Intimate Partner Aggression Perpetrated and Sustained by Male Afghanistan, Iraq, and Vietnam Veterans With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA.
Journal of Interpersonal Violence (Impact Factor: 1.64). 12/2009; 25(9):1612-30. DOI: 10.1177/0886260509354583
Source: PubMed


Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consistently evidence higher rates of intimate partner aggression perpetration than veterans without PTSD, but most studies have examined rates of aggression among Vietnam veterans several years after their deployment. The primary aim of this study was to examine partner aggression among male Afghanistan or Iraq veterans who served during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and compare this aggression to that reported by Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Three groups were recruited, OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD (n = 27), OEF/OIF veterans without PTSD (n = 31), and Vietnam veterans with PTSD (n = 28). Though only a few comparisons reached significance, odds ratios suggested that male OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD were approximately 1.9 to 3.1 times more likely to perpetrate aggression toward their female partners and 1.6 to 6 times more likely to report experiencing female perpetrated aggression than the other two groups. Significant correlations among reports of violence perpetrated and sustained suggested many men may have been in mutually violent relationships. Taken together, these results suggest that partner aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD may be an important treatment consideration and target for prevention.

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    • "These behaviours represent emotion regulation difficulties and are different from the remaining criterion E PTSD symptoms which better describe thoughts, feelings, and passive experiences. As explained byTsai et al. (2014), the two symptoms are also substantially different from the remaining symptoms in the arousal cluster, because individuals with hyperarousal symptoms do not always show aggressive behaviours (e.g.,Teten et al., 2010). Finally, the seven-factor Hybrid model was developed by combining the salient features of the two six-factor Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviours models. "
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    ABSTRACT: The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been widely researched, but consensus regarding the exact number and nature of factors is yet to be reached. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the extant literature on PTSD's latent structure in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in order to identify the best-fitting model. One hundred and twelve research papers published after 1994 using confirmatory factor analysis and DSM-based measures of PTSD were included in the review. In the DSM-IV literature, four-factor models received substantial support, but the five-factor Dysphoric arousal model demonstrated the best fit, regardless of gender, measurement instrument or trauma type. The recently proposed DSM-5 PTSD model was found to be a good representation of PTSD's latent structure, but studies analysing the six- and seven-factor models suggest that the DSM-5 PTSD factor structure may need further alterations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical psychology review
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    • "Furthermore, it has been reported that at least 40% of OEF/OIF veterans indicated they have killed an enemy combatant (Maguen et al., 2010), and combat-related killings predict higher levels of PTSD, anger, alcohol abuse, suicidal ideation, and relationship problems, even after controlling for combat exposure (Maguen et al., 2010, 2011). In light of the high levels of combat exposure that may occur during deployment, it is hardly surprising that returning veterans with PTSD show greater levels of family problems (Allen et al., 2010) and intimate partner aggression than those without PTSD (Teten et al., 2010) and that their partners and children evidence more relationship distress and deploymentrelated psychological problems (Erbes, Meis, Polusny, & Compton , 2011; Gewirtz, Polusny, Degarmo, Khaylis, & Erbes, 2010; Sayers, Farrow, Ross, & Oslin, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The U.S. military deployed in support to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) show high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and relationship, partner, and parenting distress. Given the pervasive effect of combat-related PTSD on returning veterans and its effect on their loved ones, the investigators have developed a couples-based treatment, structured approach therapy (SAT), to reduce PTSD while simultaneously decreasing relationship and partner distress. This study presents treatment outcome data measuring PTSD and relationship outcomes from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing SAT, a manualized 12-session novel couples-based PTSD treatment, to a manualized 12-session couples-based educational intervention (PTSD Family Education [PFE]). Data were collected from 57 returning veterans meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition, text revision; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for PTSD and their cohabiting partners; data collection was scheduled for pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Findings from an intent-to-treat analysis revealed that veterans receiving SAT showed significantly greater reductions in self-rated (PTSD Checklist; p < .0006) and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)-rated PTSD (p < .0001) through the 3-month follow-up compared with veterans receiving PFE; 15 of 29 (52%) veterans receiving SAT and 2 of 28 (7%) receiving PFE no longer met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD. Furthermore, SAT was associated with significant improvements in veteran relationship adjustment, attachment avoidance, and state anxiety. Partners showed significant reductions in attachment anxiety. This couples-based treatment for combat-related PTSD appears to have a strong therapeutic effect on combat-related PTSD in recently returned veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Psychological Services
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    • "Keywords: deployment, relationship satisfaction, partner violence, Navy members There is growing research on intimate partner violence (IPV) among recent-era combat veterans, some of whom have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other serious mental health issues (e.g., LaMotte, Taft, Weatherill, Scott, & Eckhardt, 2014; Rabenhorst et al., 2013; Teten et al., 2010). Although this attention is certainly warranted, noticeably absent are studies that have examined IPV among Navy members. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present brief report examined whether number of deployments, relationship satisfaction, and the interaction between number of deployments and relationship satisfaction predicted Navy members' reports of perpetrating physical partner violence. Participants were 80 U.S. Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. The effect that the number of deployments had on perpetrating physical partner violence diminished as relationship satisfaction increased. Results suggest the importance of designing domestic violence intervention and treatment efforts toward those who report high levels of deployment and low relationship satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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