, water, a small amount of oxygen, and other trace elements (Kabir et al., 2011; Susaya et al., 2010 ). The combustion processes that occur during cooking are the main source of particulate matter found in the air, most of which is in the submicrometer range; therefore, people who are near the combustion charcoals (e.g., both customers and restaurant employees) can be exposed to inhalable pollutants, such as respirable suspended particles and carbon monoxide (Chao and Wong, 2002 ). ...
... omes from stainless steel utensils (e.g., spatula or pan) or restaurant food stalls. Stainless steel materials are frequently used in cooking processes in both commercial workplaces (e.g., restaurants and cafes) and residential homes. In addition, the Cr composition of stainless steel materials varies from 11 to 30% (Kuligowski and Halperin, 1992). Susaya et al. (2010) investigated the elemental concentrations of particles emitted during charcoal combustion. More specifically, they combusted selected charcoal products in a combustion device built in a traditional Korean style with a stainless-steel vent line, and this combustor was used to collect emission samples during charcoal combustion. Cd, Pb, a ...
... Oil compositions can affect the cooking temperature at which they are decomposed and released as smoke fumes (Torkmahalleh et al., 2012). Barbeque charcoal combustion was reported to emit the highest amounts of trace metals in comparison with the other examined sources (Pandey et al., 2009;See and Balasubramanian, 2008;Susaya et al., 2010;Taner et al., 2013). Even though the advanced technologies for household activities and the use of cleaner fuels (e.g., electricity and natural gas) could reduce indoor PM 2.5 level (Oanh et al., 1999;Pekey et al., 2010;See and Atmospheric Research 166 (2015) [83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91] Balasubramanian, 2008), cooking is always one of the major sources for indoor PM 2.5 . ...
... Hg, detected only in the snack-street boiling samples, had an average concentration of 17.9 ng m −3 , which exceeded the WHO guideline (5-10 ng m −3 ) as well. Exposure to these trace metals is a health concern (Pandey et al., 2009;Susaya et al., 2010;Sharp and Turner, 2013). More specifically, they can cause lung and heart diseases and DNA damage. ...
Article
Full-text available
PM2.5 samples were collected from five different cooking activities, namely, meat roasting, cafeteria frying, fish roasting, snack-street boiling, and cafeteria boiling in Ya'an, China. Their chemical compositions were investigated. The PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking samples were 2.5-9.6 times higher than those in the corresponding backgrounds. Meat roasting produced the highest amount of PM2.5. In general, charbroilings emitted more PM2.5 than the other cooking activities because of the characteristics of cooking method and fuel type. High organic carbon (OC) contents (>53% of PM2.5) and OC/EC ratios (>54) in meat roasting and cafeteria frying samples suggest that oils and high-fat raw materials significantly affect the PM2.5 and OC emissions. However, the cooking activity was proved to be a minor source for elemental carbon (EC) with its low contents in all of the samples. High ion compositions in PM2.5 and WSOC/OC ratios in the snack-street boiling and cafeteria boiling samples represent that water-based cooking emitted more water-soluble species. Considering that high OC/EC ratios were measured in the oil-based cooking samples and most secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are water soluble, it is more reasonable to estimate SOA with WSOC/OC ratio in populated urban areas. We found that the formation of SOA is significant when the WSOC/OC ratio is larger than 0.40. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the quantified metals identified four contributors to the samples, including coal combustion and non-licensed business activities, soil dust, charcoal burning, and stainless steel utensils, and explained 73% of the total variance. The high emissions of PM2.5 and toxic components from the cooking activities suggest that food safety control and environmental standard establishment should be strengthened in small and medium-sized cities in China.
... Charcoal burning is also a source of gaseous and particulate pollutants, including CO, aromatic volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds and trace elements [4,5]. Despite some governments declaring charcoal burning as a hazardous emission source, however, relatively few studies have quantified these pollutants or addressed their potential impacts on human health during barbecuing, either outdoors or in the restaurant setting [6][7][8][9]. Human exposure may arise through the incidental inhalation of gases and ashed, respirable particulates, and via the ingestion of chemicals absorbed by or deposited on to barbecued food. In a study of east European charcoals, Olsson and Petersson [7] showed that as much as 0.1% of charcoal carbon can be emitted as benzene on combustion during barbecuing, resulting in concentrations exceeding 10 mg m −3 above the charcoal bed. ...
... Pandey et al. [10] employed a similar approach to determine the emission of mercury from 11 east Asian charcoal products and found that various recommended reference exposure limits were exceeded in many cases. PM-10 generated from the combustion of the same charcoal samples were analysed for trace elements by Susaya et al. [8], and some elements, including Cd and Pb, were found to exceed various air quality guidelines by an order of magnitude. The concentrations of each element in the uncombusted products analysed by the same research group were found to be highly variable, with maximum concentrations of As, Cd, Cu and Pb of 7.1, 2.1, 18.8 and 55.3 g g −1 , respectively [11]. ...
Article
Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers. Total concentrations (available to boiling aqua regia) were greater in briquetted products (with mean concentrations ranging from 0.16μgg(-1) for Cd to 3240μgg(-1) for Al) than in lumpwoods (0.007μgg(-1) for Cd to 28μgg(-1) for Fe), presumably because of the use of additives and secondary constituents (e.g. coal) in the former. On ashing, and with the exception of Hg, elemental concentrations increased by factors ranging from about 1.5 to 50, an effect attributed to the combustion of organic components and offset to varying extents by the different volatilities of the elements. Concentrations in the ashed products that were bioaccessible, or available to a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that simulates, successively, the chemical conditions in the human stomach and intestine, exhibited considerable variation among the elements studied. Overall, however, bioaccessible concentrations relative to corresponding total concentrations were greatest for As, Cu and Ni (attaining 100% in either or both simulated PBET phases in some cases) and lowest for Pb (generally <1% in both phases). A comparison of bioaccessible concentrations in ashed charcoals with estimates of daily dietary intake suggest that Al and As are the trace elements of greatest concern to human health from barbecuing.
... Barbecue charcoal combustion can be a significant source of trace metal emissions to the atmosphere. Susaya et al. [23] reported concentrations of Cd, Co and Ni exceeding the inhalation minimum risk levels of the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry for chronic duration exposure. In their study, eleven types of charcoal were burned in a combustion device built in a traditional Korean style with stainless-steel vent line. ...
... Furthermore, the majority of the studies on this topic have been focused on particular fuels from particular regions. A rather extensive amount of work has been performed to characterise the emissions from charcoal of the Asian market (e.g., [18,19,[21][22][23]25]), and, to a lesser extent, few studies focused on charcoal fuels from Poland [20], Sweden [20,24] and United States [21,26]. The raw materials used in charcoal production, as well as the production process conditions, are very important regarding the final properties of the fuel [2]. ...
Article
The use of charcoal for cooking and heating can be a major source of air pollution and lead to a wide range of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to experimentally quantify and characterise the gaseous and particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from charcoal combustion in a typical brick barbecue grill. The gaseous emission factors were 219 ± 44.8 g kg−1 for carbon monoxide (CO), 3.01 ± 0.698 g kg−1 for nitrogen oxides (NOx expressed as NO2), and 4.33 ± 1.53 gC kg−1 for total organic carbon (TOC). Particle emissions (7.38 ± 0.353 g kg−1 of dry charcoal burned) were of the same order of magnitude as those from traditional residential wood burning appliances. About 50% of the PM2.5 emitted had a carbonaceous nature while water soluble ions accounted, on average, for 17% of the particulate mass. Alkanes (C11–C16 and C23), hopanes, steranes and alkyl-PAHs accounted for small mass fractions of PM2.5. Phenolic compounds and saccharides represented the major particle-bond organic constituents. The high proportion of either resin acids or syringyl and vanillyl compounds is consistent with emissions from charred coniferous wood. The ratios between anhydrosugars for charcoal are much lower than the values reported for lignite combustion, but overlap those from other biomass burning sources.
... Charcoal is made up of various types of organic and inorganic compounds such as hydrocarbons, sulfur, water, and oxygen along with numerous trace elements [1]. Recent investigations of charcoals also revealed that its combustion fume can act as a potential source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, trace metals (including mercury), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)34567. As a result of high airborne pollutant emissions from charcoal combustion, the Canadian government listed charcoal as a hazardous material [8]. ...
... To this end, the emission concentrations of key offensive odorants were measured from a total of 15 different barbecue charcoal products commercially available in the Korean market. In a number of previous studies, we investigated the emission characteristics of several pollutant groups including aromatic volatile organic compounds and carbonyls [4] and trace metals including mercury [6,7]. The metallic content in raw (unburnt) charcoal products was also investigated [5]. ...
Article
A number of offensive odorants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, and ammonia were measured along with several reference pollutants (like benzene (B), CS(2), SO(2), CO, and total hydrocarbon (THC)) from combusted fumes of barbecue charcoals produced from five different countries (Korea, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the US). Although the emission concentrations of most odorants were generally below the reference guideline set by the malodor prevention law in Korea, the mean concentration of some aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) and ammonia exceeded those guidelines. As such, aldehydes were the most dominant odorant released from charcoal combustion followed by VOC and ammonia. If odorant levels of charcoal products are compared, there are great distinctions between the products of different countries. If comparison is made using the concept of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), the magnitude of SOI for the charcoal products from the five different countries varied in the order of 4.30 (Korea), 3.10 (Indonesia), 2.97 (China), 2.76 (Malaysia), and 2.76 (the US).
... Charcoal combustion during the food grilling process is reported to be a significant source of exposure to Mn and some other trace elements (Susaya et al., 2010). The findings from a prior study reported that the combustion of charcoal used to grill foods exceeded US EPA reference air concentrations for Mn by almost three-fold and was second only to coal-fired power stations in manganese emissions (Susaya et al., 2010). ...
... Charcoal combustion during the food grilling process is reported to be a significant source of exposure to Mn and some other trace elements (Susaya et al., 2010). The findings from a prior study reported that the combustion of charcoal used to grill foods exceeded US EPA reference air concentrations for Mn by almost three-fold and was second only to coal-fired power stations in manganese emissions (Susaya et al., 2010). This could help to explain the positive association between maternal MnB levels and Tripa mishqui vendor stands. ...
Article
Background: Lead and other toxic and potentially toxic metals and metalloids are significant contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. Studies characterizing blood metal/metalloid levels and potential sources of environmental exposures are limited for populations living in the major urban centers of Andean-area countries. Methods: We used ICP-MS to quantify blood levels of lead (PbB), cadmium (CdB), manganese (MnB), total arsenic (AsB), and total mercury (HgB) in school-age children (n = 47) and their reproductive-age mothers (n = 49) from low-resource households in Quito, Ecuador. These were compared to published 95th percentile reference values (RV95) and for PbB, also to CDC reference values. We used a detailed environmental questionnaire to examine the contribution of residential and neighborhood environmental exposure sources with participant blood metal/metalloid levels. We used ICP-MS to measure Pb levels in residential windowsill dust, floor dust, and drinking water samples and used XRF for paint samples. Results: Forty-five percent of the mothers had PbBs ≥ 5 μg/dL; 14.3% had PbBs ≥10 μg/dL. Maternal blood levels exceeded RV95s for PbB (76%), CdB (41%), MnB (88%), HgB (57%), and AsB (90%). Of children, 68% had PbBs ≥ 5 μg/dL, and 21.3% had PbB ≥10 μg/dL. Most child blood levels exceeded the RV95s for PbB (100%), CdB (100%), MnB (94%), and total HgB (94%) and AsB (98%). Most mothers (97%) and all children had blood levels indicating exposure to multiple metal/metalloid mixtures. Maternal and child PbBs were moderately correlated with each other but the other four metals/metalloids were not. Factors associated with maternal blood metal/metalloid levels were residence in a home with an earthen floor (PbB) or bare cement block walls (MnB), living near a dirt-paved or cobblestone street (PbB), <50 m from a heavily trafficked major roadway (PbB, HgB), living in the Los Chillos (PbB) or Cotocollao neighborhoods (PbB, HgB), or in areas where street vendors grilled food using charcoal (MnB). Factors associated with child blood metal/metalloid levels were residence in a dirt floor home (PbB, CdB, AsB), living near a dirt-paved or cobblestone street (PbB), living in the El Camal or Cotocollao neighborhoods (AsB), or in local neighborhoods where scrap metal smelters (MnB) and LPG gas depositories (PbB) were present. Conclusions: The elevated blood levels of PbB, other metal/metalloids, and metal/metalloid mixtures identified mothers and children in this exploratory study is an urgent public health and clinical concern. The exposure patterns suggest that traffic-related exposures, especially the resuspension of legacy Pb in dust, as well as other anthropogenic and geogenic sources may be important environmental contributors to metal/metalloid exposures in urban Ecuadorian mothers and children. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore other potential exposure sources. Biomonitoring is also needed in order to formulate effective intervention strategies to reduce population exposure to toxic levels of environmental metals/metalloids.
... Moreover, it should be emphasized that the combustion of cooking fuels can also release various hazardous materials. For example, aromatic VOCs, mercury and trace metal were identified from barbecue charcoal combustion141516. Ellegard investigated the association between exposure to air pollutants from cooking fuels (wood, charcoal, electricity and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)) and health aspects [17]. ...
... Moreover, it should be emphasized that the combustion of cooking fuels can also release various hazardous materials. For example, aromatic VOCs, mercury and trace metal were identified from barbecue charcoal combustion [14][15][16]. Ellegard investigated the association between exposure to air pollutants from cooking fuels (wood, charcoal, electricity and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)) and health aspects [17]. Curry powder (11.5 g), corn starch (5.6 g), salt (4.0 g), sugar (5.3 g) Stir-fry and boil 28.4 ± 3.6 133.7 ± 8.8 ...
Article
Cooking emission samples collected in two residential kitchens were compared where towngas (denoted as dwelling A) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (denoted as dwelling B) were used as cooking fuels. A total of 50 different volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified during the 90 min cooking periods. None of any carcinogenic compounds like formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or benzene are detected in the raw fuels, confirming that those are almost entirely derived due to cooking activity alone. Alkenes accounted for approximately 53% of the total measured VOCs collected at dwelling A, while alkanes contributed approximately 95% of the VOCs at dwelling B during the cooking periods. The concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene also increased during the cooking periods. The total amount of carbonyls emitted from the cooking processes at dwelling A (2708 μg) is three times higher than that at dwelling B (793 μg). Acetaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl at the dwelling A but its emission was insignificant at the dwelling B. Carcinogenic risks on chronic exposure to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene for housewives and domestic helpers were evaluated. Formaldehyde accounts for 68% and close to 100% of lifetime cancer risks at dwelling A and B, respectively.
... Les deux premiers facteurs étaient associés à une augmentation de l'imprégnation en nickel alors que le chauffage au bois était associé à une diminution. Les barbecue à charbon de bois sont une importante source d'exposition au nickel, les fumées de ce type de barbecues excédant les niveaux de risque minimum (MRL) définis par l'USEPA ( Susaya et al., 2010). La fertilisation du potager avec des cendres peut impacter les imprégnations par deux processus : soit une exposition lors de l'application ou par remise en suspension ultérieure si les cendres sont contaminées en nickel, soit par un effet indirect, en influençant la disponibilité et la mobilité du nickel dans le sol en affectant le pH de ce dernier. ...
... Napthalene is well known for its cataractogeneic potential and is indeed used to induce cataract in animal models [28]. Of note, biomass smoke condensates also contain metal ions such as lead, and lead exposure is associated with protein aggregation diseases like cataract [7,29]. Thus, there is reasonable plausibility to hypothesize a linkage between cataract and HAP exposure. ...
Article
Full-text available
In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted.
... ng/L. In the case of the other VOCs, a total of 14 compounds consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, an alcohol, and volatile fatty acids ((1) benzene, (2) toluene, (3) p-xylene, (4) m-xylene, (5) o-xylene, (6) styrene, (7) methyl ethyl ketone, (8) methyl isobutyl ketone, (9) butyl acetate, (10) isobutyl alcohol, (11) propanoic acid, (12) n-butyric acid, (13) i-valeric acid, and (14) n-valeric acid)) were selected. These VOCs were analyzed using thermal desorption (TD)-GC/MS. ...
... Thus in Korea, charcoal has been widely used as folk remedies. Analyzing the elements of charcoal, it has been shown trace metal elements or minerals, such as magnesium , silicate, calcium, palladium, zink, lead, cooper, cadmium , nickel, and manganese [10]. In our case, it can be inferred that a portion of the charcoal's constituents deposited in the terminal ileum. ...
Article
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Gastrointestinal melanosis is observed most frequently in the colon it also can develop in the ileum, duodenum and esophagus very rarely. Melanosis ilei was thought that causative materials such as aluminum, magnesium, silicate, titanium and other compounds entered the body through the ingestion of agents. We experienced a case of melanosis in the terminal ileum that a 65-year-old female patient ingested 10 g edible charcoal everyday for 3 years to address symptoms of chronic abdominal pain. In Korea, edible charcoal has been considered to be an effective folk remedy for patients with diarrhea or chronic abdominal pain. In our case, a follow up colonoscopy was performed 3.5 years after the termination of the ingestion of edible charcoal, at which point pigmentation was faded color intensity. In conclusion, it is thought that melanosis ilei is a rare disease by ingestion of causative materials and is discontinuous, local and reversible disease.
... Additionally, common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (commonly called BTX) were significantly higher with the use of biomass fuel relative to natural gas[16]. Likewise, considerable emissions of VOCs and metals have also been detected from combustion of BBQ charcoals produced from several countries[17,18]. As cooking activities occur in the close proximity of people, they are usually exposed to high levels of these pollutants[19]. ...
Article
Pollutant emission from domestic and commercial cooking activities is a previously neglected area of concern with respect to human health worldwide. Its health effects are relevant to people across the globe, not only those using low quality food materials in lesser-developed countries but also to more affluent people enjoying higher quality food in developed countries. Based on the available database of pollutant emissions derived from fire-based cooking, its environmental significance is explored in a number of ways, especially with respect to the exposure to hazardous vapors and particulate pollutants. Discussion is extended to describe the risk in relation to cooking methods, cooking materials, fuels, etc. The observed pollutant levels are also evaluated against the current regulations and guidelines established in national and international legislation. The limitations and future prospects for the control of cooking hazards are discussed.
... Because of the thinner skull and higher tissue conductivity, little children are more sensitive to the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the cell phones than adults (Sallomi 2012). A line of evidence supports the notion that potential health hazards could result from the frequent use of cell phones, just as such hazards result from exposure to pollutants from various other sources (Susaya et al. 2010;Kim et al. 2011a;Kabir and Kim 2011;Rahman and Kim 2012). It is more complicated to describe exposure risk to cell phone radiation relative to those associated with airborne pollutants (Lim et al. 2009;Kim et al. 2011bKim et al. , 2013Kim et al. , 2015. ...
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The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way.
... Once again, we found that the concentrations of all metals were higher among households using coal for heating than among those using central heating (Supplementary Table 1). Susaya et al. (2010) investigated the elemental concentrations of particles emitted during charcoal combustion and found that Cd, Pb, and Zn were most prevalent. However, the concentrations of Co, Pb, and Zn were higher during the non-heating season compared to the heating season in our study, suggesting that these metals may come from sources other than heating. ...
Article
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The study aimed to investigate the metal compositions in indoor PM2.5 and the potential health risks they pose to residents of an urban area in China. A total of 41 and 54 households were surveyed in February and September 2013, respectively. The results showed that the indoor concentrations of metals varied depending on the types of cooking fuels used. All measured concentrations of metals were highest among households using coal for cooking. In the majority of households, non-carcinogenic risks were posed by the use of coal. The carcinogenic risks posed by chromium (VI) and arsenic were generally higher among households using coal for cooking than among those using gas or electricity. The multivariate linear regression model suggested a potential adverse effect from arsenic and cadmium on birth weight and gestational weeks. This study also found that cooking fuel was the most significant factor that contributed to the differences in concentrations of metals in indoor PM2.5 and highlighted the importance of using clean energy for cooking and heating.
... For example, meat frying and charbroiling activities can be a significant source of aerosolized organic PM 2.5 (Chappell 2003;Rogge et al. 1991;Watson et al. 1998). Cooking with charcoal can also produce Ba, K, Mg, Na, S, and Zn (Kabir et al. 2011;Susaya et al. 2010). Vehicles used when traveling to and from firework displays are another potential source of Ba, Cu, OC, Sr, and Zn in PM 2.5 (Abu-Allaban et al. 2007;Chellam et al. 2005;Gillies and Gertler 2000), and driving can lead to the re-suspension of Al, Ba, K, Mg, Na, Ti, and Zn from sand, gravel, and road dust (Chellam et al. 2005;Reff et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Fireworks emit particulate matter (PM) air pollution. Laboratory and epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to PM with cardiovascular and respiratory effects. Although it was reported that the mass of total PM with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is elevated on July 4th and 5th, no studies to date have used national, multi-year air quality monitoring data to determine which individual PM2.5 components increase due to July 4th fireworks. To evaluate this, we compiled and analyzed 24-h average PM2.5 air quality measurements collected by the Environmental Protection Agency’s Chemical Speciation Network monitors positioned at 379 urban sites across the USA over the years 2000 to 2014. By combining all individual daily mean PM2.5 concentrations recorded and viewing the arithmetic mean concentrations over time, we observed sharp and statistically significant increases in the concentrations of the firework-related chemicals barium, chlorine, copper, magnesium, potassium, and strontium on July 4th, which persisted through July 5th. There were also modest, but still statistically significant, increases of the concentrations of the firework-related components aluminum, arsenic, antimony, chromium, phosphorous, sulfur, titanium, and zinc on July 4th. Concentrations of elemental and organic carbon, calcium, cesium, iron, nickel, and sodium did not significantly increase on July 4th. These findings provide important information about changes in ambient air quality around Independence Day in the USA.
... They found meat roasting produced the high amount of PM2.5 that 9.6 times higher than the corresponding backgrounds. Charcoal combustion is also an important source of atmospheric trace metal pollution, 11 charcoal products were combusted and PM10 filter samples were collected [9]. Emissions of most elements from charcoal combustion were high compared to other sources. ...
Article
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An assessment of Chinese charcoal barbecue restaurants was carried out to assess the impact of ventilation systems on the indoor air quality. This study focused on the temperature field, relative humidity field and concentration distribution. The indoor environments of the sampled restaurants were related to the fuel of heat sources and the mechanical exhaust system, especially the local exhaust system. For most of time, CO2 values did not exceed the acceptable level. CO is the main contaminant of this kind of charcoal barbecue restaurants. From the data available we could find restaurant C3 produced the largest amount of CO (38.5 PPM) in cooking mode because of natural air supply. While restaurant C2 generated the largest amount of CO (42.6 PPM) in idle mode due to the temporary use of exhaust hood. There was a little difference between the mean temperatures and relative humidity before and after dinner.
... As the interest in renewable energy rises and the use of abundant solid biomass grows, it is critical to understand how fuel properties influence combustion emissions, impact human health, and our environment. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the purity of solid biomass fuels available on the market and examine if these fuels are of the highest possible quality before reaching consumers (Bioenergy Europe, 2020;BP, 2020;Drobniak et al., 2021aDrobniak et al., , 2021bChandrasekaran et al., 2012;Huang et al., 2016;Jelonek et al., 2020aJelonek et al., , 2020bJelonek et al., , 2021Jiang et al., 2018;Johnson, 2009;Kabir et al., 2010Kabir et al., , 2011Kao et al., 2014;Kuchler et al., 2019;Kuo et al., 2006;Larson and Koenig, 1994;Miranda et al., 2015;Mirowski et al., 2018;Oanh et al., 2002;Obernberger et al., 2006;Olsson and Petersson, 2003;Orasche et al., 2012;PFI, 2021;Rahman and Kim, 2012;Ruchirawat et al., 2005;Sun et al., 2019;Susaya et al., 2010;Viegas et al., 2012;Vicente et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2015). ...
Article
As concerns about climate change and sustainability rise, biomass utilization has a potential to become one of the pillars of the future energy market. It is therefore critical to assure that solid biomass fuels are of the highest quality and do not contribute to avoidable air pollution. Our research has shown that petrographic analysis of solid biomass in reflected light can quickly and reliably provide information on fuel composition and contamination. As such, this technique has a potential to improve our understanding of raw fuel properties and, in some instances, even predict parameters of their combustion emissions. This paper provides guidelines for conducting microscopic analysis of wood pellets and charcoal-based fuels in reflected light. It presents two preliminary microscopic classifications of solid biomass components and emphasizes the need for training materials, exemplified by recently published photomicrograph atlases. Our research indicates that pairing reflected light microscopy with the currently used standard testing would enhance the quality assessment of solid biomass. To achieve this, the methodology must be promoted, tested for inter-laboratory reproducibility, and finally standardized.
... Kabir et al. [31] measured the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds emitted from barbecue cooking in East Asia and showed that toluene was the most abundant VOC and formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most prominent carbonyls. In addition, trace metals in the PM 10 of barbecue smoke were at the level of several to 10 5 ng/m 3 , with the highest levels found for Zn, Pb, and Mg [32]. Despite these efforts, there is still a lack of in situ measurements of particles emitted from normal outdoor barbecue cooking, which are essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the pollution characteristics. ...
Article
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To understand the pollution characteristics of particulate matter emitted from outdoor barbecue cooking in eastern China, measurements of the PM2.5 mass concentration, the number concentration of particles with a diameter of 0.01 to 1.0 mm, and the particle size distribution from 0.3 to 25 mm were carried out at seven barbecue restaurants in urban Jinan. The average PM2.5 mass concentration and sub-micron particle number concentrations at a distance of 1 m from the grills were 250 to 1083 mg/m³ and 0.90 × 10⁵ to 2.23 × 10⁵ cm–3, respectively, which were much higher than those in the ambient air of the urban area. Compared to the ambient atmosphere, barbecue cooking emitted very high levels of particles with a larger increase in the concentrations of super-micron particles than that of sub-micron particles. The super-micron particle number concentrations at the barbecue restaurants were 10 to 100 times higher than those observed in the ambient urban atmosphere. The barbecue smoke had a significant effect on the particle concentrations in the surrounding region. Both mass and number concentrations of particles exhibited maximum values immediately near the barbecue grills and often reached a peak at a distance of 10 to 15 m. The removal efficiency of a range hood for the cooking particles was tested in an indoor kitchen. The range hood effectively cleaned the particulate matter pollution caused by cooking with a removal efficiency larger than 80%. Therefore, the use of a range hood is recommended for outdoor barbecue restaurants coupled with a smoke purifier to clean the emitted high concentrations of particles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2018, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
... This indicates that the VOC levels of Korean products can be clearly distinguished from those of the other three countries. Considerably large metal levels were also seen from Korean charcoal products investigated recently by our study group, although those samples were not identical to the ones used in this study [15]. In contrast, the emission concentrations from the Chinese and Malaysian samples were similar and showed reduced values (Fig. 3a). ...
Article
The emission concentrations of a number of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds were quantified during the combustion of commonly used barbecue charcoal. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyls were determined by gas chromatography coupled with thermal desorption and HPLC method, respectively. The analysis of VOC emission concentrations showed that toluene (116+/-444 ppb) was the most abundant. On the other hand, the carbonyls were dominated by formaldehyde (275+/-477 ppb) and acetaldehyde (126+/-229 ppb). A line of evidence indicates that the emission patterns of these pollutants are associated with the diverse nature of raw materials and the processes involved in their production. Although emission concentrations of target compounds were in most cases below the permissible exposure limits (PEL), a proper regulation against the use of BBQ charcoal is needed to reduce potential health risks associated with its use.
... contributed by anthropogenic sources than natural sources (Shah and Shaheen, 2008;Okuda et al., 2008). The main anthropogenic sources include vehicular emissions (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba), construction and industrial emissions (Mn, Al, Si) and combustion processes (Ni, Cr,) (Fang et al., 2010;Okuda et al., 2008;Susaya et al., 2010). Indoors, the abundance of trace metals are attributed to infiltration from outdoor sources (Habil et al., 2013) and various indoor sources such as paints, equipment, and tobacco smoke (Chattopadhyay et al., 2003;Paoletti et al., 2006;Taner et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The airborne levels of carcinogenic trace metals lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) were evaluated in the Orthopaedic Operation Theater (OOT), Orthopaedic Wards (OW) and Orthopaedic Emergency Rooms (OER) of six hospitals, in Lahore, Pakistan. Overall, the average levels of Cd, As and Ni (31, 20, and 37 ng/m) were lower indoors as compared to outdoors (39, 21, and 51 ng/m3) except Pb. The high indoor levels of Pb (113 ng/m3) as compared to outdoors (85 ng/m3) suggested pronounced indoor sources. The average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio for the Pb, Cd, As and Ni were 1.34, 0.94, 0.99 and 0.79 respectively. The results showed that indoor air in the hospitals were affected by the common effects of indoor (wall paints, indoor equipment, environmental tobacco smoke) and outdoor (dust, soil and fuel combustion) sources. The hospitals were located on busy roads, where high vehicular emissions probably emit trace metal pollutants.
... Charcoal also contains trace metals, including mercury and lead, which vary in concentration depending on raw materials and production techniques (Kabir, Kim, & Yoon, 2011), and which are released into the air during its combustion, thus representing an inhalation hazard for exposed humans (Susaya, Kim, Ahn, Jung, & Kang, 2010). During combustion of charcoal as a barbeque fuel, the emitted mercury is also deposited onto foodstuffs, because mercury vapour is highly transferrable to other items and therefore, especially with indoor cooking, lurks around homes or verandas for months to years (Pandey, Kim, Kang, Jung, & Yoon, 2008). ...
Chapter
For centuries, solid biomass fuels, such as charcoal and firewood, have been distinctly dominant sources of energy for cooking in sub-Saharan Africa. This form of energy still plays a significant role in this energy transition era. Lightweight, indestructible and inexpensive, charcoal is transported on trucks from various rural sites to mainly serve urban centres, where demand is high, and markets are more lucrative. Charcoal production predominantly occurs in private forests and is highly decentralized, which makes the product ubiquitous in the informal markets. Unlike energy segments that are based on hydro- and nuclear power or on fossil fuels, the continuous production of charcoal from felling trees and its consumption are usually not active pursuits of formal national development plans. In fact, many energy policies and regional economic strategies have geared significant investments towards electrification with intentions of rigorously supplanting biomass and its side effects on the environment and public health. However, the demand, trade and consumption of charcoal have persistently surpassed those of ‘modern’ alternatives even where electric grids are prevalent. Indeed, charcoal extends to international markets, served through exports, despite stringent regulations, which include total bans on the production side. This book chapter explores the charcoal supply chain, highlighting Africa’s roles as a significant producer and consumer of charcoal and as an important exporter of this commodity to the rest of the world. We acknowledge charcoal’s role in microeconomic development and further discuss its acute downsides, such as energy-related forest loss and its impact on public health and the quality of life. The endurance of charcoal in the global energy mix has led to a disproportionate loss of vegetation, because producers are increasingly nomadic, creating single-use earth-mound kilns and moving on in pursuit of new trees. Our recommendations include sustainable forest management, innovation at the cooking level, and improved education targeted at worldwide consumers about both the adverse implications of upstream procurement activities and the side effects of consuming this fuel.
... Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the chemical composition and application of PM emitted from cooking (Abdullahi et al., 2013;Allan et al., 2010;Kleeman et al., 2008;Robinson et al., 2006a;Schauer et al., 1999a;Susaya et al., 2010). Previous studies have shown that n-alkanes, fatty acids, sterols, and PAHs were the primary constituents of particulate organic matter, and fatty acids constituted more than 60% of the quantified compounds (He et al., 2004;Schauer et al., 1999a;Zhao et al., 2007aZhao et al., , 2007b. ...
Article
Cooking is one of the primary sources of particulate organic matter (POM) in urban environments. Numerous experiments have been performed to investigate the composition of POM generated during cooking. However, there still remain substantial uncertainties in our knowledge regarding the emission characteristics of alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking. In addition, previous studies have selected several tracers for Chinese cooking; however, these results were acquired based on observations in the Pearl River Delta region of China, and only four of the eight Chinese cooking styles were tested. Therefore, the organic compositions of the PM2.5 emitted from four Chinese cooking restaurants in different cities are examined to investigate the emission characteristics of alkyl PAH and to verify whether the selected tracers vary with geographical location and cooking styles. In this study, C1- and C2-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C1-pyrenes were detected in the PM2.5 from the four tested restaurants, but the concentrations of these PAH alkyl homologues were all at low levels, and also much lower than the corresponding parent PAHs. However, the distribution pattern of the alkyl PAHs in the cooking fumes was significantly different from that in the PM from other emission sources. Additionally, some candidate tracers for cooking such as levoglucosan were less influenced by cooking styles or geographical location. Thus, these alkyl PAHs in conjunction with other specific tracers for cooking were utilized to estimate the contribution of cooking to ambient organic carbon. The results showed that the estimates from the chemical mass balance model that includes alkyl PAHs will be higher than the model that does not, and in the case of high alkyl PAHs ambient concentrations, the model that includes alkyl PAHs will provide more reasonable results.
... Naphthalene, which is found in biomass fuels, is well known for its cataractogenic capability and is used to bring about cataracts in animal models [153]. Studies suggest that contact with a toxic metal ion (Pb, lead) is connected with protein accretion diseases such as cataracts [154]. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is associated with smoking, is also a chronic eye disease [155]. ...
Article
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Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the most important global environmental and public health issues. As a result of changes in air composition due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, air quality is deteriorating and outdoor pollution is increasing daily. Simultaneously, poor ventilation, microbial growth, tobacco smoke, solid fuel use, and different toxic chemicals are causing deterioration in household air quality, which contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. This paper reviews the available literature to examine the impact of HAP on human health, comprehensively identifies the sources of HAP, and synthesize management approaches to reducing the severity of HAP. The English language databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched using the key terms: HAP, particulate matter, health risks, public health, pollutant sources, burden of diseases, and management approach. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were also screened to find further useful articles. This review addresses all possible sources of HAP that are categorized as biological or chemical (organic and inorganic) and are associated with grave public health threats, such as lung function reduction, respiratory illness, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, eye diseases, pregnancy complications, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Suggested approaches, including compliance with international guidelines and regulatory frameworks, pollutant source reduction methods, and fulfillment of international environmental laws, conventions, agreements, protocols, and treaties, can be effectively adopted to mitigate household air pollutants, reduce the global burden of disease, and promote household environments that support better human health. The sources of HAP and its health impacts should be considered in the development of future policies concerning reduction in all household air pollutants worldwide. Therefore, this review establishes the groundwork for future studies assessing the effectiveness of strategies aimed at creating sound household environments to promote better human health.
... Abriquettes having a high content of biomass (6.1% by volume based on petrographic analysis), B-Cbriquette containing a piece of plastic, Dbriquette containing a metal screw, Ebriquette containing a piece of metal (aluminum foil from candy), Flump charcoal packaged with a piece of unburned wood (bottom of the image). al., 2006;Johnson, 2009;Kabir et al., 2010Kabir et al., , 2011Susaya et al., 2010;Rahman and Kim, 2012;Viegas et al., 2012;Kao et al., 2014;Wu et al., 2015;Huang et al., 2016;Vicente and Alves, 2017;Jiang et al., 2018;Vicente et al., 2018;Sun et al., 2019). Not only can burning charcoal briquettes or lumps produce a significant amount of ash and odor, but, more importantly, grilling fumes can have negative impacts on human health (Wu et al., 2015;Oanh et al., 2002). ...
Article
Numerous studies have been conducted to assess air pollution and human health risks arising from exposure to outdoor cooking, but limited standards have been implemented around the world to assure fuel quality. While charcoal briquettes and lumps are a popular fuel choice for grilling, almost no data specifying their properties are available to consumers. Because the properties of fuels affect the flue gases, it is critical to understand how the quality of grilling briquettes and lumps translates not only into the quality of the grilled food, but, even more importantly, how their emissions impact human safety and the environment. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of the quality of charcoal briquettes and lumps on potentially harmful emissions during grilling. To analyze their quality, we used reflected light microscopy to identify a range of contaminants, including biomass, mineral matter, coal, coke, metal, rust, plastics, glues, and synthetic resins, in 74 commercially available products made in Poland, the United States of America, Ukraine, Germany, Belarus, the Czech Republic, and the Republic of South Africa. Our data show that majority of the products analyzed do not meet the existing quality standard EN 1860-2:2005 (E) of less than 1% contaminants, some of these products contain up to 26.6% of impurities. The amount of contaminants correlates with particulate matter, as well as CO and CO2. The contribution of biomass is especially significant because it can be used to predict harmful particulate matter emissions during grilling. The relationship between the composition of charcoal briquettes and lump charcoal and their emissions is particularly strong during the first 15 to 20 min after ignition (when emissions are the highest), therefore, this initial stage is especially unsafe to consumers, and staying away from the grill during this time is recommended.
... The most likely source of Zn would be biomass combustion. The fly ashes from biomass combustion have high Zn content: 9-590 times higher than Cu content (Kovacs et al., 2016;Susaya et al., 2010). Biomass combustion is one of the major sources of anthropogenic aerosols in the Asian continent (Li et al., 2017). ...
Article
Nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are commonly used in human activities and pollute aquatic environments including rivers and oceans. Recently, Ni, Cu, and Zn isotope ratios have been measured to identify their sources and cycles in environments. We precisely determined the Ni, Cu, and Zn isotope ratios in rain, snow, and rime collected from Uji City and Mt. Kajigamori in Japan, and investigated the potential of isotopic ratios as tracers of anthropogenic materials. The isotope and elemental ratios suggested that road dust is the main source of Cu in most rain, snow, and rime samples and that some of the Cu may originate from fossil fuel combustion. Zinc in the rain, snow, and rime samples may be partially attributed to Zn in road dust. Zinc isotope ratios in the Uji rain samples are lower than those in the road dust, which would be emitted via high temperature processes. Nickel isotope ratios are correlated with V/Ni ratios in the rain, snow, and rime samples, suggesting that their main source is heavy oil combustion. Furthermore, we analyzed water samples from the Uji and Tawara Rivers and the Kakita River spring in Japan. Nickel and Cu isotope ratios in the river water samples were significantly heavier than those in rain, snow, and rime samples, while Zn isotope ratios were similar. This is attributed to isotopic fractionation of Cu and Ni between particulate-dissolved phases in river water or soil.
... Taner et al. (2013) found that the total hazard quotient (total HQ) and excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) from exposure to metal elements on the fine PM in indoor barbecue restaurants were higher than the acceptable level. Susaya et al. (2010) also found that the concentrations of many trace metals emitted from BBQ charcoal combustion exceeded the permissible exposure limits (PELs) (Iqbal and Kim, 2016). Not only the concentration of trace metal elements but also the concentration of PM exceeded the PELs, as demonstrated in a review by Iqbal and Kim (2016). ...
... These variations in trace element composition of PM2.5 were food cart typedependent and suggest that the cooking fuel, cooking process, and food types are responsible. Other researchers have found that K, Hg, Pb, As and Zn emissions are associated with charcoal combustion (Iqbal and Kim, 2016;Kang et al., 2011;Susaya et al., 2010a), supporting the emission results found at the charcoal food carts in this study. Other trace elements such as Se, and V that are related to the charbroiling (meat cooking) (US EPA, 2011), have been reported, but were below detection limits in our study (likely due to the 1-h sampling period and outdoor sampling conditions). ...
Article
Food carts are common along streets in cities throughout the world. In North America, food cart vendors generally use propane, charcoal, or both propane and charcoal (P and C) for food preparation. Although cooking emissions are known to be a major source of indoor air pollution, there is limited knowledge on outdoor cooking’s impact on the ambient environment and, in particular, the relative contribution of the different cooking fuels. This field study investigated the air pollution the public is exposed to in the micro-environment around 19 food carts classified into 3 groups: propane, charcoal, and P and C carts. Concentrations near the food carts were measured using both real-time and filter-based methods. Mean real-time mean concentrations of PM2.5, BC2.5, and particle counts were highest near the charcoal food carts: 196 μg/m³, 5.49 μg/m³, and 69000 particles/cm³, respectively, with peak exposures of 1520 μg/m³, 67.9 μg/m³, and 235000 particles/cm³, respectively. In order of pollution emission impacts: charcoal > P and C > propane carts. Thus, significant differences in air pollution emissions occurred in the vicinity of mobile food carts, depending on the fuel used in food preparation. Local air pollution polices should consider these emission factors in regulating food cart vendor operations.
... Monitoring atmospheric emissions from every local and time-limited point source, such as household grills, is very difficult, and one may argue that grilling emissions are impermanent and not a significant source of pollution. It is difficult to assess the full scale of the contribution of grilling gases to overall emissions, but studies show that grilling smoke can be a health risk factor and air pollution contributor especially during warmer months (Susaya et al., 2010;Wexler and Pinkerton, 2012;Badyda et al., 2020;Jelonek et al., 2020b). While more research is needed to evaluate the impact of grilling emissions on human health and the environment, it is important to enhance fuel quality to maximize human safety, lower air pollution and bring public awareness to the issue. ...
Article
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The quality check of grilling wood pellets should be of a critical importance as smoke from their combustion has a direct contact with food, impacts human safety, and pollutes the atmosphere. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the purity of grilling wood pellets and chips available on the market, analyze the properties of their combustion gases, and determine if a relationship between the fuel composition and emissions during grilling can be established. In this study, we investigated 45 types of BBQ wood pellets and wood chips available for purchase in the USA and Europe. Based on reflected light microscopy analysis, the samples are composed dominantly of biomass, ranging from 87.5 to 99.8 vol % for wood pellets and 96.5 to 99.1 vol % for wood chips, with the average impurities content of 1.7 vol % for wood pellets and 2.2 vol % for wood chips. The undesired components included bark, mineral matter, charcoal, coke, metal, rust, slag, and petroleum products. Our data show that grilling with wood pellets and chips leads to elevated emissions of particulate matter (PM), NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, and formaldehyde in comparison with recommended exposure limits. The average emissions of PM are higher from wood chips than from pellets by approximately 85 μg/m³, and they come mainly from PM2.5; the contribution from PM of 2.5–10 μm in size is rather insignificant. CO2 emissions, on average 2.67% from pellets and 2.27% from wood chips, were elevated comparing with a typical outdoor air level of 0.03–0.05% (300–500 ppm). The level of emissions of individual components also changes during the grilling cycle, and depends on the type of combusted wood, grilling conditions and fuel moisture content.
... Although, some other sources have contributed to the amount of indoor air pollution. For example, pollutants such as odorants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals are major components released from charcoals used during cooking process [16][17][18][19][20][21]. Combustion of these scented candles in an interior area result in the release of different aromatic constituents which can linger on within a building. ...
Article
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This research confirmed that candles produced from oil extract of soybeans are eco-friendly and healthier alternatives to commercial candles made from paraffin wax. The soybeans were sorted, washed, crushed, dehulled and ground prior to extraction to increase the surface area. Soybean oil is about 30% of the total soybean composition. Soxhlet extraction method was used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil was then solidified with stearic acid to form wax inside a mold. Physical tests were carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin wax. The results supported the claims that soy candles are more economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
... As shown in Table 7, a significant 85% of HI values throughout the study area exceeded the acceptable threshold of 1 (HI > 1). Higher HI values indicate that exposure to Table 7 Noncarcinogenic risk from heavy metals in street dust and soils from Jinhua There was no potential open exhaust source in the CA, and several restaurants are located within 100 m of the sampling sites, accounting for 79% of the area (Kabir et al. 2011;Susaya et al. 2010). There are two highways and three national highways passing through the CA with large traffic flow, which is close to some of the sampling sites. ...
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Street dust and soil samples were collected from three study areas in Jinhua, China: a commercial area and two urban districts. The concentrations of nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and particularly zinc (Zn) in street dust exceeded soil background values and Chinese soil screening safe levels in some areas. Zn and Cd concentrations in street dust appeared to pose health concerns in the majority of sample sites, but their levels in soils were noticeably lower, indicating possible contamination from atmospheric deposition. Of the three areas, the most severe pollution occurred in Jindong (JD) District. Practically all the samples from JD District showed contamination to some degree. Based on pollution indices, the contamination levels of heavy metals among the studied sites were ranked in the following descending order: JD District > commercial area (CA) > Wucheng District. Source metal identification assessment revealed that the majority of metals in street dust from Jinhua were significantly related to industrial and traffic activities. Health risk assessment was performed based on the US-Environmental Protection Agency model, and the results showed that virtually, no health risk existed from exposure to individual metals in dust particles. However, the noncarcinogenic risk exponentially increased through exposure to various metals in dust. Thus, the majority of hazard index values surpassed the acceptable level. For carcinogens, the carcinogenic risks of each metal did not supersede the acceptable range for children. This observation demonstrates that although the carcinogenic risk is acceptable, the noncarcinogenic risk remains a genuine health concern for local children.
... Although, some other sources have contributed to the amount of indoor air pollution. For example, pollutants such as odorants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals are major components released from charcoals used during cooking process [16][17][18][19][20][21]. Combustion of these scented candles in an interior area result in the release of different aromatic constituents which can linger on within a building. ...
Preprint
This work is aimed at promoting a healthier means of livelihood by investigating insignificant areas of pollution. In this work, soy candles produced from soybeans were proven as healthier alternatives to paraffin candles. Soxhlet extraction method was used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil were then solidified. The wax was moulded into candle and tests were carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin wax. The results supported this claims that soy candles is more economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
... Furthermore, cooking also significantly contributes to outdoor PM, for example, Wen and Hu (2007) reported that the emission of particulate organic matter from cooking is nearly equal to the contribution from vehicular traffic in Beijing. Therefore, numerous field sampling and laboratory experiments have been performed to investigate the characteristics of inorganic and organic fractions of PM generated during cooking (Rogge et al., 1991(Rogge et al., , 1993Lee et al., 2001;Balasubramanian, 2006a, b, 2008;Susaya et al., 2010;Buonanno et al., 2011;Shipley et al., 2018). Despite these investigations, substantial uncertainties still remain about the morphology characterization and chemical properties of individual particles in cooking fumes. ...
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It is widely known that cooking contributes particulate matter (PM) to outdoor and indoor air. To research the morphology and chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in cooking fumes, four Chinese restaurants with distinct cooking styles were sampled. A Zeiss Merlin Compact (FE-SEM) with EDS system was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of individual PM. The results show six types of particles with different morphologies: rectangular, flocculent, flat, irregular, spheroidal and spherical, and they are primarily Ca-rich, C-rich, and Si-rich particles. The most abundant PM was Ca-rich particles with rectangular shape, thus, Chinese style cooking may be an important source of rectangular Ca-S particles The amount of these particles was affected by the cooking style and method: water-based cooking methods emitted more rectangular Ca-S particles, C-rich particles with spherical shapes were abundant in cooking fumes from oil-based cooking methods, and the spheroidal particles in cooking fumes are closely associated with roasting. Copyright © 2019 American Association for Aerosol Research
... For example, charcoal is used extensively for barbecuing in most restaurants in the world because it has high heating value, is cheap compared to other types of fuels, can be easily stored, and gives a unique flavor and texture to the food [16][17][18]. Charcoal contains various types of organic and inorganic compounds such as hydrocarbons, sulfur, water, and oxygen along and numerous trace elements [19][20][21]. Therefore, the combustion of charcoal creates a considerable amount of airborne toxic elements both in the solid and gaseous states. ...
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The emission of cooking fumes becomes a serious concern due to the fast development of the restaurant business because it harms the health of restaurant workers and customers and damages the outdoor air quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of restaurant emissions on ambient air quality. Twenty restaurants with four different types of food cooking were selected in Dammam City, which represents a densely populated urban city in Saudi Arabia. Levels of five air pollutants were simultaneously measured in the restaurants’ chimneys and in the surrounding ambient air. The highest mean levels of CO (64.8 ± 44.3 ppm), CO2 (916.7 ± 463.4 ppm), VOCs (105.1 ± 61.3 ppm), NO2 (4.2 ± 2.4 ppm), and SO2 (8.0 ± 7.4 ppm) were recorded in chimneys of the grilling restaurants. Similarly, the highest levels of all pollutants were recorded in the areas adjacent to the grilling restaurants rather than other types.
... Although, some other sources have contributed to the amount of indoor air pollution. For example, pollutants such as odorants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals are major components released from charcoals used during cooking process [16][17][18][19][20][21]. Combustion of these scented candles in an interior area result in the release of different aromatic constituents which can linger on within a building. ...
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: This research confirmed that candles produced from oil extract of soybeans are eco-friendly and healthier alternatives to commercial candles made from paraffin wax. The soybeans were sorted, washed, crushed, dehulled and grinded prior to extraction to increase the surface area. Soybean oil is about 30% of the total soybean composition. Soxhlet extraction method was used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil was then solidified with stearic acid to form wax inside a mold. Physical tests were carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin wax. The results supported the claims that soy candles are more economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
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This “Atlas of Charcoal-Based Grilling Fuel Components” features compilation of over 620 microscopic images taken between 2019 and 2021 while our team was improving methodology of using reflected light microscopy in identification of charcoal-based grilling fuels constituents. These photomicrographs provide documentation of the composition of the fuels and demonstrate the array of impurities that can be present. As such, this atlas is a valuable source of information for anyone interested in grilling, pellet fuels, optical microscopy, and quality assessment techniques.
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The use of water pipes or hookahs to smoke tobacco formulations has gained great popularity among young people around the world, but the potential health hazards have not yet been adequately evaluated. The complexity of a multi component hookah apparatus, compared with cigarettes and cigars, makes it difficult to study under laboratory conditions. For this reason the detailed study of its components simplify the task. In this study the charcoal, which is traditionally used as the heat source, was analyzed for metal content before and after combustion. Sixteen different hookah charcoals were analyzed representing different compositions and manufacturing processes as well as different geographic origins. ICP-MS was used to measure 24 elements: Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb, Th, U. The total concentration ranges of toxic elements in native (un-burned) charcoals was: arsenic 14.8 – 10,300 ng g-1, cadmium 3.3 – 2,100 ng g-1, and lead 95.2 – 55,600 ng g-1. The mass-loss-corrected content of elements in combusted charcoals shows that most of the metals remain in the ash, with iron, cadmium and lead as exceptions. Because of the high content of arsenic in some samples an extraction and speciation method was developed to quantify four chemical forms of arsenic. Nitric acid, and phosphoric acid were evaluated as extractants used in a heating block, and ascorbic acid was used to minimize oxidation of inorganic As+3 to As+5. Anion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used to carry out the separation and quantification of arsenic species. The best conditions in terms of extraction efficiencies and species conservation was 1.2 mol L-1 H3PO4, with 0.2 mol L-1 ascorbic acid. As5+ was the dominant arsenic species in charcoal. Concentrations ranged from 0.08 – 2.42 mg kg-1, for As+3 and 0.46 – 8.36 mg kg-1 for As+5. The results show high variation depending on the sample origin and composition. The possibility of volatile cadmium and lead contributions to the primary and second hand smoke by the charcoal are suggested and the high levels of arsenic suggest that for certain charcoals there may be more hazard from them than from the tobacco formulation.
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This study quantified selected emissions (carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides) that are produced during combustion of beech wood, birch wood and spruce wood charcoal in the combustion tube furnace. The maximum concentration of carbon monoxide and also the nitrogen oxides have been measured in the case of the spruce wood charcoal. The minimum concentration of carbon monoxide and also nitrogen oxides have been measured in the case of the beech wood charcoal. Although the difference between maximum emissions concentration of examined samples has been smooth. The comparison of obtained results with data published by previous studies can be made a suggestion, that the maximum concentrations of measured emissions are higher for wood than for charcoal. The nitrogen oxides yield per weight loss is higher for wood than for charcoal. On the other hand the carbon monoxide yield is higher for charcoal than for wood.
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To braai is part of the South African heritage that transcends ethnic barriers and socio-economic groups. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of atmospheric gaseous and aerosol species within a plume originating from a typical South African braai is presented. Braai experiments were conducted at Welgegund – a comprehensively equipped regional background atmospheric air quality and climate change monitoring station. Five distinct phases were identified during the braai. Sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides(NOx) and carbonmonoxide (CO) increased significantly, while ozone (O3) did not increase notably. Aromatic and alkane volatile organic compounds were determined, with benzene exceeding the 2015 South African one-year ambient air quality limit. A comparison of atmospheric PM10 (particulate matter of an aerodynamic diameter £10 μm) concentrations with the 24-hour ambient limit indicated that PM10 is problematic during the meat grilling phase. From a climatic point of view, relatively high single scattering albedo (ùo) indicated a cooling aerosol direct effect, while periods with lowerùo coincided with peak black carbon (BC) emissions. The highest trace metal concentrations were associated with species typically present in ash. The lead (Pb) concentration was higher than the annual ambient air quality limit. Sulphate (SO4 2–), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) were the dominant water-soluble species present in the aerosols. The largest number of organic aerosol compounds was in thePM2.5–1 fraction, which also had the highest semi-quantified concentration. The results indicated that a recreational braai does not pose significant health risks. However, the longer exposure periods that are experienced by occupational vendors, will significantly increase health risks.
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Our study investigated outdoor air pollution caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as BTEX and n-alkanes emitted from charcoal grill restaurants. Twenty sites were selected from a city in Korea for outdoor-air sampling. On average, the concentrations of all VOCs in the areas of the charcoal grill restaurants were significantly 1.3-to-2.6-fold higher than those in the non-charcoal-grill areas at the 1% level. The results showed that charcoal grill restaurants are responsible for both indoor and outdoor air pollution, which can cause health problems for pedestrians and residents in such areas as well as restaurant workers and customers.
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Source apportionment studies rely on source emission profiles, which in some instances are locally scarce or non-existent. Thus, estimations are done using profiles obtained from other geographical sites, which brings a certain degree of uncertainty in the outcomes of such studies. This work presents the results of near-field measurement of 12 types of fine particle emission sources to develop local-region source profiles in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area. The source profiles include a chemical characterization of trace elements and carbonaceous fraction. A statistical analysis based on the Pearson distance and similarity identity distance was conducted to ensure the uniqueness of each source profile. Overall, the most dominant species in the profiles were organic and elemental carbon, and elemental sulfur, whereas the least abundant were transition metals. The meat-cooking operations profiles exhibited the highest organic carbon to elemental carbon ratios, which were 7-40 times higher than those for biomass burning and vehicle exhausts profiles. The urban construction profile was dominated by crustal elements, while the suburban area profile exhibited an internal mixing with anthropogenic compounds. The source profiles in this study were distinguishable, as determined by preliminary tests for each pair of chemical source profiles. These profiles could be used to implement receptor models in urban sites with similar characteristics.
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抄録 The application of trace element analysis using ICP-MS was investigated for the forensic discrimination of charcoal samples. Eleven kinds of commercially available charcoal samples were collected and used for the experiments. A small amount of each charcoal was burned in an electrical furnace to make ash. Approximately 5 mg of ash was sonicated with a mixture acid of 250 μL of nitric acid, 250 μL of hydrochloric acid and 500 μL of hydrofluoric acid, followed by heating to dryness. The residue was dissolved again in 500 μL nitric acid, and diluted to 10 mL to prepare sample solutions. Qualitative analysis of the sample solution using ICP-MS indicated that charcoal ash contained elements such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Pb. Four trace elements (La, Ce, Nd, Pb) were selected for the determination, and a comparison for the discrimination of different ash samples. Ash made from different charcoals tend to exhibit larger difference in the concentration of these elements than the variation within a sample. The ranges of the mean±2 SD for each element were compared for all of 55 pairs among 11 different ash samples. The combination of 4 elements allowed for the discrimination of all possible pairs, although no single element could achieve complete discrimination. The analysis and comparison of trace elements by the present method was quite effective for the forensic discrimination of charcoal ashes.
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In this study, using instrumental neutron activation analysis we undertook the measurements of about 30 metal elements in airborne PM 2.5 samples that were collected from a roadside sampling station at moderately polluted urban area of Daejeon city located in the southwestern region of Korea. Based on our metal measurement data, we attempted to elucidate the metal distribution characteristics of fine ambient particles. We also examined the inter-metal relationships and the factors affecting source processes through the application of diverse statistical approaches. The distribution patterns of metals were clearly distinguished among metals with their concentrations ranging over four orders of magnitude. The means for Lu and Dy were found to be the lowest at values of 0.01 and 0.04 ng m-3, while those for K and Fe showed the highest value of 671 and 653 ng m-3, respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that PM 2.5 concentrations can exhibit much more enhanced correlations with the metals of earth crustal components. The results of FA analysis indicate that there are no more than six factors with statistical significance, which appeared to play roles in regulating the metal concentration levels in the area. These six factors can cover as much as 82.6 % of total variance. Enrichment factor analysis supports explicit interpretation of results found by this factor analysis.
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Fine particle and trace element emissions from energy production are associated with significant adverse human health effects. In this investigation, the fine particles and trace elements emitted from the combustion of pulverized anthracite coal at a 220 MW power plant were determined experimentally in the size range from 30 nm to 10 μm with 12 channels. The particulate size distributions and morphological characteristics before and after the bag-house were evaluated. The uncontrolled and controlled emission factors of particles are compared with the calculated values from the US Environment Protection Agency, AP-42. Size-classified relative enrichment factors of As, Hg, Se, Cd, Cr, Cu, Al, V, Zn, Mn, Fe were obtained. Relative distributions of trace elements between bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas are determined by mass balance method. The bag-house collection efficiencies of particles and trace elements in the particulate phase are obtained. Finally, the controlled and uncontrolled emission factors of elements of different particulate size fractions are obtained, which will provide useful information for PM2.5 and PM10 emission inventory development, toxic and hazardous pollutant emission estimates and emission standards established for metal-based pollutants from a pulverized coal-fired boiler.
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In 1985, the collapse of the tailing dam in Chenzhou lead/zinc mine (Hunan, southern China) led to the spread of mining waste spills on the farmland along the Dong River. After the accident, an urgent soil cleaning up was carried out in some places. Seventeen years later, cereal (rice, maize, and sorghum), pulses (soybean, Adzuki bean, mung bean and peanut), vegetables (ipomoea, capsicum, taro and string bean) and the rooted soils were sampled at four sites: (1) the mining area (SZY), (2) the area still covered with the mining tailing spills (GYB), (3) the cleaned area from mining tailing spills (JTC), and (4) a background site (REF). Metal concentrations in the crops and soils were analyzed to evaluate the long-term effects of the spilled waste on the soil and the potential human exposure through food chains. The results showed that the physical-chemical properties of the soils obviously changed due to the different farming styles used by each individual farmer. Leaching effects and plant extraction of metals from some soils were quite weak. Certain soils were still heavily polluted with As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. The contamination levels were in the order of GYB>SZY>JTC showing that the clean-up treatment was effective. The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) levels for Chinese agricultural soils were still highly exceeded, particularly for As and Cd (followed by Zn, Pb and Cu), with mean concentrations of 709 and 7.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed the MAC levels by 24 times for As and 13 times for Cd at GYB. Generally, the edible leaves or stems of crops were more heavily contaminated than seeds or fruits. Ipomoea was the most severely contaminated crop. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were 3.30 and 76.9 mg kg(-1) in ipomoea leaves at GYB, which exceeded the maximum permit levels (0.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd and 9 mg kg(-1) for Pb) by 6.6 and 8.5 times, respectively. Taro (+skin) could accumulate high concentrations of Zn and Cd in the edible stem, and rice and capsicum had high Cd concentration in the edible parts. However, the toxic element concentrations in maize, sorghum, Adzuki bean, soybean and mung bean remained lower than the threshold levels. The bio-accumulation factors (BAFs) of crops were in the order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>As. BAF was typically lower in the edible seeds or fruits than in stems and leaves. The accumulation effect strongly depends on the crop's physiological properties, the mobility, of the metals, and the availability of metals in soils but not entirely on the total element concentrations in the soils. Even so, the estimated daily intake amount of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb from the crops grown in the affected three sites and arsenic at SZY and GYB exceeded the RDA (Recommended dietary allowance) levels. Subsequently, the crops grown in Chenzhou Pb/Zn mine waste affected area might have a hazardous effect on the consumer's health. This area still needs effective measures to cure the As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu contamination.
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Aerosol samples were collected from Kanazawa, Japan to examine the size distribution of 12 elements and to identify the major sources of anthropogenic elements. Key emission sources were identified and, concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated as well. Concentrations of elements V, Ca, Cd, Fe, Ba, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Zn, Co and Cu in aerosols were determined with ICP-MS. The results showed that Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Co and Fe were mainly associated with coarse particles (>2.1 microm), primarily from natural sources. In contrast, the elements Zn, Ba, Cd, V, Pb and Cu dominated in fine aerosol particles (<2.1 microm), implying that the anthropogenic origin is the dominant source. Results of the factor analysis on elements with high EF(Crust) values (>10) showed that emissions from waste combustion in incinerators, oil combustion (involving waste oil burning and oil combustion in both incinerators and electricity generation plants), as well as coal combustion in electricity generation plants were major contributors of anthropogenic metals in the ambient atmosphere in Kanazawa. Quantitatively estimated sum of mean concentrations of anthropogenic elements from the key sources were in good agreement with the observed values. Results of this study elucidate the need for making pollution control strategy in this area.
Chapter
Different capacities of soils for heavy metal adsorption affects the absorption of heavy metals by plants. The present study was conducted to obtain quantitative information about the heavy metals forms in chernozem and chestnut soil and their translocation in barley. The availability of heavy metals in soils was characterised by various extraction procedures. After differentiating soil zinc, lead and copper into exchangeable and dissoluble by weak acids, organic complex bound, amorphous compound and carbonate bound forms, a regression equation model was presented relating zinc, lead and copper contents in corn of barley to the three soil zinc and lead forms. Concentrations of different forms of Zn, Cu and Pb were determined to be in the following order: NH4OAc < EDTA < HCl. Heavy metal content in exchangeable form was higher in chestnut soil than in chernozem. Applied heavy metals significantly increased the amounts of all soil forms, especially for Zn. Availability of Zn, Cu and Pb to plants depended on the soil type, decreasing from chestnut soil to chernozem. The barley corn and straw were polluted with heavy metals only when maximum doses of these metals were brought into soils.
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Transformation behavior of trace elements during pyrolysis of three Chinese coals at temperatures up to 1000 °C was studied. Effects of temperature, atmosphere (N2 and H2), and coal type on release of As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn were examined. Experiments were carried out in a fixed bed quartz reactor with a heating rate of 20 °C/min. Results show that bleeding ratios of As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature. H2 atmosphere promotes the release of these elements. Among the trace elements studied, Pb is the most volatile element; Cr and Mn are relatively non-volatile. However, the volatility of these elements varies with coal type. This suggests that these elements are present in various compounds in the coals and the distribution of the element in the compounds is different. Distribution of the forms for these elements in Yima coal and char was analyzed.
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Dust on tree leaves in the urban area of Hangzhou, China, was analyzed in terms of heavy metal contents and magnetic properties. Morphological and chemical composition of the dust particles were analyzed using a high resolution transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (HRTEM/EDX). Results indicated that the dusts contained high concentrations of Cd (mean 2.62), Cu (63.7), Zn (535.9) and Pb (150.9mgkg−1). Magnetic susceptibility of the dusts was in a range of (16–856)×10−8m3kg−1. It was shown that the dusts close to industrial area and busy road intersection had higher heavy metal contents and magnetic susceptibility. The dusts showed a strong positive inter-correlation for the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cu in addition to magnetic susceptibility, which suggests that the dusts had a common source for the heavy metals and magnetic carriers. We found that the dust particles were composed mainly of Fe-rich near-spherical, plate and agglomerate particles, and Ca-rich, S-rich and silicate particles, and that iron oxide spherules (0.2–0.5μm in diameter) and larger iron-bearing particles were the magnetic carriers. Ca in the dusts was present in the forms of CaCO3 and CaCO3/CaSO4 internal mixture. The Fe-rich, Ca-rich and S-rich particles in dusts could be directly related to nearby polluting activities, such as coal combustion, traffic emission and industrial activity. The identification of the main sources of dusts on tree leaves can help in controlling the polluting sources in urban areas. The close correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal concentration makes it possible to use the magnetic technique as a non-destructive and time-efficient tool for biomonitoring of the atmospheric dust pollutants.
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Atmospheric As, Cd, Pb, and Zn emissions from coal combustion in the Upper Oder River Basin (Poland) have been estimated for the period 1989–1992. The main power and heating plants achieved reductions of more than 40% while energy production remained unchanged. Power plants equipped with stoker-fired boilers or incorporated in industrial plants were relatively heavy polluters per unit of output energy. The largest sources of metals emissions were individual stoves.
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Abstract Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODELs, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.
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High-temperature coal utilization processes (combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) emit toxic trace elements into the atmosphere, where they affect the environment and human health. We carried out coal combustion and gasification experiments using several kinds of coals at various temperatures and atmospheric conditions to examine the release behavior of trace elements. Results showed that Group 1 and 2 metals such as Hg, Se, Sb, and Zn were partly released from coal during combustion, gasification and pyrolysis. Oxygen or steam in the operating atmosphere affected the behavior of Hg, Se, Sb, and Zn release from coal.
Article
Release behavior and chemical form distribution of As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn in Datong coal during pyrolysis was studied in a simulated drop-tube reactor at a heating rate of about 1000 °C/s, including effects of temperature (300–1000 °C), atmosphere (N2 and H2), and holding time (0.3–10 min). Results show that the bleeding ratios of As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature and holding time. Reductive environment results in higher emission of the elements. Among the five trace elements, As, Pb and Cd show similar behavior with volatilities higher than that of Cr and Mn at 1000 °C. The five trace elements in the coal and coal-derived chars are separated into five fractions through an extraction procedure. Ion exchangeable form of the elements is not found in the coal and the chars, and the elements remained in the residue fraction is the most dominant occurrence form in the coal and the chars for As, Pb, Cd and Cr. All the forms for all the elements undergo transformation in the pyrolysis resulting in reduced content in the chars.
Article
Trace elements associated with the combustion of coal have received more attention recently, as can be seen from the increasing demands laid down in legislation and permits.Knowledge of the trace element content of coal is essential. Coal used in the Netherlands is imported from all over the world. As a consequence, Dutch power stations are designed to burn a wide range of bituminous coals. The largest share nowadays originates from South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia, with these three countries accounting for more than 85% of the coal fired in the Netherlands in recent years. The coals, as imported in the Netherlands, have been monitored for their (trace) element content. At present the database contains results of own analyses of about 170 coals, originating from 14 different countries. An important uncertainty was the question of how homogeneous the imported lots are. It appears that the lots as imported from overseas are fairly homogeneous.The behaviour and fate of trace elements in coal-fired power stations has been studied in more than 40 mass balance studies since 1977. More than 50 test series have been completed during co-combustion of biomass and waste materials (up to 40% on mass base) since 1993. It has therefore been possible to establish a relationship between (trace) elements in the fuel and the ash, as well as with emissions into the atmosphere.
Article
Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995–2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn–Ba and Cu–Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.
Article
Puertollano is the largest industrial centre in central Spain, and includes fossil fuel burning power plants as well as petrochemical and fertilizer complexes. The coal-fired power plants use locally mined coal from extensive coal deposits which continue to be exploited and used locally. The coal deposits have a distinctive geochemistry, being particularly enriched in Sb and Pb, as well as several other metals/metalloids that include Zn and As. ICP-AES and ICP-MS chemical analysis of particulate matter samples (both PM 10 and PM 2.5) collected at Puertollano over a 57-week period in 2004–2005 reveals enhanced levels of several metallic trace elements, especially in the finer (PM 2.5) aerosol fraction. Factor analysis applied to the data indicates that at least some of these metallic elements are likely to originate from hydrocarbon combustion: Sb and Pb are markers linked to the local coals, whereas V and Ni are, at least in the finer (PM 2.5) fraction, likely associated with other anthropogenic sources. Other factors measured are related to natural sources such as crustal/mineral and sea spray particles. Our study provides an example of how chemical analysis of large numbers of ambient PM samples, combined with statistical factor analysis and coal geochemistry, can reveal airborne emissions from the combustion of specifically identifiable fuels.
Article
Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years.Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations.Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.
Article
Several important aspects are described in this paper. The occurrences of trace elements (TEs) in coal are introduced. Four main groups of trace element content level, say, >50, 10–50, 1–10 and <1 ppm, can be drawn. Trace elements partitioning in emission streams; enrichment in submicron particles; vaporization and emission in flue gas; and the mobility and leaching behavior of trace elements in coal and combustion waste are summarized. The mechanisms of trace element transformation during combustion are illustrated as following: the vaporized metals at high temperature near the combustion flame will subsequently nucleate or condense at a lower temperature downstream. These metals form a suspended aerosol along with particles. The conversion of vaporized components into various solid and/or liquid forms is the key factor influencing the final trace elements' transformation/partitioning behavior. Finally, current trace element emission control technologies are briefly introduced. To control trace elements in particle phase, electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are mainly used. To control trace elements in vapor phase, spray dryer absorbers, wet scrubbers, condensing wet scrubbers, wet scrubbers and solid sorbent injection should mainly be used. Research needs are identified and potentially promising research topics on trace elements emission are proposed as following: (1) trace element speciation and enrichment in coal and coal ash. (2) Trace elements partitioning in combustion process. (3) Mechanisms of transformation and control technologies for easily vaporized TEs during combustion.
Article
Measurements of mass concentrations of 35 trace elements (TEs) and of total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at 20 residences and six high school rooms in Mira Loma, California, from September 2001 to January 2002. Sulfur (S) and silicon (Si) were the most abundant TEs measured (excluding a residence with heavy smokers). On average, total TE concentrations were lower indoors relative to outdoors; the proportion of TEs in total PM2.5 was also lower indoors relative to outdoors. Among indoor sites, TE concentrations were found to be lower inside the schoolrooms relative to inside the residences. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was found to contribute significantly to elevated levels of total TE inside residences; however, concentrations of carcinogenic TEs were not significantly different between residences with and without smokers. Potassium (K) and chlorine (Cl) were the most abundant species in a residence with frequent indoor smokers. Combustion-related elements were more enriched inside the residences relative to crustal elements.
Article
The distribution patterns of the particulate matter (PM) and the associated elements were investigated from Seoul, Korea during spring 2001. The results of our measurements were analyzed to explain the behavior of metallic components by comparing their compositions mainly in terms of between Asian Dust (AD) and non-AD (NAD) period and between fine and coarse particle fraction. The computation of enrichment factor (EF) indicated that the magnitude of EF values for most hazardous metals during the AD period were even smaller than the NAD counterpart. The existence of low EF values during the AD period may be ascribable to the excessive input of crustal components like Al accompanied by the AD event. In accordance with this finding, the effects of the AD events were also reflected in diverse manners, when assessed by the concentration ratios of a given element for both AD/NAD period and fine-to-coarse (F/C) fraction. Results of this comparative analysis generally suggest that AD events are prominent sources for major crustal components in the fine particle fraction of PM. In addition, comparison of our measurement data with those obtained within the Korean peninsula and in the near-by Asian areas indicates that the metallic distribution patterns of the study area may be affected more sensitively by anthropogenic signatures. The results of our analysis, if investigated in relation with air mass movement patterns by means of the back-trajectory analysis, demonstrate consistently that the PM data measured during the study period can be closely tied with the signatures of both AD events and anthropogenic processes.
Article
A thermodynamic analysis has determined in detail the speciation of Hg, Se, and As, which are the most volatile trace elements in the flue gas from burning bituminous coal, depending on the temperature (400–1800 K), the atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing conditions), and the chlorine content. The amount of chlorine in the system greatly affects the identity of stable species; the relative affinities of the three elements to chlorine are in the order: Se > As > Hg under oxidizing conditions at both high (1100 K) and low (600 K) temperatures. Interactions between the three elements are investigated; AsSe(g) and HgSe(g) are found to be possibly present as the major species in the local CO-enriched zone in a boiler. The competing reactions of these three elements for oxygen, hydrogen, and chlorine are also discussed.
Article
Recent studies suggest that low-cost coal preparation technologies can play an important role in reducing the emissions of air toxics at electric utilities. To evaluate this approach, a detailed study was conducted at Virginia Tech to quantify the capabilities of a variety of conventional and advanced precombustion cleaning processes for removing hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs). Characterization data obtained from this study indicate that most HAPPs associate with mineral impurities commonly found in run-of-mine coals. Some elements (e.g., mercury) were found to associate with pyritic sulfur, while others (e.g., manganese) were more closely associated with ash-bearing minerals. Furthermore, pilot-scale tests conducted as part of this work demonstrated that conventional cleaning processes could achieve HAPPs rejections of 50–80%. The use of advanced processes further improved these rejections, particularly for HAPPs associated with pyrite. The data also showed that trace element rejections could be improved by pulverizing the feed coal to liberate mineral matter. However, mathematical simulations indicated that these apparent gains are often not realized in industrial operations due to the lower separation efficiencies of the finer coal cleaning circuits.
Article
This article considers the ways in which humankind has made use of charcoal down the ages, as a fuel, as an artistic material, and as an adsorbent. The scientific study of charcoal's structure is discussed, and the role played by Rosalind Franklin highlighted. Current ideas on the structure of charcoal are summarised.
Article
The emission concentrations of a number of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds were quantified during the combustion of commonly used barbecue charcoal. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyls were determined by gas chromatography coupled with thermal desorption and HPLC method, respectively. The analysis of VOC emission concentrations showed that toluene (116+/-444 ppb) was the most abundant. On the other hand, the carbonyls were dominated by formaldehyde (275+/-477 ppb) and acetaldehyde (126+/-229 ppb). A line of evidence indicates that the emission patterns of these pollutants are associated with the diverse nature of raw materials and the processes involved in their production. Although emission concentrations of target compounds were in most cases below the permissible exposure limits (PEL), a proper regulation against the use of BBQ charcoal is needed to reduce potential health risks associated with its use.
Article
In this study, the environmental significance of mercury emission has been investigated with respect to the use of the barbecue (BBQ) charcoal. For this purpose, emission gas samples collected from a total of 11 barbecue charcoal products commonly available in the Korean market were analyzed. All of these products consist of both domestic (4 types) and imported products (7 types from three countries). The emission concentration of Hg varied widely from sample to sample ranging from 114 to 496ngm(-3). The amount of Hg emission appeared to be affected by the diverse nature of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. In light of the recent reference exposure limits (REL) of Hg, it can be a potential threat to human health. As such, a proper regulation is desirable from a toxicological viewpoint to reduce the potential risk associated with the use of BBQ charcoal.
Health Canada Cracks Down on Lead and Mercury in Paint
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