Article

Oxidative stress and medical antioxidant treatment in male infertility. Reprod Biomed Online

Territorial Center of Andrology, AUSL 8, Syracuse, Italy.
Reproductive biomedicine online (Impact Factor: 3.02). 11/2009; 19(5):638-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2009.09.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as one of the most important cause of male infertility. Despite the antioxidant activity of seminal plasma, epididymis and spermatozoa, OS damages sperm function and DNA integrity. Since antioxidants suppress the action of reactive oxygen species, these compounds have been used in the medical treatment of male infertility or have been added to the culture medium during sperm separation techniques. Nevertheless, the efficacy of such a treatment has been reported to be very limited. This may relate to: (i) patient selection bias; (ii) late diagnosis of male infertility; (iii) lack of double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial; and/or (iv) use of end-points that are not good markers of the presence of OS. This review considers the effects of the main antioxidant compounds used in clinical practice. Overall, the data published suggest that no single antioxidant is able to enhance fertilizing capability in infertile men, whereas a combination of them seems to provide a better approach. Taking into account the pros and the cons of antioxidant treatment of male infertility, the potential advantages that it offers cannot be ignored. Therefore, antioxidant therapy should remain in the forefront of preventive medicine, including human reproductive medicine.

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Available from: Aldo E. Calogero, Oct 19, 2015
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    • "At high concentrations , these aldehydes also react with amino acids and nucleic acids to form stable protein and DNA adducts, which further disrupt sperm function (Luczaj and Skrzydlewska, 2003; Aitken et al., 2012). Since many observational studies now confirm decreased levels of seminal antioxidant(s) and/or increased levels of oxidants in infertile versus fertile men (Aitken and Clarkson, 1987; Alvarez et al., 1987; Lewis et al., 1995, 1997; Fraga et al., 1996; Aitken, 1999; Balercia et al., 2000), it should come as no surprise that dietary supplementation with antioxidants has gained much attention in recent years (Lanzafame et al., 2009; Ross et al., 2010; Gharagozloo and Aitken, 2011; Showell et al., 2011, 2014). "
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    DESCRIPTION: Animal and human studies have documented the adverse effect of spermDNAdamage on fertilization rates, embryo quality, miscarriage rates and the transfer of de novo mutations to offspring. Semen samples of infertile men are known to be deficient in several key antioxidants relative to their fertile counterparts. Antioxidants alone or in combination have demonstrated limited efficacy against sperm oxidative stress andDNAdamage in numerous human clinical trials, however these studies have not been definitive and an optimum combination has remained elusive.
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    • "At high concentrations , these aldehydes also react with amino acids and nucleic acids to form stable protein and DNA adducts, which further disrupt sperm function (Luczaj and Skrzydlewska, 2003; Aitken et al., 2012). Since many observational studies now confirm decreased levels of seminal antioxidant(s) and/or increased levels of oxidants in infertile versus fertile men (Aitken and Clarkson, 1987; Alvarez et al., 1987; Lewis et al., 1995, 1997; Fraga et al., 1996; Aitken, 1999; Balercia et al., 2000), it should come as no surprise that dietary supplementation with antioxidants has gained much attention in recent years (Lanzafame et al., 2009; Ross et al., 2010; Gharagozloo and Aitken, 2011; Showell et al., 2011, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION Does a novel antioxidant formulation designed to restore redox balance within the male reproductive tract, reduce sperm DNA damage and increase pregnancy rates in mouse models of sperm oxidative stress?
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    • "Regardless of a clinical relevance of seminal ASA in the urogenital tract inflammations/infections , the mediating role of upregulated cytokines during orchitis and epididymo-orchitis, leading to the impairment of spermatogenesis and loss of tolerance, remains to be fully appreciated. The modulating role of cytokines in inflammatory reactions due to the direct effect on pro-oxidative and antioxidative systems (to the advantage of the ROS) has been postulated by our group and other investi- gators134135136137. In this context, cytokines may play a crucial role in the perpetuation of semen inflammation and infection, and for this reason these bioactive substances may constitute an important link between the inflammation or infection of the urogenital tract and infertility status [138]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The invasion of the male reproductive tract by microorganisms, and its subsequent consequences for sperm fertilizing potential, has been intensely discussed. The role of the bacteria that are responsible for the colonization and contamination of the male urogenital tract, rather than its infection, in diminished sperm parameters raises the most controversy. There are numerous premises suggesting that bacterial semen infection is associated with male infertility. However, the molecular mechanism by which the fertility is affected is complex and multifactorial, and still presents a puzzle. Some authors have suggested that direct interactions between bacteria and human spermatozoa facilitate sperm immobilization, affect sperm morphology, and thus weaken the ability of sperm to fertilize. On the other hand, the massive infiltration of activated leukocytes into the inflammatory site may be associated with impairment of sperm fertilizing potential, due to oxidative, apoptotic, and immune processes. This review presents current research trends and aims to summarize the present knowledge of semen inflammation and causative bacterial agents in the male urogenital tract, with its consequence on seminological parameters, and male fertility status.
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