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Microfine Dry Powder: Pulmonary Drug Delivery System

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Abstract

Drug delivery to the lungs by inhalation has attracted tremendous scientific and biomedical interest in recent years. This trend accompanies a rise in respiratory illnesses, dramatized by an increase in asthma population in the United States of 46% between 1982 and 1993 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA). Of at least equal impact has been the development of many new biotherapeutics (primarily peptide and protein drugs) that in most cases can be delivered to humans only by intravenous injection, often with low patient compliance. To avoid needles, noninvasive delivery strategies have been extensively explored. Among these, inhalation delivery has proven especially attractive, since the epithelium of the human lungs is highly permeable and easily accessed by an inhaled dose. To meet challenges, new inhaler devices have been, and continue to be, developed. These falls in the categories of metered-dose inhalers, dry-powder inhalers, and nebulizers when combined with optimized aerosol formulations, these new inhalers promise to significantly expand the use of inhalation therapy in humans. Among the factors that can be adjusted to optimize the efficiency of the formulations, particle chemistry and surface morphology (manipulated to reduce particle-particle aggregation or hygroscopicity) and particle solubility (altered to influence the rate of therapeutic release), aerosolization efficiency by diminishing aerosol particle mass density and increasing particle size are rather well documented.

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Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the oldest and deadliest diseases in the current scenario. The intracellular organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which mainly resides in mononuclear phagocytes, is responsible for tuberculosis in humans. A few therapies are available for the treatment of tuberculosis but they have many hurdles. To overcome these hurdles, a combination of chemotherapeutic agent-loaded vesicular systems have been prepared to overcome tuberculosis. To investigate the role of novel drug delivery systems for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, ligand appended liposomals have been developed. In the present study, drug-loaded, ligand-appended liposomes and their DPI (Dry Powder Inhaler) forms have been prepared and characterized using various in vitro and in vivo parameters. The prepared ligand-appended liposomal formulation showed good entrapment efficiency, prolonged drug release, improved recovery of drugs from the target site, and proved to be more suitable for use as DPI, justifying their potential for improved drug delivery. Thus we tried our best by our project to reduce the national burden of tuberculosis, which is still a global health challenge.
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