Article

Anti-Arthritic Effects and Toxicity of the Essential Oils of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 12/2009; 58(2):842-9. DOI: 10.1021/jf9027206
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO.

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    • "The underground rhizome is yellowish, consisting of two main parts: the egg-shaped (mother) rhizome and the long cylindrical, branched primary, secondary and even tertiary rhizomes [6] [7]. Turmeric rhizome contains two major classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic curcuminoids and essential oil [8]. These metabolites are largely responsible for the pharmacological effects of turmeric [9]. "

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    • "(Turmeric) belonging to Zingiberaceae family has been widely used as medicine, condiment, and cosmetic worldwide [8, 9] and valued as a functional food because of its health promoting potentials [10]. The rhizome of C. longa, a traditional medicine used for centuries in the Indian subcontinent, has been scientifically validated for its antioxidant [11], antimicrobial [12], antiarthritic [13], anticancer [14], carminative, stomachic, tonic, analgesic, hemostatic [15, 16] and anti-inflammatory activities [17]. Most of the studies performed on C. longa focused on curcuminoids components which comprised curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin [18] and the anti-inflammatory effect of C. longa was attributed majorly to curcumin [17] acting through the suppression of NF-kappaB and COX-2 activation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
    • "Moreover TEO has been reported to inhibit oral submucosa fibrosis in humans (Hastak et al., 1997). It also has been reported to have significant anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activity and anti-arthritic activity (Liju et al., 2011;Funk et al., 2010). A combination of several of the fractions that contain the TEO was more effective than the curcuminoids at inhibiting PGE 2 (Lantz et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the acute, subchronic and genotoxicity of turmeric essential oil (TEO) from Curcuma longa L. Acute administration of TEO was done as single dose up to 5 g of TEO per kg body weight and subchronic toxicity study for thirteen weeks was done by daily oral administration of TEO at doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt. in Wistar rats. There were no mortality, adverse clinical signs or changes in body weight; water and food consumption during acute as well as subchronic toxicity studies. Indicators of hepatic function such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were unchanged in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Oral administration of TEO for 13 weeks did not alter total cholesterol, triglycerides, markers of renal function, serum electrolyte parameters and histopathology of tissues. TEO did not produce any mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-102 and TA-1535 with or without metabolic activation. Administration of TEO to rats (1 g/kg b.wt) for 14 days did not produce any chromosome aberration or micronuclei in rat bone marrow cells and did not produce any DNA damage as seen by comet assay confirming the non toxicity of TEO.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
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