Differential expression of new splice variants of the neurotensin receptor 1 gene in human prostate cancer cell lines

Laboratorio de Genética, Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales de Canarias, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Canarias, Spain.
Peptides (Impact Factor: 2.62). 12/2009; 31(2):242-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2009.12.007
Source: PubMed


Neurotensin is a neuroendocrine peptide acting as a trophic factor in a variety of cells in vivo but it can also function as an autocrine growth factor in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In addition, the high-affinity G protein-coupled NT receptor (NTS1) is overexpressed in prostate cancer cell lines. Increasing evidence argues for a direct correlation between specific alternative splice variants and cancer. We detected four splice variants of the NTS1 receptor in human prostate cancer cell lines. These isoforms include one or more exons skipping as well as an alternative 5' splice donor site and are expressed in the late-stage androgen independent prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145, but not in the early-stage androgen-sensitive LNCaP or in normal prostate tissue, which only express the normal transcript. This result shows new splice variants of NTS1 for the first time. The differential expression observed among prostate cancer cell lines and normal prostate tissue opens the interesting possibility of a new role of NT/NTS1 pathway in prostate cancer.

Download full-text


Available from: Ricardo Reyes
  • Source
    • "Experiments using a specific antagonist or knockdown of the NTSR1 using short interfering RNA suggest that NTSR1 mediates the effects of neurotensin on cancer cells, although NTSR3/sortilin, which is often coexpressed in cancer cells, may modulate NTSR1 signalling [14,16]. Splice variants of the NTSR1 were recently detected in prostate cancer cell lines, however, no functional studies of these have been conducted [17]. Recent data have suggested that the NTSR1 receptor gene may be a downstream target of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Tcf/β-catenin pathways [18,19], and increased expression of NTSR1 during progression of colon tumorigenesis has been reported [20,21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116 cells. In these cells, neurotensin-induced activation of ERK and stimulation of DNA synthesis was PKC-dependent, whereas activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was mediated by stimulation of metalloproteinases and subsequent transactivation of the EGFR. Thus, the data show that the signalling mechanisms mediating the effects of neurotensin involve multiple pathways and are cell-dependent.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · BMC Cancer
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leiomyomas or fibroids are the most frequently diagnosed tumors of the female genital tract, and their growth seems to be steroid-hormone dependent by a yet undetermined cellular and molecular mechanism. Sexual hormones induce the secretion of growth factor peptides and the expression of their receptors, stimulating cell proliferation. One of these factors is neurotensin, and increasing evidence suggests that it can promote growth of different cancer cells. Since there are no data on neurotensin expression in normal and tumoral uterine tissue, we have analyzed the expression of NTS and NTSR1 receptor using immunohistochemistry for protein detection, in situ hybridization to detect cells expressing NTS mRNA, and RT-PCR to detect NTSR1 transcript as well as any of the alternative splice variants recently described for this receptor. We found that NTS and NTSR1 are expressed in connective cells of normal myometrium. In leiomyomas, immunoreactivity for NTS and NTSR1 receptor is colocalized in the smooth muscle cells that are also transcribing NTS. Women receiving high doses of steroids for in vitro fertilization showed tumor growth and increased immunoreactivity for neurotensin and NTSR1 receptor. Interestingly, alternative splice variants of NTSR1 receptor were detected only in tumoral tissue. These findings suggest a role of steroid hormones inducing neurotensin expression in leiomyoma smooth muscle cells. In these cells, NTS could act autocrinally through NTSR1 receptor, promoting their proliferation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Biology of Reproduction
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Membrane receptors are frequent targets of cancer therapeutic and imaging agents. However, promising in vitro results often do not translate to in vivo clinical applications. To better understand this obstacle, we measured the expression differences in receptor signatures among several human prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts as a function of tumorigenicity. Messenger RNA and protein expression levels for integrin α(ν) β(3), neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) were measured in LNCaP, C4-2, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines and in murine xenografts using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. Stable expression patterns were observed for integrin α(ν) and PSMA in all cells and corresponding xenografts. Integrin β(3) mRNA expression was greatly reduced in C4-2 xenografts and greatly elevated in PC-3 xenografts compared with the corresponding cultured cells. NTSR1 mRNA expression was greatly elevated in LNCaP and PC-3 xenografts. PSCA mRNA expression was elevated in C4-2 xenografts when compared with C4-2 cells cultured in vitro. Furthermore, at the protein level, PSCA was re-expressed in all xenografts compared with cells in culture. The regulation of mRNA and protein expression of the cell-surface target proteins α(ν) β(3), NTSR1, PSMA, and PSCA, in prostate cancer cells with different tumorigenic potential, was influenced by factors of the microenvironment, differing between cell cultures and murine xenotransplants. Integrin α(ν) β(3), NTRS1 and PSCA mRNA expression increased with tumorigenic potential, but mRNA expression levels for these proteins do not translate directly to equivalent expression levels of membrane bound protein.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The Prostate
Show more