Article

Thiophosphorylation of free amino acids and enzyme protein by thiophosphoramidate ions

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Abstract

In search of an activity-preserving protein thiophosphorylation method, with thymidylate synthase recombinant protein used as a substrate, potassium thiophosphoramidate and diammonium thiophosphoramidate salts in Tris- and ammonium carbonate based buffer solutions were employed, proving to serve as a non-destructive environment. Using potassium phosphoramidate or diammonium thiophosphoramidate, a series of phosphorylated and thiophosphorylated amino acid derivatives was prepared, helping, together with computational (using density functional theory, DFT) estimation of (31)P NMR chemical shifts, to assign thiophosphorylated protein NMR resonances and prove the presence of thiophosphorylated lysine, serine and histidine moieties. Methods useful for prediction of (31)P NMR chemical shifts of thiophosphorylated amino acid moieties, and thiophosphates in general, are also presented. The preliminary results obtained from trypsin digestion of enzyme shows peak at m/z 1825.805 which is in perfect agreement with the simulated isotopic pattern distributions for monothiophosphate of TVQQQVHLNQDEYK where thiophosphate moiety is attached to histidine (His(26)) or lysine (Lys(33)) side-chain.

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... [11] Hence, several multistep chemical synthesis routes have been employed for the preparation of phosphorarginine. [12][13][14][15] Af ew entirely chemical syntheses involving an umber of reaction steps have been published,b ut each route has its own bottle-necks and challenges. Cramer and co-workers [12][13] described the N w -phosphorylationo fN a -Z-l-arginine-benzyl ester, the preparationofw hich requires severals ynthetic steps.B is(pnitrobenzyl)p hosphorochloridate was used for phosphorylation. ...
... Direct phosphorylation of arginineb ya nother commerciallyu navailable reagent, potassium phosphorousa midate, was appliedf or the preparation of NMR samples of N w -phosphoarginine. [14] Information on yield and any reaction details were not given and the reaction mixture was not workedu p. Yeta nother synthesis starts from l-arginine andp hosphorous oxychloride. [15] Owing to the many side products formed, this procedure required atedious work-up andg ave av ery moderate yield. ...
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... Moreover, the 1H-31P HMBC spectra indicate the phosphoserine-, and also thiophosphoserine-CH2, group to show 1H chemical shifts in the 3.6–4.2 ppm range [35,36,40]. Furthermore, the observed resonances do not belong to the phosphorylated arginine or glutamate moieties, as would be expected with those singlet resonances in 31P NMR. ...
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... thiophosphoramidate analogue such as thiophosphohistidine , in which one of the oxygen atoms is replaced by the less electronegative sulfur atom. While substitution of sulfur for oxygen seems to cause a negligible steric/electronic perturbation to phosphohistidine, thiophosphohistidine is much more stable than phosphohistidine (Lasker et al., 1999; Pirrung et al., 2000; Ruman et al., 2009 Ruman et al., , 2010). Thiophosphorylation can be carried out either by the use of an engineered protein kinase, capable of consuming ATPγS (Allen et al., 2005; Carlson et al., 2010 ), or by chemical reaction with thiophosphoramidate (Lasker et al., 1999; Pirrung et al., 2000; Ruman et al., 2009;). ...
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Article
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... The thiol-ene reaction has been utilized for the generation of (bio)materials for a number of years (21) and has more recently been used in biological applications such as glycoconjugate synthesis (22) and site-specific protein modification. (23,24) To examine the selectivity of this reaction, we subjected both a cysteine and thiophosphorylated tyrosine (25,26) analog to thiol-ene coupling conditions. The initiator, lithium phenyl-2,4,6trimethylbenzoylphosphinate(27) (LAP), was utilized because it is suitably water soluble for use with proteins. ...
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... Chemical synthesis of pCys (7) was achieved by treatment of an aqueous solution of L-cysteine with potassium phosphoramidate (Scheme 12) [88]; unfortunately, no conversion or isolated yield was reported for this procedure. ...
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Two cDNA clones representing rat hepatoma thymidylate synthase (rTS) were isolated from a lambda ZAP II cDNA library using as a probe a fragment of the human TS cDNA. The two were identical except that one was missing 50 bp and the other 23 bp corresponding to the 5' coding region of the protein. The missing region was obtained by screening a rat genomic library. The open reading frame of rTS cDNA encoded 921 bp encompassing a protein of 307 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 35,015 Da. Rat hepatoma TS appears identical to normal rat thymus TS and the two sequences differ from mouse TS in the same eight amino acid residues. Six of these differences are in the first 21 amino acids from the amino-end. The human enzyme differed from rat and mouse TS at 17 residues where the latter two were identical, with most changes being conservative in nature. The three species differed completely at only four sites. Because the mouse TS shares four amino acids with human TS at sites which differ from rTS and a comparable situation does not exist between rTS and human TS, it is suggested that mouse TS is closer to human TS phylogenetically than rTS. The polymerase chain reaction was used to subclone the protein coding region of rTS into a high expression vector, which expressed rTS in Escherichia coli to the extent of 10 to 20% of its cellular protein. Although the amino-end of the amplified TS was unblocked, that isolated from a FUdR-resistant rat hepatoma cell line contained mostly N-acetylmethionine on its N-terminal end, a finding that may have significant regulatory consequences, which are discussed. The TS level in the resistant cell line was 60 to 70-fold higher than normal which was found to be associated with both multiple gene copies and an expanded TS mRNA pool.
Article
Thiophosphorylated proteins or peptides are poor substrates of protein phosphatases. As a competitive inhibitor of a protein tyrosine phosphatase, a tyrosine-thiophosphorylated nonapeptide ENDYINASL displays a KI value of 0.25 microM, in comparison with the Km value of 3.1 microM exerted by the enzyme toward the phosphorylated form of the peptide. Furthermore, adenosine 5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate is also an effective competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with a KI value of 1.4 microM. In contrast, ATP and 5'-adenylimidodiphosphate are much less effective, indicating that the thiophosphate group plays a major role in the inhibition process. Further supporting this is the fact that sodium thiophosphate is a more effective inhibitor than inorganic phosphate (IC50 = 0.47 mM versus 15 mM). The inhibition by thiophosphate compounds is specific for PTPs. The data suggest the application of thiophosphate derivatives as specific inhibitors of PTPs.
Article
Phosphohistidine goes undetected in conventional studies of protein phosphorylation, although it may account for 6% of total protein phosphorylation in eukaryotes. Procedures for studying protein N- kinases are described. Genes whose products are putative protein histidine kinases occur in a yeast and a plant. In rat liver plasma membranes, activation of the small G-protein, Ras, causes protein histidine phosphorylation. Cellular phosphatases dephosphorylate phosphohistidine. One eukaryotic protein histidine kinase has been purified, and specific proteins phosphorylated on histidine have been observed. There is a protein arginine kinase in mouse and protein lysine kinases in rat. Protein phosphohistidine may regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.
Article
A method is presented for expressing human thymidylate synthase (TS) to the extent of 25-30% of the protein in Escherichia coli. By this procedure, 200-400 mg of pure enzyme can be obtained from a 2-liter culture of cells. The key to the level of expression appears to be related to the conversion of purine bases in the third, fourth, and fifth codons of the TS cDNA to thymine, without altering the encoded protein product. Conversion of the penultimate proline to a leucine did not diminish expression, but while the isolated native enzyme contained only proline on its amino-terminal end, the mutated enzyme was found to contain methionine on its amino terminus. By contrast, the expression of the unmodified TS cDNA represented only about 0.1-0.2% of the total cellular protein. Unlike recombinant rat and human TSs, the respective enzymes purified to homogeneity from eukaryotic cells were blocked at the amino ends and possessed 2- to 4-fold lower specific activities. To determine at what level the impairment of expression occurred, an in vitro transcription, translation system was employed and the results showed that while transcription was unaffected, the translation of native TS mRNA was reduced by at least 20-fold relative to modified TS mRNA using a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. Thus, it appears that at least for the TS gene, expression is greatly influenced by the GC content of the 5' coding region of the gene in both prokaryote and eukaryote systems.
Article
Posttranslational phosphorylation of proteins is an important event in many cellular processes. Whereas phosphoesters of serine, threonine and tyrosine have been extensively studied, only limited information is available for other amino acids modified by a phosphate group. The formation of phosphohistidine residues in proteins has been discovered in prokaryotic organisms as well as in eukaryotic cells. The ability to biochemically analyze phosphohistidine residues in proteins, however, is severely hampered by its extreme lability under acidic conditions. In our studies we have found that by replacing the phosphate linked to the histidine residue with a thiophosphate, a phosphohistidine derivative with increased stability is formed. This allows the analysis of phosphohistidine-containing proteins by established biochemical techniques and will greatly aid in the investigation of the role of this posttranslational modification in cellular processes.
Article
The preparation of a novel phosphorus species, thiophosphoramidate, has enabled the specific thiophosphorylation of histidine at its 3-position. The rates of phosphorylation and thiophosphorylation of histidine are reported, as well as the spectroscopic properties of both thiophosphoramidate and 3-thiophosphohistidine. Structural assignment of the latter was made by analogy to the NMR properties of the known 3-phosphohistidine. The alkylation of 3-thiophosphohistidine by phenacyl bromide serves as a model for the introduction of labeling or probe reagents into histidine phosphorothioate-containing proteins.
Article
Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism of post-translational protein modification used to control cellular signaling. A challenge in phosphoproteomics is to identify the direct substrates of each protein kinase. Herein, we describe a chemical strategy for delivery of a bio-orthogonal affinity tag to the substrates of an individual protein kinase. The kinase of interest is engineered to transfer a phosphorothioate moiety to phosphoacceptor hydroxyl groups on direct substrates. In a second nonenzymatic step, the introduced phosphorothioate is alkylated with p-nitrobenzylmesylate (PNBM). Antibodies directed against the alkylated phosphorothioate epitope recognize these labeled substrates, but not alkylation products of other cellular nucleophiles. This strategy is demonstrated with Cdk1/cyclinB substrates using ELISA, western blotting, and immunoprecipitation in the context of whole cell lysates.
Article
Knowledge on kinases and phosphatases acting on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues of vertebrate proteins is huge. These enzymes are still under intensive investigation at present. This is in sharp contrast to what is known about kinases and phosphatases acting on histidine, arginine, lysine and aspartate residues in vertebrate proteins. It also is in contrast to extensive studies of histidine/aspartate phosphorylation in prokaryotes. This minireview briefly summarizes what we have learned about the reversible phosphorylation of histidine residues in mammals. It is described how the field developed during 40 years of science. The article especially highlights the discovery of the first protein histidine phosphatase from vertebrates. Having identified and characterized a protein histidine phosphatase provides at least one desperately required tool to handle and study phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of histidine residues in vertebrates in more detail. Recent evidence even suggests an involvement of histidine phosphorylation in signal transduction.
Article
The cellular uptake of oligomeric nucleic acid-based tools and drugs including small-interfering RNA (siRNA) represents a major technical hurdle for the biologic effectiveness and therapeutic success in vivo. Subsequent to cellular delivery it is crucial to direct siRNA to the cellular location where it enters the RNA interference pathway. Here the authors summarise evidence that functionally active siRNA represents a minor fraction in the order of 1% of total siRNA inside a given target cell. Exploiting possibilities of steering intracellular release or trafficking of siRNA bears the potential of substantially increasing the biological activity of siRNA. The recently described phosphorothioate stimulated cellular delivery of siRNA makes use of the caveolar system ending in the Golgi apparatus, which contrasts all other known delivery systems. Therefore, it represents an attractive alternative to study whether promoted intracellular release is related to increased target suppression and, thus, increased phenotypic biologic effectiveness.
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