Refining the In Vitro and In Vivo Critical Parameters for P-Glycoprotein, [I]/IC50 and [I-2]/IC50, That Allow for the Exclusion of Drug Candidates from Clinical Digoxin Interaction Studies

Departments of Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Groton/New London, Connecticut, Sandwich, UK.
Molecular Pharmaceutics (Impact Factor: 4.38). 12/2009; 7(2):398-411. DOI: 10.1021/mp900174z
Source: PubMed


The objective of this work was to further investigate the reasons for disconcordant clinical digoxin drug interactions (DDIs) particularly for false negative where in vitro data suggests no P-glycoprotein (P-gp) related DDI but a clinically relevant DDI is evident. Applying statistical analyses of binary classification and receiver operating characteristic (ROC), revised cutoff values for ratio of [I]/IC(50) < 0.1 and [I(2)]/IC(50) < 5 were identified to minimize the error rate, a reduction of false negative rate to 9% from 36% (based on individual ratios). The steady state total C(max) at highest dose of the inhibitor is defined as [I] and the ratio of the nominal maximal gastrointestinal concentration determined for highest dose per 250 mL volume defined [I(2)](.) We also investigated the reliability of the clinical data to see if recommendations can be made on values that would allow predictions of 25% change in digoxin exposure. The literature derived clinical digoxin interaction studies were statistically powered to detect relevant changes in exposure associated with digitalis toxicities. Our analysis identified that many co-meds administered with digoxin are cardiovascular (CV) agents. Moreover, our investigations also suggest that the presence of CV agents may alter cardiac output and/or kidney function that may act alone or are additional components to enhance digoxin exposure along with P-gp interaction. While we recommend digoxin as the probe substrate to define P-gp inhibitory potency for clinical assessment, we observed high concordance in P-gp inhibitory potency for calcein AM as a probe substrate.

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    ABSTRACT: To support drug development and registration, Caco-2 cell monolayer assays have previously been set up and validated to determine whether candidate drugs are substrates or inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In this study, the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of N-(1-{(3R)-3-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-3-[4-methanesulfonylphenyl]propyl}piperidin-4-yl)-N-ethyl-2-[4-methanesulfonylphenyl]acetamide (AZD5672) was assessed accordingly, and a subsequent clinical digoxin interaction study was performed. AZD5672 (1-500 μM) demonstrated concentration-dependent efflux across cell monolayers, which was abolished in the presence of ketoconazole and quinidine, identifying AZD5672 as a P-gp substrate. In addition, P-gp-mediated digoxin transport was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by AZD5672 (IC(50) = 32 μM). Assessment of the calculated theoretical gastrointestinal inhibitor concentration ([I(2)]) and predicted steady-state maximum total plasma inhibitor concentration ([I(1)]) indicated the potential for a DDI at the intestinal but not the systemic level after the predicted therapeutic dose of AZD5672 (100 mg). A clinical study was performed and the plasma pharmacokinetics [observed maximum plasma drug concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from 0 to 72 h postdose (AUC(0-72 h))] of orally dosed digoxin (0.5 mg) were found to be unaffected by coadministration of AZD5672 (50 mg) at steady state. In contrast, a 150-mg dose of AZD5672 significantly increased digoxin C(max) and AUC(0-72 h) by 1.82- and 1.33-fold, respectively. Concentration-time profile comparisons indicated that digoxin elimination was unchanged by AZD5672, and the interaction was most likely to have resulted from inhibition of intestinal P-gp leading to increased digoxin absorption. The observed dose-dependent clinically significant interaction was accurately predicted using calculated [I(2)] and in vitro P-gp inhibition data, confirming AZD5672 to be a P-gp inhibitor in vivo.
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