Article

Minireview: Nanoparticles and the Immune System

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993, USA.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.5). 12/2009; 151(2):458-65. DOI: 10.1210/en.2009-1082
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Today nanotechnology is finding growing applications in industry, biology, and medicine. The clear benefits of using nanosized products in various biological and medical applications are often challenged by concerns about the lack of adequate data regarding their toxicity. One area of interest involves the interactions between nanoparticles and the components of the immune system. Nanoparticles can be engineered to either avoid immune system recognition or specifically inhibit or enhance the immune responses. We review herein reported observations on nanoparticle-mediated immunostimulation and immunosuppression, focusing on possible theories regarding how manipulation of particle physicochemical properties can influence their interaction with immune cells to attain desirable immunomodulation and avoid undesirable immunotoxicity.

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    • "Similar results were described in the work ofKorani et al., 2011, who mentioned that longgterm skin conn tact with colloid nanosilver (in a concentration of 100, 1000 and 10000 μkg/mL) led to the development of an inflammatory reaction in the liver and spleen of mice and rats and carried a doseeindependent character[7]. The immunotoxicity of nanoparticles also appears in the ability to stimulate the production of cytokines[19]. Park et al., 2010, showed a doseedependent increment of antiiinflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines content, including IFNNγ in the blood serum of mice after the peroral administration of silver nanoparticles with a size of 42 nm in doses: 0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg in 28 days[12]. The induction of cytokines is strongly influenced by the physicochemical peculiarities of the nanoparticle surface. "
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    • "The physico-chemical properties of NPs have proved to play an essential role in the modulation of DC immune responses during maturation, T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion. NP type [8] [18], size [29e32], shape [33], surface charge [34] and hydrophobicity [35] strongly affect the inflammatory responses of DCs and the level of cytotoxicity [29] [36]. For instance, several in vitro and in vivo studies with polymeric and metallic NPs suggest that a size lower than 200 nm enhances DC uptake, improves immunoresponse induction and the delivery of antigens [27] [30]. "
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