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Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review

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We examined the relationships between six emotion-regulation strategies (acceptance, avoidance, problem solving, reappraisal, rumination, and suppression) and symptoms of four psychopathologies (anxiety, depression, eating, and substance-related disorders). We combined 241 effect sizes from 114 studies that examined the relationships between dispositional emotion regulation and psychopathology. We focused on dispositional emotion regulation in order to assess patterns of responding to emotion over time. First, we examined the relationship between each regulatory strategy and psychopathology across the four disorders. We found a large effect size for rumination, medium to large for avoidance, problem solving, and suppression, and small to medium for reappraisal and acceptance. These results are surprising, given the prominence of reappraisal and acceptance in treatment models, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and acceptance-based treatments, respectively. Second, we examined the relationship between each regulatory strategy and each of the four psychopathology groups. We found that internalizing disorders were more consistently associated with regulatory strategies than externalizing disorders. Lastly, many of our analyses showed that whether the sample came from a clinical or normative population significantly moderated the relationships. This finding underscores the importance of adopting a multi-sample approach to the study of psychopathology.

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... That is, when optimistic individuals attempt to increase their emotional wellbeing, they are more inclined than pessimistic individuals to try to concretely modify the situations responsible for their current emotions and less inclined to try not to think about these situations. Importantly, problem solving appears to be effective in improving emotional wellbeing, while avoidance appears to be counterproductive (see Aldao et al., 2010, for a meta-analysis). On this basis, we can hypothesize that greater use of problem solving and less use of avoidance represent two emotion regulation mechanisms that link optimism to emotional wellbeing. ...
... Rumination consists of passively and repetitively focusing on unpleasant events. It is one of the most counterproductive emotion regulation strategies in terms of emotional wellbeing (Aldao et al., 2010;Garnefski et al., 2001;Pavani et al., 2017) and has already been shown to be negatively related to optimism (Yu et al., 2015). This raises the question of whether engaging more in appreciation and less in rumination can more strongly mediate the optimism-emotional wellbeing relationship than using more problem solving and less avoidance. ...
... Accordingly, savoring more positive events and ruminating less about negative events both helped to explain why optimistic participants tended to experience greater emotional wellbeing than pessimistic participants. This result is consistent with arguments that suggest that between-individual differences in optimism are closely related to differences in the motivation and aptitude to focus on pleasant rather than on unpleasant stimuli (Bryant & Veroff, 2006;Kress & Aue, 2017;Singh et al., 2020;Yu et al., 2015) and arguments that suggest that this focus promotes emotional wellbeing (Aldao et al., 2010;Colombo et al., 2021;Livingstone & Srivastava, 2012). ...
Article
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Research suggests that optimism is positively related to emotional wellbeing. However, little is known about the emotion regulation mechanisms that potentially explain (i.e., mediate) this relationship. The present study was designed to address this issue. To this end, it examined emotion regulation strategies (i.e., appreciation, rumi-nation, problem solving, and avoidance) that are theoretically and/or empirically related to optimism as possible mediators of the optimism-emotional wellbeing relationship. In the first of two phases, we established a baseline measure of dispositional optimism among 218 French adults. In the second phase, an experience sampling method was used to assess emotional wellbeing and emotion regulation strategy use over a 1-month period. A multiple mediation analysis suggested that the optimism-emotional wellbeing relationship is significantly mediated by appreciation and rumination but not by problem solving and avoidance. More specifically, engaging more in appreciation mediated 41 % of this relationship, while engaging less in rumination mediated 20 % of it. The results are discussed in light of the current knowledge on optimism, wellbeing, and emotion regulation.
... The shared feature of coping and emotion regulation is that they are both regarded as regulatory processes (e.g., Compas et al., 2017). Some categories are included both in coping strategies and emotion regulation processes, e.g., reappraisal, acceptance, problem solving, rumination and avoidance (Aldao et al., 2010;Skinner et al., 2003). However, despite numerous similarities, coping and emotion regulation are distinct constructs. ...
... Similarly, other components of Negative and Positive emotional coping, i.e., rumination and reappraisal (cf. positive reinterpretation) have revealed inverse relationships with psychopathology, but varied in the strength of their respective correlations (Aldao et al., 2010). In their meta-analysis, Aldao et al. (2010) found rumination to be more strongly associated with psychopathology than reappraisal (r = .49 ...
... positive reinterpretation) have revealed inverse relationships with psychopathology, but varied in the strength of their respective correlations (Aldao et al., 2010). In their meta-analysis, Aldao et al. (2010) found rumination to be more strongly associated with psychopathology than reappraisal (r = .49 vs. r = -.14). ...
Book
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The aim of the book to present the Coping Circumplex Model (CCM) designed to integrate various coping constructs. The monograph begins with a review of stress theories and coping models. After that, current problems in stress psychology are described. In an attempt to address some of the above issues, the CCM and its development is described. Finally, the book presents an empirical verification of the CCM and provides a discussion of the results. The CCM offers a new way of thinking about coping with stress. It integrates various coping categories, but it may also elucidate some contradictory findings about relationships between coping (e.g., different forms of problem avoidance) and distress depending on situation controllability. It may provide a suitable space for the integration of coping with other constructs (e.g., personality dimensions, dark triad, emotion regulation processes) and adjustment after trauma. The CCM may also foster the generation of new hypotheses in stress psychology and emotion regulation, (e.g., concerning the relationship between the continuum of reinterpretation and experienced emotions). The Coping Circumplex Model: A Theoretical Synthesis of Coping Constructs and Its Empirical Verification can be useful for psychology academics interested in coping and stress research, emotion regulation, personality psychology, for researchers in fields close to psychology, such as medicine or sociology, as well as for undergraduate and postgraduate psychology students.
... As mentioned in the section before, Hayes et al. (2006) grouped mindfulness and acceptance processes into one umbrella term for acceptance, self as context, being in the present moment, and detachment from individual events. Even though there has been a debate on a clear delimitation of acceptance and mindfulness (Aldao et al., 2010), both constructs appear to be overlapping and thus cannot be separated entirely . Bishop et al. (2004) suggested a two-component model of mindfulness, comprising self-regulation of attention and an orientation toward one's experiences in the present moment including curiosity, openness, and acceptance. ...
... Depending on the definition of acceptance or mindfulness investigated in a study, the construct behind it can be very similar or even the same even though declared as the one or the other. Aldao et al. (2010), for example, integrated both mindfulness and acceptance concepts into a single acceptance conceptualization for their meta-analysis and compared it to other ER strategies. Kohl (2012) chose a broad acceptance construct for their meta-analysis as it would not be possible to delimit both concepts. ...
... As pointed out in the previous subsection, acceptance has appeared in a variety of studies that compared it to ER strategies or even labeled it as one (Aldao et al., 2010;Dunn et al., 2009;Hofmann et al., 2009;Kohl et al., 2012;Liverant et al., 2008;Szasz et al., 2011). Even though the concept of acceptance does not aim at altering emotions or pain, it does hold the ability to change the emotional (Aldao et al., 2010;Hofmann et al., 2009;Kohl et al., 2012) or pain experience (Braams et al., 2012;Hayes et al., 1999a;Kohl et al., 2013;Masedo & Esteve, 2007). ...
Thesis
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Pain conditions and chronic pain disorders are among the leading reasons for seeking medical help and immensely burden patients and the healthcare system. Therefore, research on the underlying mechanisms of pain processing and modulation is necessary and warranted. One crucial part of this pain research includes identifying resilience factors that protect from chronic pain development and enhance its treatment. The ability to use emotion regulation strategies has been suggested to serve as a resilience factor, facilitating pain regulation and management. Acceptance has been discussed as a promising pain regulation strategy, but results in this domain have been mixed so far. Moreover, the allocation of acceptance in Gross’s (1998) process model of emotion regulation has been under debate. Thus, comparing acceptance with the already established strategies of distraction and reappraisal could provide insights into underlying mechanisms. This dissertation project consisted of three successive experimental studies which aimed to investigate these strategies by applying different modalities of individually adjusted pain stimuli of varying durations. In the first study (N = 29), we introduced a within-subjects design where participants were asked to either accept (acceptance condition) or react to the short heat pain stimuli (10 s) without using any pain regulation strategies (control condition). In the second study (N = 36), we extended the design of study 1 by additionally applying brief, electrical pain stimuli (20 ms) and including the new experimental condition distraction, where participants should distract themselves from the pain experience by imagining a neutral situation. In the third study (N = 121), all three strategies, acceptance, distraction, and reappraisal were compared with each other and additionally with a neutral control condition in a mixed design. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three strategy groups, including a control condition and a strategy condition. All participants received short heat pain stimuli of 10 s, alternating with tonic heat pain stimuli of 3 minutes. In the reappraisal condition, participants were instructed to imagine the pain having a positive outcome or valence. The self-reported pain intensity, unpleasantness, and regulation ratings were measured in all studies. We further recorded the autonomic measures heart rate and skin conductance continuously and assessed the habitual emotion regulation styles and pain-related trait factors via questionnaires. Results revealed that the strategies acceptance, distraction, and reappraisal significantly reduced the self-reported electrical and heat pain stimulation with both durations compared to a neutral control condition. Additionally, regulatory efforts with acceptance in study 2 and with all strategies in study 3 were reflected by a decreased skin conductance level compared to the control condition. However, there were no significant differences between the strategies for any of the assessed variables. These findings implicate similar mechanisms underlying all three strategies, which led to the proposition of an extended process model of emotion regulation. We identified another sequence in the emotion-generative process and suggest that acceptance can flexibly affect at least four sequences in the process. Correlation analyses further indicated that the emotion regulation style did not affect regulatory success, suggesting that pain regulation strategies can be learned effectively irrespective of habitual tendencies. Moreover, we found indications that trait factors such as optimism and resilience facilitated pain regulation, especially with acceptance. Conclusively, we propose that acceptance could be flexibly used by adapting to different circumstances. The habitual use of acceptance could therefore be considered a resilience factor. Thus, acceptance appears to be a promising and versatile strategy to prevent the development of and improve the treatment of various chronic pain disorders. Future studies should further examine factors and circumstances that support effective pain regulation with acceptance.
... Together, the evidence hints towards a negative concurrent association between cognitive reappraisal and prolonged grief and depressive symptoms. This aligns with meta-analyses of research in non-bereaved samples reporting a small negative concurrent association of cognitive reappraisal with anxiety and depression (Aldao et al., 2010;Hu et al., 2014). However, longitudinal analyses among non-bereaved samples show mixed results; some survey studies show significant longitudinal effects on psychopathology symptoms whereas others do not (e.g., Brewer et al., 2016;Dawel et al., 2021). ...
... Second, emotional expression is the proposed adaptive counterpart of emotional suppression, a maladaptive emotional coping strategy that attempts to inhibit either the expression or the experience of emotions. Suppressing one's emotional reactions may deplete cognitive resources and can, in the long term, lead to distress, negative feelings about the self, as well as avoidant and anxious behavior (Aldao et al., 2010;Cutuli, 2014). Following loss, bereaved individuals might fear social disconnection when expressing their negative feelings to others, stimulating the suppression of emotions in social situations. ...
... This suggests that these emotion regulation strategies are not protective factors for (the persistence of) loss-related psychopathology. Generally, results align with meta-analyses on non-bereaved samples demonstrating small concurrent negative associations between these emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology symptoms (Aldao et al., 2010;Hu et al., 2014), as well as nullresults on the longitudinal and causal effects of these strategies on psychopathology symptoms (Arditte & Joormann, 2011;Dawel et al., 2021;Ehring et al., 2010;Larsen et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Background and Objectives Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies increase prolonged grief and depressive symptoms following bereavement. However, less is known about the role of adaptive emotion regulation strategies in adaptation to loss. Therefore, we examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of three putative adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, emotional expression, and mindfulness) with prolonged grief and depression symptoms. Design A two-wave longitudinal survey. Methods A sample of 397 bereaved Dutch adults (89% female, mean age 54 years) completed validated questionnaires to assess trait cognitive reappraisal, emotional expression, mindfulness and prolonged grief and depression symptoms at baseline (T1) and 344 participants completed symptom measures again six months later (T2). Results Zero-order correlations demonstrated that mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotional expression relate negatively to T1 and T2 prolonged grief and depression symptoms. In multiple regression analyses, controlling for relevant background variables, all emotion regulation strategies related negatively to T1 prolonged grief and depression symptoms. In multiple regression analyses, controlling for T1 symptoms and background variables, mindfulness predicted lower T2 depression symptoms. Conclusions Adaptive emotion regulation strategies relate negatively to post-loss psychopathology symptoms, yet only mindfulness longitudinally predicts lower depression symptoms. Dispositional mindfulness may be a protective factor in psychological adaptation to bereavement.
... Belief variability may also relate to how people regulate their emotions (Ford & Gross, 2019). While there are a variety of strategies people can use for emotion regulation (Aldao et al., 2010), a meta-analysis (Naragon-Gainey et al., 2017) determined they generally form three groups. The first two, (1) disengagement, which emphasizes avoidancebased strategies such as distraction, expressive suppression, and experiential avoidance, and (2) cognitive perseveration such as worry and rumination, tend to involve putatively maladaptive strategies when engaged in habitually (Aldao et al., 2010). ...
... While there are a variety of strategies people can use for emotion regulation (Aldao et al., 2010), a meta-analysis (Naragon-Gainey et al., 2017) determined they generally form three groups. The first two, (1) disengagement, which emphasizes avoidancebased strategies such as distraction, expressive suppression, and experiential avoidance, and (2) cognitive perseveration such as worry and rumination, tend to involve putatively maladaptive strategies when engaged in habitually (Aldao et al., 2010). The third group of strategies involves adaptive engagement strategies which includes cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, mindfulness and acceptance (Naragon-Gainey et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Beliefs about emotion are clearly relevant for emotion regulation and psychopathology. Yet, understanding the dynamics of emotion beliefs (i.e., the situations and contexts in which beliefs may change over time) remains an important avenue of investigation. The current ecological momentary assessment study (n = 102) assessed nine different beliefs about emotion across a variety of contexts (location, activity, social context, consuming alcohol, eating food, drinking caffeine, subjective emotional experience, feeling invalidated, feeling tired, feeling creative). When participants reported feeling subjectively worse than usual, they also reported their emotion regulation strategies. Results revealed that all of the beliefs except beliefs about longevity (i.e., beliefs that emotions will last “forever”) were associated with at least one contextual factor. In addition, when people reported greater longevity beliefs, they also reported asking “why” (i.e., rumination), attempts to distract themselves, and escape behaviors. Results confirm that beliefs do vary by context, and within-person fluctuations in beliefs are associated with momentary emotion regulation strategies.
... Another possible explanation of our findings is that discriminatory sensory stimulation increased interoceptive accuracy, which has been found be linked to both symptoms of depression as well as anxiety [17], with research specifically indicating a negative correlation between levels of interoceptive accuracy and depression [41]. Increased interoceptive awareness and accuracy have been shown to downregulate affect-related arousal, which in turn allows for the implementation of more successful emotional regulation strategies such as cognitive reappraisal [16,42]. In this context it is also possible that suppression and avoidance of negative physiological and emotional experiences, a highly maladaptive response which often characterizes some of the psychopathology of patients suffering from depression and anxiety [42,43], are replaced with acceptance and non-reactiveness which leads to improved emotional regulation and health [24,44]. ...
... Increased interoceptive awareness and accuracy have been shown to downregulate affect-related arousal, which in turn allows for the implementation of more successful emotional regulation strategies such as cognitive reappraisal [16,42]. In this context it is also possible that suppression and avoidance of negative physiological and emotional experiences, a highly maladaptive response which often characterizes some of the psychopathology of patients suffering from depression and anxiety [42,43], are replaced with acceptance and non-reactiveness which leads to improved emotional regulation and health [24,44]. This is consistent with the model developed by Paulis [17] that emphasizes deficits in interoceptive reporting as well as disproportionate responses to negatively valenced stimuli as the fundamental dysfunctions in depression and anxiety. ...
... Emotion regulation is de ned as "processes through which people manage their emotions consciously or unconsciously to respond to environmental demands appropriately" (31). Organizing emotional regulation has a reciprocal effect on the following abilities: 1) conscious understanding of emotions, 2) using emotions to recognize excitations, 3) correct labeling of emotions, 4) understanding emotions, 5) coping with negative emotions, 6) self-support when self-regulating one's own emotions, 7) changing negative emotions, and 8) facing emotional challenges to reach goals. ...
... This development can be hindered in an abusive and neglectful environment, especially when the primary caregiver is abusive. Di culties in emotion regulation, in turn, are associated with various types of psychopathologies, including depression (31,32). Moreover, it is demonstrated that patients with depression struggle to regulate excitement. ...
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Background The relationship between childhood traumas and depression is documented, but few studies have analyzed this relationship about the severity of depression. Although several studies have illuminated the role of mediating components in this regard, these components have not been considered in a comprehensive model in the literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a structural model of the severity of persistent depressive disorder symptoms according to childhood trauma and investigate the mediating role of a set of cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal functions. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized a structural equation structure. A total of 180 individuals consisting of patients with persistent depressive disorder, patients with episodic depressive (ED) disorder, and healthy people were selected by convenience sampling based on the eligibility criteria. Subsequently, they were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, BDI-II, 5 DSM- (SCID-5-RV), PHQ, DAQ, DERS-16, PII-32, and LQPT. The data were analyzed using SPSS26 and Pls3 software with structural equation modeling. Results The proposed model fitted the data satisfactorily. Patients with persistent depressive disorder, a more severe type of depression, had a worse condition than patients with ED and normal subjects on the components of childhood trauma, DAQ, emotional functioning, interpersonal functioning, and LQPT. Childhood trauma harmed LQPT and a positive effect on the severity of depression symptoms, depressive attributional style, and interpersonal issues. Also, childhood trauma led to more severe depression, pathological attributional styles, and interpersonal problems, and the sufferers more often engaged in preoperational thinking. Besides, the mediating role and indirect effect of emotional regulation components, interpersonal problems, and preoperational thinking were influential in the relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Childhood traumas are associated with more severe depression symptoms and more severe degradation in cognitive, interpersonal, and emotional functioning. They exert their negative effects through increasing emotional dysregulation, enhancing interpersonal problems, and engaging in preoperational thinking.
... The critical implications of emotion regulation ability have made its assessment an important goal in psychological research and clinical practice (Aldao et al., 2010;Gross, 1998). However, until recently, the assessment of emotion regulation was limited by the primary focus of the relevant measures only on the emotion regulation of negative emotions (John & Eng, 2014;Preece et al., 2021). ...
... Similarly, we expected that greater PERCI scores would be associated with higher alexithymia scores, as it has been shown that difficulties in identifying and describing emotions might compromise emotion regulation ability (Edwards & Wupperman, 2017;Swart et al., 2009). Regarding the emotion regulation strategies associated with emotion regulation ability, we expected high PERCI scores would be associated with more use of suppression which is usually linked to poorer mental health and maladaptive outcomes, and less use of reappraisal which is usually linked to good mental health and adaptive outcomes (Aldao et al., 2010;Cutuli, 2014;Gross & John, 2003). ...
Article
Objective A critical factor for adaptive psychological functioning is the ability to successfully regulate negative and positive emotions. Various tools and methods have been developed to assess emotion regulation competence. Recently, the Perth Emotion Regulation Competency Inventory (PERCI) was developed to overcome some of the limitations of previous assessment tools including a lack of emotion regulation assessment across both positive and negative emotions. To date, no studies have examined the PERCI’s psychometric properties among adolescents and non-Western general populations. Method To address this gap in the literature, we examined the psychometric properties of the PERCI among Iranian adolescents (n = 557), Iranian adults (n = 926), and American adults (n = 242). Participants also completed Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) for measuring the concurrent validity of the PERCI. Results Confirmatory factor analyses supported the intended eight-factor structure that distinguishes between different emotion regulation components and negative and positive emotions. The eight-factor structure was also found invariant in terms of gender, age, and culture groups. Furthermore, the PERCI demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, as well as expected associations with measures of psychopathology, emotion regulation strategy, and alexithymia. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the PERCI has strong psychometric properties among both Middle Eastern and Western samples and can also be utilised with adolescents.
... Taken together, this information suggests that the ERQ-CA is most useful when applied to people with average levels of reappraisal or suppression; its quality may be lower in people who have very low or very high levels of these constructs. Finally, the significant associations between both subscales and a set of psychopathological variables support the use of the ERQ-CA for the study of mental health in the adult population (Aldao et al., 2010;T. Hu et al., 2014). ...
... Hu et al., 2014). Specifically, significant correlations were hypothesized with anxiety and depression (Aldao et al., 2010;Preece et al., 2021), as well as with suicidal ideation (Forkmann et al., 2014;Ghorbani et al., 2017). These were found as expected. ...
Article
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Background: The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) is the most widely used measure of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, two core emotion regulation strategies. However, the original ERQ has complex wording, which may make it difficult for readers of lower educational levels. Objective: We aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a simplified version of the ERQ, initially designed for children and adolescents: the ERQ-CA. Method: A sample of 397 Mexican adults was studied (77.3% women, 22.7% men; mean age = 22.84). A confirmatory factor analysis, as well as a graded response model, were used to study the internal functioning of the instrument. In addition, its associations with three psychopathological variables (anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation) were examined. Results: A 9-item version of the ERQ-CA showed adequate fit (CFI = .95, RMSEA = .06), as well as good reliability (ωreappraisal = .76; ωsuppression = .75). Both subscales performed better at levels closer to the mean of their respective constructs. Finally, significant correlations were found between both subscales and the psychopathological variables. Conclusion: The 9-item ERQ-CA constitutes a promising alternative to measure cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in the Mexican adult population.
... En esta línea, las estrategias de regulación emocional adaptativas permiten flexibilidad ante las situaciones, mientras que las desadaptativas obstaculizan las metas propuestas (Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema & Schweizer, 2010), siendo estas últimas las que mayor repercusión tienen en la salud emocional. En este sentido, las estrategias de regulación emocional desadaptativas como el catastrofismo, la evitación o la culpa son contraproducentes para determinados estados anímicos y emocionales como la depresión, ansiedad o desórdenes alimenticios (Aldao et al. 2010). ...
... En esta línea, las estrategias de regulación emocional adaptativas permiten flexibilidad ante las situaciones, mientras que las desadaptativas obstaculizan las metas propuestas (Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema & Schweizer, 2010), siendo estas últimas las que mayor repercusión tienen en la salud emocional. En este sentido, las estrategias de regulación emocional desadaptativas como el catastrofismo, la evitación o la culpa son contraproducentes para determinados estados anímicos y emocionales como la depresión, ansiedad o desórdenes alimenticios (Aldao et al. 2010). La culpa también es otro sentimiento con el que puede identificarse el adulto mayor, sin embargo, existen muy pocos estudios que evalúen la culpa en personas mayores (Else-Quest, 2006;Jurkowitz, 1996;Valliant y Furac, 1993). ...
Article
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Introducción. Son escasos los estudios científicos sobre los patrones cognitivos y estrategias empleadas en personas mayores con deterioro cognitivo (DC). Objetivo. El objetivo fue comparar 2 grupos de personas mayores, con DC y sin DC la refocalización de planes, catastrofización, autoculpa, refocalización positiva y reinterpretación positiva para observar diferencias y establecer patrones cognitivos adaptados al perfil para la mejora en la atención profesional. Método. Para ello en este estudio de corte transversal con diseño correlacional y muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia se empleó el Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) y Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) en 196 personas mayores de 60 años pertenecientes a centros de día y residencias (M= 75,95 DT= 10,08). Resultados. Se han obtenido resultados estadísticamente significativos en refocalización de planes (p <. 00); catastrofización (p= .00); autoculpa (p <. 00); refocalización positiva (p <. 00) reinterpretación positiva (p <. 00). Conclusiones. Es uno de los escasos estudios de este campo que contribuye a enfatizar la necesidad de estudio de variables emocionales adaptativas o desadaptativas para la vida del adulto mayor con DC inexistentes en el ámbito científico, además, muestra diferentes patrones cognitivos y estrategias adaptativas empleadas en DC y sin DC. Su conocimiento ayudaría a personalizar intervenciones en función de los patrones cognitivos presentes en esta publicación.
... Aldao et al., 2010;Hilt et al., 2008;Verstraeten et al., 2011). Previous studies(Aldao et al., 2010;Deguchi et al., 2021) have discovered that individuals with traumatic experiences in childhood would report higher levels of rumination in adulthood. ...
... Aldao et al., 2010;Hilt et al., 2008;Verstraeten et al., 2011). Previous studies(Aldao et al., 2010;Deguchi et al., 2021) have discovered that individuals with traumatic experiences in childhood would report higher levels of rumination in adulthood. This was because that they viewed rumination as a regulation strategy trying to understand their negative emotions and solve their mental problems. ...
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Background: Childhood trauma is one of major risk factors to depression, and the incidence of depression among college students has been increasing. Previous studies have validated the effect of childhood trauma on depressive level. But few studies based on the Diathesis-stress theory to investigate the role of perceived stress in the pathway between childhood trauma and depressive level, as well as considering the role of rumination. Methods: We recruited 995 non-clinical Chinese college students and ask them to finish four self-report questionnaires, including Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the 22-item Ruminative Responses Scale (RSS-22), and Beck Depression Scale-II (BDI-II). Then we conducted the multiple mediation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Results revealed that perceived stress played a mediation role between childhood trauma and depressive level, and rumination played a moderation role between childhood trauma and perceived stress and between childhood trauma and depressive level. Limitations: This is a cross-sectional study and based on subjective reports of measures. Conclusions: These findings provided multi-dimensional indications for reducing the effect of childhood trauma on depressive level in college students, which would help them to improve their mental health.
... A large body of research has found rumination to be associated with higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms (Calmes & Roberts, 2007;Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000;Watkins, 2008), lower life satisfaction (Sütterlin et al., 2012;Zheng et al., 2019), and impaired ability to solve problems (Hong, 2007;Watkins et al., 2020). Although these studies point to a strong relationship between rumination and psychopathology (Aldao et al., 2010), rumination has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct with both adaptive and maladaptive qualities (Andrews & Thomson, 2009;Barbic et al., 2014;Sevcikova et al., 2020;Smith & Alloy, 2009;Watkins, 2008). For instance, positing rumination as a solely detrimental process would minimize its role in the problem-solving process. ...
Preprint
Background: Is rumination always associated with poorer mental health? Although some work suggests that the answer to this question is “yes”, some studies suggest that there are adaptive and maladaptive types of rumination that have distinct influences on mental health. Moreover, a growing number of studies have now shown rumination to have weaker maladaptive effects among individuals from interdependent cultural contexts (e.g., Asian Americans). The current study examined ethnoracial group differences in the use and associations of rumination types (i.e., brooding, casual analysis, reflective pondering, and problem-solving analysis) with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction among a diverse sample of Asian Americans, Latinx Americans, and European Americans. Methods: 198 Asian Americans, 168 Latinx Americans, and 235 European Americans recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed an online cross-sectional survey. Results: Controlling for other rumination types, brooding emerged as a maladaptive type of rumination with strong associations with greater depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction among all ethnoracial groups. In contrast, problem-solving analysis emerged as an adaptive type of rumination with associations with lower depressive symptoms and greater life satisfaction among Asian and Latinx Americans only, whereas this relationship was not significant among European Americans. Discussion : Findings suggest the importance of considering culture in distinguishing between adaptive versus maladaptive types of rumination. The strength of the association of rumination types with psychological well-being varied by ethnoracial group in theoretically expected ways. Implications for culturally sensitive interventions are discussed.
... It is plausible that emotion regulation plays a mediating role in the effect of autistic traits on school adjustment. Studies of chronic emotion regulation impairments show that the persistent inability to successfully regulate emotions is associated with the development and maintenance of many psychiatric problems (Aldao et al. 2010). Individuals with high levels of autistic traits may have psychiatric problems, such as depression and anxiety (Kanne et al. 2009), which indicate poor emotion regulation. ...
Article
Numerous emerging adults are inclined to go to college, but the different life and learning environment of college can be a challenge, particularly those with autistic traits such as poor social skills, poor communication skills, and so on. Few studies have explored the mechanism underlying the association between autistic traits and school adjustment in college students. This study sheds light on this topic. A sample of 1,381 Chinese college students completed surveys about autistic traits, school adjustment, emotion regulation, and friendships. The results showed that there were significant correlations between autistic traits, emotion regulation, friendships, and school adjustment. Emotion regulation and friendships were found to play a chain-mediating role in the association between autistic traits and school adjustment. The results indicate that to help college students to better adapt to school life, it is critical to pay attention to their autistic traits, emotion regulation ability, and friendships.
... Arguably, therefore, the altered stress regulation in puberty may reinforce the negative effects of SLEs and bullying victimization in girls in particular. Another potential mechanism involves adolescent girls' use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies when faced with stress, such as rumination, which increases the risk for depression (Aldao et al., 2010). Indeed, girls tend to ruminate more than boys and more so in early adolescence than in late childhood (Hampel & Petermann, 2005), making them more vulnerable to depressive reactions to stress in this particular developmental period. ...
Article
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In the transition from childhood into adolescence, a female preponderance in depression emerges. Despite substantial empirical research to test theoretical propositions as to why this happens, our understanding is still limited. One explanation claims that girls become exposed to more stress (stress exposure model) whereas another proposes that girls become more vulnerable to the impact of stress (stress reactivity model) than boys when entering adolescence. Stressful life events (SLEs) and bullying victimization are established risk factors for adolescent depression. However, whether these factors contribute to the gender difference in depression is undetermined and thus investigated herein. Children (49.9% boys; n = 748) and parents from two birth cohorts in Trondheim, Norway, were followed biennially from ages 8 to 14 with clinical interviews about symptoms of depressive disorders and self-reports on SLEs. Teachers reported on bullying victimization. Prospective associations were investigated using an autoregressive latent trajectory model with structured residuals, examining within-person longitudinal associations while accounting for all time-invariant confounding effects. The number of depressive symptoms increased from ages 12 to 14 among girls. In the period before (ages 10 to 12), girls and boys were equally exposed to SLEs and bullying victimization. Increased stress (both SLEs and bullying victimization) at age 12 predicted increased depression at age 14 more strongly among girls than boys. Hence, increased impact-but not exposure-of SLEs and bullying victimization in girls may partly explain the emerging female preponderance in depression, in line with a stress reactivity model.
... Cognitive reappraisal is the most adaptive adjustment strategy, which positively changes the emotional experience. However, expression inhibition is usually considered a maladaptive adjustment strategy after the emotion is generated, related to the reduction of positive emotion, the decrease of life satisfaction and the more serious negative emotion (Aldao et al., 2010). However, the relationship between two types of emotion regulation styles (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and mental health is unknown in PCOS women. ...
Preprint
Introduction: Psychopathological disorders such as anxiety, depression and body image distress are common in women with PCOS and negatively impact their mental health. It is important to identify mental health latent subgroups of PCOS females and provide tailored measures to reduce psychopathological distress and improve their subjective well-being. Methods: LPA was conducted in Mplus version 8.3 to identify mental health latent profiles in women with PCOS based on the dual-factor approach. Differences in demographic and anthropometric variables, cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and social support across mental health profiles were examined through multinomial logistic regression. Results: The current study identified three distinct mental health profiles within women with PCOS: Symptomatic but Content Profile Complete Mental Health Profile and Troubled Profile, with group proportions of 52.3%, 35.7%, and 11.1 %, respectively. The results of the multinomial regression analysis revealed that cognitive reappraisal and social support as predictors of positive mental health adjustment and expression suppression is an indicator of negative barriers in women with PCOS. Conclusion: This study identified three distinct mental health profiles in women with PCOS, which provides evidence for more precisely targeted interventions to address PCOS women’s diverse needs of psychopathological symptoms and subjective well-being.
... En effet, les processus d'évitement peuvent conduire à un désengagement comportemental des activités sources de bénéfices pour l'individu et nécessaires au maintien de sa qualité de vie, telles que l'activité physique et les occupations impliquant la relation à autrui, permettant le maintien d'un bon soutien social . Dans ce cadre, les stratégies de régulation inadaptées telles que l'évitement, ont été mises en relation avec une variété de troubles psychopathologiques, dont l'anxiété et la dépression, notamment dans la méta-analyse d' Aldao et al. (2010). Ces auteurs suggèrent ainsi que les stratégies de régulation émotionnelle soient abordées dans un cadre transdiagnostique. ...
Thesis
Les travaux relatifs à la pratique intensive des jeux vidéo en ligne soulignent les possibles conséquences négatives associées à ces pratiques, fréquemment décrites en termes de dégradation de la qualité de vie (QdV). La nature et l’intensité de ces conséquences dépendraient de plusieurs déterminants individuels, et notamment des motivations à jouer. Opérationnalisant cette altération du fonctionnement associée à une perte de contrôle de l’activité de jeu, l’Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) a été introduit dans la section 3 du DSM-5 en 2013, faisant l’objet de controverses au sein de la communauté scientifique, dont la résonnance s’est amplifiée après l’inclusion par l’OMS du « trouble du jeu vidéo » (TJV) dans la CIM-11 en 2018. Bien que se distinguant sur le plan définitoire, plusieurs critiques ont été formulées à l’encontre de ces entités, notamment en ce qui concerne les risques de pathologisation et de stigmatisation d’usages normaux. Il est donc crucial de les distinguer des usages pathologiques, ainsi que d’en identifier les facteurs de risque et de protection. L’objectif de ce travail est donc d’identifier les déterminants psychologiques et comportementaux du TJV et de la QdV des joueurs, tant dans le cadre d’une approche transversale visant à identifier l’existence et le rôle de profils motivationnels, que dans une approche longitudinale visant à étudier la nature des liens entre patterns d’usage (symptômes du TJV et temps de jeu objectif) et QdV. Une première étude transversale a été réalisée auprès de joueurs ayant une pratique intensive des jeux vidéo en ligne, une analyse de classification hiérarchique a permis d’identifier 3 profils motivationnels distincts parmi lesquels, deux semblaient non problématiques (récréatif et compétitif), comparativement au troisième profil considéré à risque (évitant). Les résultats suggèrent que les scores d’IGD (critères DSM-5), ne permettent pas de différencier les joueurs à risque (évitants) de ceux dont l’engagement n’était pas associé à une dégradation de leur QdV (compétitifs). Les résultats soulignent l’importance de la prise en compte des motivations à jouer dans le cadre d’une approche centrée sur les personnes et d’une mesure du retentissement fonctionnel pour l’évaluation des problématiques d’usage. Une seconde étude longitudinale, réalisée auprès des joueurs les plus engagés dans un jeu vidéo en ligne, a ensuite proposé d’investiguer les liens inter- et intra-individuels entre patterns d’usage (symptômes du TJV et temps de jeu objectif) et QdV, tout en vérifiant si ces effets étaient différents en fonction des profils motivationnels. Les résultats confirment l’existence des trois clusters identifiés dans la première étude, et montrent la seule présence d’effets interindividuels entre symptômes du TJV et QdV. Ces résultats suggèrent que l’association parfois observée entre QdV et symptômes du TJV s’explique par des causes communes (tels que les traits de personnalité et l'impulsivité). Aucun effet n'a été constaté en ce qui concerne la relation entre temps de jeu objectif et QdV, soutenant la distinction importante entre usages intensifs sains et pathologiques. Enfin, ces résultats ne diffèrent pas selon les profils motivationnels. Nous concluons que les efforts en matière de prévention et de traitement devraient se concentrer sur ces causes communes et sur le profil motivationnel des joueurs. Des analyses ont ensuite été menées afin d’investiguer les déterminants des symptômes du TJV et de la QdV, permettant de montrer l’importance des facteurs psychologiques comparativement à ceux relatifs au comportement de jeu. L’ensemble de ces résultats permet d’envisager l’élaboration et l’évaluation de l’efficacité d’une intervention clinique ciblant les processus psychopathologiques associés aux causes communes identifiées, tout en proposant l’intégration d’outils de prévention au sein des jeux. Enfin, une discussion de l’ensemble de ces résultats est proposée.
... Difficulties in the psychological and interpersonal functioning of individuals with substance use disorders are associated with preexisting deeply rooted patterns of dysfunctional emotional regulation (Estevez et al., 2017). Addictive behaviors lead to avoiding or regulating negative feelings and emotions (Aldao et al., 2010). As Kober (2014) stated, emotional dysregulation is an early risk factor as well as an ongoing motivator of drug use. ...
... Depressive symptoms may be associated with distress through maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as rumination, self-blame, and avoidance [66]. The inability to regulate emotional responses in response to challenging circumstances (such as the threat of COVID-19) for a long period causes high distress usually linked to depression [67]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic presented a global existential social and health challenge, with individuals suffering mentally and psychologically. College and university students are young adults, typically away from their natural support systems; with pandemic-imposed measures such as isolation, they may have been at higher risk of experiencing negative psychological outcomes. The study tested a model in which social support mediated the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and a latent factor representing general mental distress at the height of the COVID-19 crisis in Poland. One hundred and fifty-nine young adults filled in measures of trait EI, psychological and instrumental social support, three distress measures (depression, anxiety, and stress), and demographics. The results supported a model in which psychological social support (but not instrumental social support) mediated the association between trait EI and a factor representing all three distress measures. The results shed light on how individual and social resources work together to help maintain psychological integrity in times of crisis. They add to recent results on the differential effects of psychological-emotional and instrumental social support on distress and well-being.
... In this regard, Ingjaldsson, Laberg, and Thayer [49] found that people with higher resting HRV rely less on thought suppression and experience fewer intrusive thoughts. In addition, individuals who engage in chronic thought suppression often report high levels of depression, anxiety, and psychological stress [50]. In another more recent study, Gillie, Vasey, and Thayer [51] investigated whether individual differences in resting HRV were associated with the occurrence of unwanted thoughts and the ability to control such intrusions via thought suppression. ...
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1) Background: A new mental illness is attracting the attention of researchers and mental health professionals. Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a possible new mental disorder, the main symptom of which is an obsessive and insecure focus on healthy foods and consequent compulsive behaviors. There is a common consensus among researchers that ON is considered partly overlapping with obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs). (2) Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus were searched for articles published in the last 10 years regarding the psychophysiological aspects of OCD and ON. Eight studies met the eligibility criteria. The inclusion criteria encompassed adults diagnosed with OCD and/or ON. However, only studies involving OCD patients were found. (3) Results: Some research groups have shown that OCD disorders can be considered among anxiety disorders because they are characterized by anxious hyper activation. Other research, however, has shown profiles characterized by low psychophysiological reactivity to stressful stimuli. Despite this, there seems to be a consensus on the poor inhibition abilities, even when activation is low, and the dissociation between cognitive and psychophysiological activation emerged. (4) Conclusions: However discordant, some points seem to bring the researchers to agreement. In fact, there is consensus on conducting a multidimensional assessment that can measure all of the aspects of suffering (cognition, emotion, and behavior) and highlight the poor body-mind integration. This clinical approach would make it possible to propose interventions aimed at treating some mental illnesses such as food obsession that can paradoxically impair the psychophysical balance. Nevertheless, the applied systematizing approach to existing studies on ON is very much needed for better understanding of the psychophysical nature of this new mental illness and its implications for prevention and treatment.
... Several studies have shown that self-harming behavior is explainable through the framework of the Emotional Dysregulation Model (Peh et al., 2017;Pisani et al., 2013;Wang, Pisetsky, Skutch, Fruzzetti, & Haynos 2018;Wolff et al., 2019;Zelkowitz, Porter, Heiman, & Cole, 2017). Emotion regulation is a mechanism that is intentionally or accidentally modifies their emotional experience to achieve their desires (Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010). Emotion dysregulation has been associated with aggressive behavior in laboratoryrelated activities (Cohn, Zeichner, & Seibert, 2008) and distinguishes individuals who have been involved in violent relationships with partners from those who have not yet (Gratz & Roemer, 2004). ...
Article
Objective: Self-harming behavior is a major clinical issue in adolescenc. Childhood trauma, emotion dysregulation, and Self-criticism are the main concerns associated with self-harming behavior. In this study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma, emotion dysregulation, and Self-criticism with self-harming behaviors among adolescents in Iran. Methods: A sample of 558 (263 girls and 295 boys) middle school-aged adolescents (aged 13–17) was recruited. Participants had at least one self-harming behavior in their clinical records. Self-harm Inventory (SHI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and Levels of Self-criticism questionnaire (LOSC) were completed online. Results: Findings of step by step regression revealed a significant relationship between childhood trauma, emotion dysregulation, and Self-criticism with self-harming behaviors. More specifically, childhood trauma (β=0.253, t=6.42), emotion dysregulation (β=0.135, t=2.77), and Self-criticism (β=0.345, t=8.67) predicted self-harming behaviors. Conclusion: Our findings provided a therapeutic insight to prevent suicide and other related destructive behaviors among adolescents.
... Entre los antecedentes se encuentran los motivos que inician la regulación, las creencias que orientan la regulación y la elección de una estrategia que se adapte a la situación (Ford & Gross, 2018;Tamir, 2016;Sheppes et al., 2014). Como consecuencias se identifican la efectividad inmediata y el rol que tiene la regulación en la salud mental a largo plazo (Aldao, et al., 2010;Webb, et al., 2012). ...
Article
El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de regulación emocional (ERQ-CA) en población colombiana. Se utilizó una muestra de 798 estudiantes universitarios de Bogotá y sus alrededores, con edades entre 15 y 25 años (M = 19.59, DE = 1.78). La muestra se dividió en dos grupos proporcionales. La primera parte de la muestra estuvo conformada por el 25% (n = 200). Con ella se realizó el análisis factorial exploratorio, χ² (13) = 16.38, p < 0.23, encontrando una estructura bidimensional, de acuerdo con los índices de bondad de ajuste: TLI = .951, RMSEA = .057, SRMR = .04. Con la segunda submuestra (n = 598) se realizó el análisis factorial confirmatorio. Se encontraron excelentes índices de ajuste: S-Bχ² (20) = 45.812; χ²/gl = 2.29; CFI = .962; NNFI = .940; TLI = .947; IFI= .958; RMSEA = .051; SRMR = .048. Se obtuvieron las estimaciones y errores del modelo a través de métodos robustos, se realizó el análisis de consistencia interna, se estudió la invarianza del modelo por género y se hallaron las diferencias por género. Se puede concluir que el ERQ-CA es un cuestionario con propiedades psicométricas muy favorables para su uso en el contexto colombiano. Palabras clave: Regulación emocional; Control emocional; Medición; Análisis factorial; Psicometría.
... Longitudinally, lower levels of EC during adolescence may predispose individuals to experience depression during young adulthood. For example, youth who are lower in EC are likely to have difficulty regulating their behaviors and emotions, so they may be more likely to engage in rumination and have trouble disrupting maladaptive cycles or following through with problem-solving tactics related to depressive thoughts (Aldao et al., 2010;Van Beveren et al., 2016). These dysfunctional processes may contribute to problems in peer and romantic relationships, academic failure, and other negative life outcomes that can trigger depression. ...
Article
Anxiety and depression are pervasive and pernicious mental health problems for young adults. Developmental trajectories of adolescent temperament (Effortful Control, Negative Emotionality, and Positive Emotionality) may help us predict who will experience anxiety/depression during young adulthood. The present study used longitudinal data from a large, community sample of Mexican-origin youth ( N = 674) to examine how temperament develops across adolescence (age 10–16) and whether the developmental trajectories of temperament are associated with anxiety/depression during young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Results indicate that Effortful Control, Negatively Emotionality, and the Affiliation facet of Positive Emotionality tend to decrease across adolescence, whereas Surgency tends to increase. Smaller decreases in Effortful Control and greater increases in Positive Emotionality across adolescence were associated with fewer anxiety/depression symptoms during young adulthood, whereas smaller decreases in Negative Emotionality were associated with more anxiety/depression symptoms later on. Thus, temperament development serves as both a protective factor (Effortful Control, Positive Emotionality) and a risk factor (Negative Emotionality) for later anxiety/depression in Mexican-origin youth.
... This modification can be achieved through employing different strategies such as changing the way one thinks about a situation (cognitive reappraisal), communicating one's emotions to others (social sharing), or suppressing inappropriate or unwanted emotional expressions (suppression; for an overview of different classifications see Gross, 2015;Koole, 2009;Parkinson & Totterdell, 1999). Based on the observed associations between mental health and the use of specific emotion regulation strategies, these strategies have been categorized as either adaptive (e.g., reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) or maladaptive (e.g., suppression and rumination) without considering the context (Aldao et al., 2010;Schäfer et al., 2017). ...
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The strategy-situation fit hypothesis suggests that emotion regulation strategies are only beneficial to mental health if they meet contextual demands. Previous studies support this assumption but focused on properties of the emotional stimulus and reported cross-sectional associations with mental health, thus neglecting the social context and long-term mental health outcomes. To address these limitations, we examined (1) whether reappraisal, social sharing, and suppression varied depending on the social context (i.e., being alone, among close others, or nonclose others) and (2) whether specific strategy–context associations were linked to current, and (3) long-term mental health. The study consisted of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) periods, separated by one year, and the second period occurred during COVID-19-related governmentally imposed social restrictions. This design allowed us to examine emotion regulation following social context changes. Our results indicate that emotion regulation varied by the social context. Reappraisal was used more frequently when being alone, suppression occurred more among nonclose others, and social sharing increased with close others. Regarding current mental health, more suppression was linked to higher depressive symptoms only when used in the presence of close others. In contrast, using suppression when being alone was linked to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, analyses with long-term outcomes revealed improved mental health when participants increased their use of reappraisal when being alone, and decreased reappraisal after a higher presence of close others. These findings could reflect the unique regulatory costs and benefits of different social situations and highlight the role of context-specific reappraisal for longer-term adaptiveness.
... Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the role of different strategies and processes on depressive, PTSD, and emotional exhaustion symptoms among healthcare workers in an emotional overload context as it was the first wave of the pandemic. Prior research has pointed out the strong role of rumination and self-criticism as maladaptive strategies, not only for symptomatology but also for negative affect (e.g., Aldao et al., 2010). We found that both rumination and self-criticism were significant predictors of Table 2 Regression models for depression, PTSD, and emotional exhaustion (n=100). ...
... Emotional suppression refers to unhealthy attempts to suppress awareness or responsiveness to physical and/or mental insults in an effort to reduce negative emotions and repair mood disturbances (Gross, 2007). Frequent emotion suppression is associated with more depressive symptoms, whereas frequent cognitive reappraisal is associated with improved mental health and fewer depressive symptoms (Aldao et al., 2010). Acceptance is a crucial component of MBIs, as it involves allowing one's thoughts to unfold without judgment while neither embracing nor avoiding the existence of negative emotions (Bishop et al., 2004). ...
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Objectives Swallowing disorders (dysphagia) are common and can incur a negative psychological impact in persons with multiple sclerosis. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has the potential to treat dysphagia alongside associated mental health disorders. The purpose of this preliminary trial was to evaluate the efficacy of MBCT combined with diet modification (MBCT-DM) compared to diet modification (DM) alone on swallowing function in persons with multiple sclerosis and dysphagia. Method The study design involved a preliminary randomized parallel two-arm trial. Forty-four participants with multiple sclerosis who had dysphagia symptoms were recruited and allocated to MBCT-DM or DM. The primary measure involved comparing the efficacy of the combined intervention (MBCT-DM) to DM alone on dysphagia outcomes. Secondary outcome measures included psychological symptoms, emotional regulation strategies, and level of mindfulness. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately after treatment. We also explored recruitment potential and retention for the MBCT program. Results Eighty-five percent of patients with suspected multiple sclerosis demonstrated interest. The first 44 eligible patients who signed consent were included. All completed at least six of the eight MBCT sessions. For the primary and secondary outcomes, all between-group differences favored the MBCT-DM intervention demonstrating decrease of dysphagia (η² = 0.71) and psychological symptoms, and improvement of emotion regulation strategies, and mindfulness levels (η² ranging from 0.69 to 0.77). Conclusions It is practical to deliver MBCT adjunct to diet modification for the treatment of dysphagia. Such treatment appears to confer physical and psychological benefits. A definitive RCT should be undertaken to confirm these preliminary data. Preregistration IRCT.ir registration identifier: IRCT20200521047537N1.
... induces negative emotions and increases the incidence of internalizing problems (Aldao et al., 2010;Yu et al., 2021). In turn, these internalizing problems both engender negative bias in adolescents' cognitive processing and cause them to habitually interpret external stimuli pessimistically (Connolly et al., 2017). ...
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Background/objective Research suggests that perceiving parental depression elicits internalizing problems in adolescents, but certain studies have indicated that adolescents’ internalizing problems also increase their perception of parental emotion. To further investigate the inconsistent findings about the nature of this relationship, the current study used longitudinal data to examine the causal association between adolescents’ internalizing problems and the parental depression they perceived, as well as the role of intrusive rumination in the relationship. Method: In this longitudinal study, 392 adolescents who experienced the catastrophic Jiuzhaigou earthquake in 2017 were surveyed at three time points after the earthquake: 12 months (T1), 21 months (T2) and 27 months (T3). A cross-lagged panel model was used to carry out the data analysis. Results: Mutual cause-and-effect relationships were found between intrusive rumination and both perceived parental depression and internalizing problems, respectively; a unilateral causal relationship in which internalizing problems positively predicted perceived parental depression was also found. In addition, internalizing problems predicted perceived parental depression via the mediating role of intrusive rumination; similarly, intrusive rumination predicted perceived parental depression via internalizing problems. Conclusions: Internalizing problems were a risk factor for perceived parental depression, and intrusive rumination played an important role in the relationship between internalizing problems and perceived parental depression.
... Importantly, the pandemic could have also impacted emotion regulation strategies, or stress response styles, that may confer risk or resilience for internalizing symptoms. Stress response styles such as rumination (i.e., repetitive negative thinking about past events or stressors), catastrophizing (i.e., repetitive negative thinking that emphasizes the terror and potential consequences of situations), self-blame (i.e., blaming oneself for situations), and otherblame (i.e., blaming others for situations) are considered to be maladaptive and worsen mental health, while strategies like planning (i.e., thinking of ways to manage or modify situations), positive reappraisal (i.e., thinking of positive sides to situations and ways to grow from them), putting into perspective (i.e., downplaying situation importance or highlighting situation relativity compared to other stressors), acceptance (i.e., accepting the situation), and positive refocusing (i.e., focusing on pleasant events or thoughts instead of the situation) are thought to be adaptive responses and improve mental health (e.g., Aldao et al., 2010;Carver et al., 1989;Garnefski & Kraaij, 2006, 2007Garnefski et al., 2001;Ireland et al., 2017). However, use of these strategies or response styles and their effects can vary depending on life stress (e.g., Smith & Alloy, 2009) or contextual demands (i.e., situation fit hypothesis; Aldao et al., 2015). ...
... Unlike younger adults, they often prioritize social and emotional interactions over other goals and show a 'positivity bias' in emotion perception 4 . In contrast, maladaptive emotional reactivity and impaired emotion regulation are related to psychopathologies such as anxiety, depression, worry and rumination throughout the lifespan 5,6 , including in aging 7 . Maladaptive affective styles may represent an important risk factor for dementia [8][9][10] , a major health burden 11 . ...
Article
Basic emotional functions seem well preserved in older adults. However, their reactivity to and recovery from socially negative events remain poorly characterized. To address this, we designed a ‘task–rest’ paradigm in which 182 participants from two independent experiments underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to socio-emotional videos. Experiment 1 (N = 55) validated the task in young and older participants and unveiled age-dependent effects on brain activity and connectivity that predominated in resting periods after (rather than during) negative social scenes. Crucially, emotional elicitation potentiated subsequent resting-state connectivity between default mode network and amygdala exclusively in older adults. Experiment 2 replicated these results in a large older adult cohort (N = 127) and additionally showed that emotion-driven changes in posterior default mode network–amygdala connectivity were associated with anxiety, rumination and negative thoughts. These findings uncover the neural dynamics of empathy-related functions in older adults and help understand its relationship to poor social stress recovery. Baez-Lugo et al. show that increased functional brain connectivity between default mode network and amygdala in resting state after high emotional events is associated to higher anxiety, rumination and negative thoughts in older adults.
... Even if emotion suppression initially referred only to the expressive suppression of emotional reactions (6), emotion suppression has become a collective term referring to the rejection or reduction of any emotional experiences due to an unwillingness to experience negative emotions along with related thoughts and sensations (2). In general, higher levels of emotion acceptance and lower levels of emotion suppression are linked to reduced psychopathology and negative affectivity (7,8). In agreement with these findings, a recent meta-analysis on the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies in BPD confirmed that higher BPD symptom severity was associated with a more intense use of emotion suppression and a less frequent use of emotion acceptance (2). ...
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Background Emotion dysregulation is a central feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Since impaired emotion regulation contributes to disturbed emotion functioning in BPD, it is crucial to study underlying neural activity. The current study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of two emotion regulation strategies, namely emotion acceptance and suppression, which are both important treatment targets in BPD. Methods Twenty-one women with BPD and 23 female healthy control participants performed an emotion regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). While watching fearful movie clips, participants were instructed to either accept or to suppress upcoming emotions compared to passive viewing. Results Results revealed acceptance-related insular underactivation and suppression-related caudate overactivation in subjects with BPD during the emotion regulation task. Conclusion This is a first study on the neural correlates of emotion acceptance and suppression in BPD. Altered insula functioning during emotion acceptance may reflect impairments in emotional awareness in BPD. Increased caudate activity is linked to habitual motor and cognitive processes and therefore may accord to the well-established routine in BPD patients to suppress emotional experiences.
Article
Background: The Psychological Mediation Framework theorizes that repetitive negative thinking (RNT) mediates the relationship between minority stress and mental health, and this theory has been consistently supported by previous research. Yet, it is unclear whether the process or content of RNT is more important in the development of internalizing symptoms in sexual minorities. Consequently, the goal of the current study was to use structural equation modeling to determine whether there are significant indirect effects of repetitive negative thought content in the relationship between minority stress and internalizing psychopathology. Methods: Measures of RNT, internalizing symptoms, and proximal minority stress were completed online by 205 cisgender sexual minority adults. Structural equation modeling was used to examine indirect effects of proximal stress on internalizing symptoms through content-independent RNT, depressive rumination, and sexual orientation-related rumination. Results: Significant direct effects of proximal minority stress on internalizing symptoms were observed. Indirect effects of proximal stress on internalizing symptoms were observed for content-independent RNT and depressive rumination, but not sexual orientation-related rumination. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence that the process and affective valence of RNT contributes more to internalizing symptoms in sexual minorities when compared with sexual orientation-related content. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
Chapter
This book contains excerpts of life stories from 118 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and major depressive disorder. This library of personal narratives, heavily reproduced and quoted throughout the text, presents a composite image of the ways in which narrative identity can be affected by mental illness while also being a resource for personal recovery. Those researching, studying or practicing in mental health professions will find a wealth of humanizing first-person perspectives on mental illness that foster perspective-taking and aid patient-centered treatment and study. Researchers of narrative psychology will find a unique set of life stories synthesized with existing literature on identity and recovery. Moving towards intervention, the authors include a 'guide for narrative repair' with the aim of healing narrative identity damage and fostering growth of adaptive narrative identity.
Article
Bu araştırmada 3-6 yaş aralığındaki okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının duygu düzenleme becerilerinin açıklanmasında çocukların mizaç özellikleri ile ebeveynlerinin duygusal zekâları ve psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerinin yordayıcı rolü incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi Türkiye genelinde 3-6 yaş aralığında çocuğa sahip olan 345 (Anne=311 %91,1, Baba=34 %9,9) ebeveynden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın verileri Demografik Bilgi Formu, Duygu Düzenleme, Psikolojik İyi Oluş, Çocuklar İçin Kısa Mizaç ve Asıl Form Schutte Duygusal Zekâ Ölçekleri’nin ebeveynlere online olarak uygulanmasıyla elde edilmiştir. Yapılan hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonucunda çocuğun sıcakkanlılık- utangaçlık, sebatkarlık, tepkisellik mizaçlarının; ebeveyn yaşı, duygusal zekâsı ve psikolojik iyi oluşunun çocukların duygu düzenleme becerilerinin anlamlı yordayıcıları olduğu belirlenmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının duygu düzenleme becerileri, sıcakkanlılık-utangaçlık mizaç özelikleri ile ebeveynlerinin yaşı, duygusal zekâsı ve psikolojik iyi oluşları arttıkça artmaktadır. Araştırmada çocukların tepkisellik mizaç özelliklerinin duygu düzenleme becerileri üzerinde olumsuz etkiye sahip olduğu ve tepkisellik mizaç özellikleri arttıkça duygu düzenleme problemlerinin de arttığı belirtilmektedir. Ayrıca araştırmada ebeveyn yaşı ve psikolojik iyi oluşu ile çocukların sebatkarlık mizaç özelliklerindeki artışın, duygu düzenleme problemlerinde azalmaya neden olduğu da ortaya konulmuştur.
Article
In this research work, the investigators analyze the relationship between anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional competence among college students. A sample of 100 BPSMV college students in the age group 16-21 years from Sonepat district, Haryana, was selected for the study. According to the findings, most college students had high levels of anxiety. On the other hand, a large number of students had a low level of emotional intelligence. Overall emotional competence score reveals that most college students scored average. It also indicates that college students are fairly adapted to understanding and monitoring their emotions. The study's findings also revealed that there is no significant difference in anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional competence based on the location (rural/urban). The result shows a weak positive relationship between anxiety and the emotional intelligence of college students. Moreover, regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of emotional intelligence and emotional competence on anxiety. Results revealed that emotional intelligence contributes to variation in anxiety.
Article
Background: Retention in treatment for individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is an area of concern in treatment outcome studies. The current study explores key variables related to retention in a group of women with comorbid PTSD and SUD enrolled in community SUD treatment randomized to eight weekly sessions of a trauma adapted mindfulness-based relapse prevention (TA-MBRP) or an integrated coping skills (ICS) group intervention. Methods: Two unadjusted and adjusted logistic discrete failure time (DFT) models were fit to examine associations between participants and the time (in weeks) to treatment completion status. Key covariates of interest, including time-varying PTSD Symptom Scale-Self Report (PSS) total score, time-varying Five Factors Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) total score, group assignment, baseline endorsements of substance use and demographics such as age, race and employment status were fit into the model. Results: In the adjusted PSS model, increased levels of PTSD symptom severity (PSS) scores at week 5 and 7 (PSS OR: 1:06: OR 1.13, respectively) were associated with higher odds of non-completion. In the FFMQ model, increased levels of FFMQ scores at week 6 (OR: 0:92) were associated with lower odds of non-completion. In both models, assignment to the ICS control group and unemployment were associated with lower odds of completion and baseline use of cocaine and sedatives were associated with higher odds of completion. Conclusion: Monitoring PTSD symptom severity and measures of mindfulness can inform providers on strategies to enhance retention early in treatment for individuals with comorbid PTSD/SUD. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT02755103
Article
The relationship between the dimensional assessment of personality and difficulties in emotion regulation has yet to be made clear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of personality traits and emotion regulation on personality functioning. Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Personality Inventory for DSM‐5 (PID‐5) and Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) were rated for 220 patients with depression and/or anxiety disorder diagnosis and 100 healthy controls. Stepwise regression analyses (SRA) were used to find potential predictors of personality functioning, and generalized linear analyses (GLA) were used to find mediators between the traits and personality functioning. SRA results in the clinical group showed that higher depression, antagonism, difficulties in impulse control and difficulties in awareness predicted higher levels of dysfunction in personality. According to GLA results in the clinical group, the impulse subscale of DERS partially mediated the relationship between antagonism and level of impairment in personality functioning. Our results indicate that certain emotion regulation styles and personality traits play an important role in predicting personality functioning in the clinical sample of depression and anxiety patients. Future studies should focus on specific emotion dysregulation strategies and broaden the dimensional personality literature in different samples.
Article
It is difficult to fathom how an organization could be successful without its employees engaging in self-reflection. Gone would be its personnel's capacity to problem-solve, learn from past experiences, and engage in countless other introspective activities that are vital to success. Indeed, a large body of research highlights the positive value of reflection. Yet, as both common experience and a wealth of findings demonstrate, engaging in this introspective process while focusing on negative experiences often backfires, undermining people's health, well-being, performance, and relationships. Here we synthesize research on the benefits and costs of self-reflection in organizational contexts and discuss the role that psychological distance plays in allowing people to harness the potential of self-reflection while avoiding its common pitfalls.
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The current literature suggests that emotion regulation, the mechanism of change in treatment, is the common etiological and maintenance factor for different psychopathologies. This study aims to conduct an adaptation study of the Perth Emotion Regulation Competency Inventory (PERCI; Preece et al., 2018) into Turkish and to examine the scale’s psychometric properties. The study sample consists of 461 participants, of whom 77.4% are female and 22.3% male with a mean age of 21.49 years old. The study first adapted PERCI from English to Turkish using the back translation method. Next, the participants completed a demographic information form, the Turkish version of PERCI; the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ); and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The measurement set was applied to the participants using an online platform. The study then conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and compared the generated groups using cluster analysis, with the Pearson correlation coefficients being calculated for scores from the PERCI, the ERQ, and the DASS-21 within the scope of examining the validity of the Turkish version of PERCI. The study also calculated Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω for the reliability examination. The CFA findings for the factor structure of PERCI have revealed the scale to have eight first-order factors, each factor consisting of four items (i.e., controlling experience, inhibiting behavior, activating behavior, and tolerating emotions for both negative and positive emotions) being loaded onto two second-order factors (i.e., negative and positive emotion regulation). The negative, positive, and general emotion regulation scores showed expected correlations with the variables of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms and also indicated significant differences among the high, medium, and low symptom groups. High reliability coefficients were obtained for all of PERCI’s subscale scores. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the scores obtained from the Turkish version of PERCI. For future emotion regulation research, a measure that enables a more detailed examination of the relationships involved in emotion regulation in the context of positive and negative emotions and other structures has been brought to Türkiye’s national literature.
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In ‘The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Mindfulness’, the Buddha mentioned “There is this one way for the purification of beings, for overcoming sorrow and lamentation, for extinguishing of stress and suffering, for attaining to higher knowledge, and for the realisation of liberation” (Digha Nikaya 22). This ‘one way’ is the application of mindfulness meditation on body, feelings, mind, and phenomena. Such wisdom words of an enlightened teacher uttered more than 2,500 years ago are timeless truths which modern science has just begun to uncover. For four decades since Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School to introduce the structured practice of mindfulness, the interest in mindfulness and other forms of meditation has grown exponentially. Meditation is no longer merely a spiritual quest practised at secluded religious centres but a mainstream mind-body therapy for health and wellbeing. Meditation classes are everywhere: hospitals, mental health clinics, nursing homes, the military, correctional centres, sports centres, universities, schools, and even in nurseries. Research has played a pivotal role to usher in this newfound interest in meditation. There is growing evidence supporting the health benefits of meditation in reducing stress, managing pain, enhancing cognition, improving resilience, cultivating positive emotions, and much more. However, cumulative knowledge on the study of meditation from various research disciplines including neuroscience, psychophysiology, cognitive science, mental health and public health represent only the tip of the iceberg. There is still much to discover from these ancient mind and body practices. This book is a compilation of recent research in the field of meditation. It provides a snapshot of exciting findings and developments such as the launch of a large-scale UK study to operationalise mindfulness in the mental health system, the possibility that Zen meditation can slow down cardiopulmonary ageing, a theoretical framework for describing meditation interventions in health research, the potential for meditation to address health inequality, the use of mindful self-compassion to enhance the wellbeing of adult learners, and the case study of a clinical psychologist and meditation teacher sharing her first-hand experience of living with spondylolisthesis in relative peace through applying mindfulness strategies. The included articles further contribute to our understanding of the role of meditation in health, defined by the World Health Organization as “not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing”. It is an honour to be academic editors for this Special Issue and a great pleasure to review many insightful manuscripts first-hand. We wish to thank the publisher for this excellent opportunity to serve the research community. We are also grateful for the hard work and support provided by the editorial office to make this project a success. To all the authors, thank you for your contributions. To the readers, thank you for your interest. A plethora of quality works from the latest meditation research await in the following pages. May you gain many useful insights!
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Current research suggests obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occurs in around 20% of people with hoarding disorder (HD). The article discusses the theoretical conceptualization of co-occurring HD and OCD (HD+OCD), highlighting similarities between the disorders that may contribute to comorbidity, such as potentially overlapping etiological factors, comorbidity profiles, and phenomenological aspects; and differences that are important to consider in differential diagnosis and conceptualization, such as belief patterns, ego-syntonicty/dystonicity, and trajectory. The combination of HD+OCD versus either disorder alone appears to be associated with a profile characterized by higher nonhoarding OCD symptoms, anxiety symptoms, depression, and tic disorders, and which may be more treatment-refractory. The authors discuss some commonly used measures to assess hoarding that may be relevant in the context of OCD, as differential diagnosis of hoarding behaviors is often difficult, and hoarding may be difficult to detect in patients with OCD, especially in children. The article ends with a discussion on considerations for the treatment of HD+OCD with cognitive-behavioral therapy, as hoarding symptoms are less likely to respond to gold-standard exposure and response prevention, and there are no established treatment protocols that are designed to treat co-occurring HD and OCD.
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Emotion suppression is considered a maladaptive form of emotion regulation and is transdiagnostic of numerous mental disorders, including depressive, anxious, and trauma disorders. Existing eye-movement-based interventions, such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, use eye movements to access subconscious content and reduce the intensity of associated affect. This article presents information on the neuroanatomy of the eyes, including that the retinas are entirely made of brain tissue. The article then examines the literature on the eyes and their relationship to the nervous system, emotion regulation, emotion suppression, psychopathology, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning, and it explores interventions that use eye movements and contraindications of their use. It also provides resulting helpful tips about all these subjects for counselors to incorporate into their daily practice, and it indicates where further research is needed.
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Background and objectives: Panic disorder is defined by recurring and unexpected panic attacks, accompanied by anticipatory anxiety about future attacks and their consequences. This generally involves avoiding situations and behaviors that can produce panic attacks (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Among anxiety disorders, panic disorder is associated with some of the greatest burdens in terms of personal suffering, occupational disability, and societal cost. The objective of this article is to systematically identify and review the empirical literature on emotional management processes and strategies associated with panic disorder, with the aim of evaluating their role in the development and maintenance of panic disorder, in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the disorder and guide clinicians to improve their current treatments. Methods: Four databases were searched for studies which were based on self-reported questionnaires or a methodology based on an experimental procedure. Results: Of the 1719 articles identified, 61 referred to different aspects of emotional management. People living with PD are characterized by low emotional intelligence levels, excessive use of suppression, impaired cognitive reappraisal, high levels of alexithymia and maladaptive coping strategies. Limitations: Most of the reviewed studies used measures of emotional management in cross-sectional models and were based on self-assessment reports. Conclusions: Improving emotional intelligence levels is key to increasing emotion regulation flexibility for people living with PD. Automatic cognitive reappraisal impairment in these people indicates low importance of cognitive restructuring in psychotherapeutic treatment.
Article
Introduction: Underlying factors associated with alcohol hangover psychological symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, have not been identified. Emotion dysregulation and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) are transdiagnostic factors associated with psychopathology, including non-hangover anxiety and depression. The current study prospectively examined the role of emotion dysregulation on subsequent alcohol hangover anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as the moderating role of RNT on this relation among university students. Methods: One hundred thirty-six participants completed baseline assessments of emotion dysregulation (DERS-16) and non-hangover anxiety and depression (DASS-21). Thirty-nine participants reported experiencing alcohol hangover at 2-week follow up and completed assessments of RNT (PTQ) and hangover anxiety and depression (modified DASS-21). Two independent regression-based moderation analyses were conducted to examine the relation of baseline emotion dysregulation, 2-week follow-up RNT, and hangover anxiety and depression symptoms after accounting for baseline non-hangover anxiety and depression symptoms. Results: Among those experiencing alcohol hangover (n = 39), emotion dysregulation and RNT were not associated with hangover related anxiety beyond non-hangover anxiety. Emotion dysregulation significantly predicted hangover depression but was rendered non-significant by the addition of RNT, which was significantly associated with hangover depression. RNT moderated the emotion dysregulation-hangover depression relation such that emotion dysregulation was not associated with future hangover depression at low levels of RNT but was positively associated with hangover depression at moderate to high levels of RNT. Conclusion: Results provide preliminary support for the role of emotion dysregulation and RNT in hangover depression severity.
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Background The mood brightening hypothesis postulates that people with depressive symptoms report more positive affect (PA) and less negative affect (NA) than healthy controls after rewarding daily life activities. Whether mood brightening also occurs in people with anxiety symptoms remains unclear. This study examined effects of physical activity, being outdoors, and social activity on PA and NA across different levels of depression and anxiety symptoms in the general Dutch population. Methods Participants completed an electronic diary on their smartphone, thrice daily over 30 days, to assess activities and affect (n = 430; 22,086 assessments). We compared five groups based on their scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales: asymptomatic participants, participants with mild symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. Multilevel linear regression models with interaction terms were used to compare the association between activities and affect in these five groups. Results All activities were associated with increased PA and reduced NA in all groups. We found a mood brightening effect in participants with depression, as physical activity and being outdoors were associated with reduced NA. Participants with depression had increased PA and reduced NA when in social company compared to asymptomatic participants. No mood brightening effects were observed in participants with anxiety or comorbid depression and anxiety. Limitations Our sample included mainly women and highly educated subjects, which may limit the generalizability of our findings. Conclusion Mood brightening is specific to depression, and typically stronger when in social company.
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Three studies involving 3 participant samples (Ns = 39, 55, and 53) tested the hypothesis that people retrieve episodic emotion knowledge when reporting on their emotions over short (e.g., last few hours) time frames, but that they retrieve semantic emotion knowledge when reporting on their emotions over long (e.g., last few months) time frames. Support for 2 distinct judgment strategies was based on judgment latencies (Studies 1 and 2) and priming paradigms (Studies 2 and 3). The authors suggest that self-reports of emotion over short versus long time frames assess qualitatively different sources of self-knowledge.
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A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's(1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated motivationally distinct disposition-rumination and reflection-and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC sources are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive Framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.
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From a consumer choice perspective (Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2002), the development of less theistic, more tolerant, and non-stigmatizing alternatives to the current substance abuse treatment systems is warranted. In this chapter we provide an introduction to an alternative spirituality-based treatment, Vipassana meditation. This form of treatment may fill the treatment gap for those who would benefit from a spirituality-based approach but do not wish to participate in AA. First we review the concepts of spirituality, meditation and mindfulness, followed by an overview to the process of Vipassana meditation. The link between spirituality, mindfulness, and addiction is discussed, with a particular emphasis on the cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological mechanisms that may be affected by mindfulness. We then describe preliminary data from two empirical studies investigating the psychological functioning and substance use of incarcerated and non-incarcerated participants following a 10-day Vipassana course.
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In this commentary, we build upon the papers featured in this 2-part special issue to advance an integrative perspective on emotion regulation that emphasizes the developmentally specific goal-contexts of emotional phenomena. We highlight the importance of (1) multilevel longitudinal investigations of interactions among biological, affective, cognitive, and behavioral processes with respect to emotion regulation; (2) the integration of emotion-regulation processes with self-regulatory processes across the life course; (3) the dynamic relationship between positive and negative affect and their respective influence on regulatory processes; and (4) greater consideration of the dyadic context of emotion-regulation processes. From this perspective, the optimal developmental outcome with respect to emotion regulation is not affective homeostasis, but rather a dynamic flexibility in emotional experience, the ability to pursue and prioritize different goals, and the capacity to selectively and proactively mobilize emotions and cognitions in the service of context-specific and developmentally specific goals.
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This study investigated the possible relationship between negative processing biases and subsequent depression. The Scrambled Sentences Test (SST), a mea- sure of processing bias, was administered to a large sample of under- graduates. Participants also completed self-report measures of thought suppression tendencies, current level of depression, and lifetime worst-depres- sion symptoms. High scores on the SST, reflecting a negative processing bias, predicted depression symptoms measured 4 to 6 weeks later, even after controlling for concurrent and past depression. The SST was administered both with and without cognitive load to all participants. The SST with load pre- dicted subsequent depression for both men and women. The SST without load predicted depression for women only. The SST difference score, a mea- sure of the change in scores between the no-load and load conditions, was a significant predictor of subsequent depression for men but not women. Among men, the combination of high thought suppression with either high SST-load scores or high SST difference scores proved to be a particularly strong indicator of vulnerability to subsequent depression.
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The present study describes the development of a short, general measure of experiential avoidance, based on a specific theoretical approach to this process. A theoretically driven iterative exploratory analysis using structural equation modeling on data from a clinical sample yielded a single factor comprising 9 items, A fully confirmatory factor analysis upheld this same 9-item factor in an independent clinical sample. The operational characteristics of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAO) were then examined in 8 additional samples. All totaled, over 2,400
Article
Objective Relationships among coping strategies, negative body image, and eating disturbance were studied. Method: Subjects were 128 college women; measures included the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT‐26), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), and three indices of negative body image. Results: Higher use of both emotion‐oriented coping and avoidance‐oriented coping via distraction was associated with higher EAT scores; higher use of emotion‐oriented coping also was associated with more negative body image. Findings agree with data associating these coping styles with other measures of psychological distress and psychopathology. Task‐oriented coping also was high, but unrelated to negative body image or eating disturbance. Hierarchical regression analysis yielded a significant interaction between emotion‐oriented coping and negative body image: The higher the use of emotion‐oriented coping, the less the level of negative body image appeared to affect EAT score. Discussion: Both the main effect for coping and the interaction suggest that high use of emotion‐oriented coping should be considered a risk factor for eating disturbance. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 22: 51–56, 1997.
Article
Objective Relationships among coping strategies, negative body image, and eating disturbance were studied. Method: Subjects were 128 college women; measures included the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT‐26), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), and three indices of negative body image. Results: Higher use of both emotion‐oriented coping and avoidance‐oriented coping via distraction was associated with higher EAT scores; higher use of emotion‐oriented coping also was associated with more negative body image. Findings agree with data associating these coping styles with other measures of psychological distress and psychopathology. Task‐oriented coping also was high, but unrelated to negative body image or eating disturbance. Hierarchical regression analysis yielded a significant interaction between emotion‐oriented coping and negative body image: The higher the use of emotion‐oriented coping, the less the level of negative body image appeared to affect EAT score. Discussion: Both the main effect for coping and the interaction suggest that high use of emotion‐oriented coping should be considered a risk factor for eating disturbance. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 22: 51–56, 1997.
Article
Given recent attention to emotion regulation as a potentially unifying function of diverse symptom presentations, there is a need for comprehensive measures that adequately assess difficulties in emotion regulation among adults. This paper (a) proposes an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act in desired ways regardless of emotional state; and (b) begins to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new measure, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Two samples of undergraduate students completed questionnaire packets. Preliminary findings suggest that the DERS has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and adequate construct and predictive validity.
Article
Discriminative facility was proposed as a cognitive process and need for closure was proposed as a motivational process underlying coping flexibility. The dual-process model posits that need for closure influences discriminative facility, which in turn modifies coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. In Study 1, results of structural equation modeling provided support for the dual-process model. This model was further examined using experimental methods (Study 2) and a prospective design (Study 3). Consistent with the dual-process model, results from all 3 studies showed that participants who were more motivated to seek alternative coping strategies tended to encode stressful situations in a more differentiated way. These individuals used a greater variety of strategies to fit different situational demands and were better adjusted.
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It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
Article
Objective: Although there are well-established links between bulimic psychopathology and some affective states, the role of anger is not clearly understood. This is likely to be a product of the diverse nature of anger. The present study examines the association of different components of anger with bulimic attitudes and behaviors among a nonclinical group of women. Methods: Eighty-three nonclinical women completed standardized measures of anger and bulimic attitudes/behaviors. Results: Bulimic attitudes and behaviors were correlated specifically with state anger and anger suppression, rather than with trait anger. The pattern of results suggests that binging and vomiting behaviors may serve different functions with regard to anger. Conclusions: Bulimic attitudes and behaviors appear to reduce immediate anger states, particularly when the individual has a strong tendency to avoid expressing that emotion. Potential therapeutic implications are considered. (C) 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This research sought to formulate a theoretically based conceptualization of coping flexibility and to adopt a multimethod approach in assessing this construct. A self-report daily measure and an experiment were designed geared to theoretical and empirical grounds. The new daily measure was used in Study I to examine coping flexibility in a life transition. Findings showed individual differences in patterns of coping flexibility across different real-life stressful events. In Study 2, coping flexibility was examined in both real-life and laboratory settings. Results replicated those of Study I and further revealed consistency between the self-report and the experiment data. Study 3 extended previous studies by adopting a longitudinal design over a 3-month time span. Participants' flexibility in coping with laboratory tasks was found to predict how flexible they would be in handling real-life stressful events.
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One of the fundamental questions that clinical scientists and practitioners alike must address is when emotions are functional and when they are dysfunctional. Recent advances in affective science have provided new tools with which to address this age-old question. In particular, affective science is teaching us a great deal about both the generation and the regulation of emotion. We argue that it is only by harnessing the insights of contemporary affective science that it will be possible to develop a nuanced taxonomy of emotional disturbances that is grounded in a causal analysis of underlying processes. We illustrate our points by drawing upon our recent studies of depression and discuss several important challenges that lie ahead as we build much-needed bridges between affective and clinical science.
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This chapter discusses the treatment for eating disorders. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders recognizes two primary eating disorders: anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). It also includes binge eating disorder (BED), sub threshold versions of AN and BN, and other disordered eating patterns. The most widely researched treatments for eating disorders are based on cognitive-behavioral procedures and have focused on BN and BED. Acceptance-based methods for treating eating disorders deserve increased attention, and several interventions that incorporate mindfulness training and acceptance-related procedures. Some of these are adaptations of previously developed interventions. For example, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been adapted for BED and BN; mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been adapted for BED; and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been applied to AN. In addition, mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT) is developed specifically for BED. MB-EAT is developed by integrating elements from MBSR and CBT with guided eating meditations. The program draws on traditional mindfulness meditation techniques, as well as guided meditation, to address specific issues pertaining to shape, weight, and eating-related self regulatory processes such as appetite and both gastric and taste-specific satiety.
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There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures.
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Self-regulation is the process whereby systems maintain stability of functioning and adaptability to change. Self-regulation is based on feedback loops which can be enhanced through attention. All self-regulation techniques, therefore, involve the cultivation of attention. However, the intention with which attention is directed may be crucial. In this paper, we explore intentional systemic mindfulness, a model that explicitly introduces intention into self-regulation theory and practice. Intention as defined by this model is composed of the context of attention - systemic perspectives - and the quality of attention - mindfulness qualities. Intentional systemic mindfulness addresses both 'why' (systemic perspectives) and 'how' (mindfulness qualities) one directs attention, which may promote healing on multiple levels. Directions for research and implications for multiple levels of integrative health are considered.
Article
Background: Little is known about the longer-term outcome of bulimia nervosa and the distal effects of treatment.Methods: Prospective follow-up of subjects from two randomized controlled trials, involving a comparison of cognitive behavior therapy, behavior therapy, and focal interpersonal therapy.Results: Ninety percent (89/99) underwent reassessment by interview (mean [±SD] length of follow-up, 5.8±2.0 years). Almost half (46%) had a DSM-IV eating disorder; 19%, bulimia nervosa; 3%, anorexia nervosa; and 24%, eating disorder not otherwise specified. There was a low rate of other psychiatric disorders. Premorbid and paternal obesity predicted a poor outcome. While the three treatments did not differ with respect to the pro-portion of subjects with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa at follow-up, they did differ once all forms of DSM-IV eating disorder were considered together. Those who had received cognitive behavior therapy or focal interpersonal therapy were doing markedly better than those who had received behavior therapy.Conclusions: The longer-term outcome of bulimia nervosa depends on the nature of the treatment received. Patients who receive a treatment such as behavior therapy, which only has a short-lived effect, tend to do badly, whereas those who receive treatments such as cognitive behavior therapy or focal interpersonal therapy have a better prognosis.
Article
Two studies supported hypotheses that (a) published scales tapping coping through processing and expressing emotion are confounded with psychopathology; (b) previously demonstrated relations between emotional approach coping (EAC) and maladjustment are partially spurious; and (c) EAC, when tapped by items uncontaminated by distress, is beneficial under specific conditions. In Study 1, 194 psychologists rated a majority of published items, but no author-constructed EAC item, as indicative of pathology. Study 2 assessed relations of confounded and unconfounded EAC scales to 171 young adults' adjustment during stressful events. Confounded items evidenced weaker discriminant validity with distress measures than did unconfounded items, and they were weaker predictors of later maladjustment when initial adjustment was controlled than when it was not. Unconfounded EAC predicted improved adjustment for women and poorer adjustment for men over time.
Article
This article proposes that binge eating is motivated by a desire to escape from self-awareness. Binge eaters suffer from high standards and expectations, especially an acute sensitivity to the difficult (perceived) demands of others. When they fall short of these standards, they develop an aversive pattern of high self-awareness, characterized by unflattering views of self and concern over how they are perceived by others. These aversive self-perceptions are accompanied by emotional distress, which often includes anxiety and depression. To escape from this unpleasant state, binge eaters attempt the cognitive response of narrowing attention to the immediate stimulus environment and avoiding broadly meaningful thought. This narrowing of attention disengages normal inhibitions against eating and fosters an uncritical acceptance of irrational beliefs and thoughts. The escape model is capable of integrating much of the available evidence about binge eating.
Article
Social problem-solving has been associated with depressive and anxious symptomology. However, these studies have traditionally not explored whether these associations are specific or associated with shared variance between these symptoms. In the current study, measures of depressive and anxious symptoms and social problem-solving were administered to 245 undergraduate students. Partial correlations and regression analyses were conducted to explore the specificity of associations between depressive and anxious symptoms. Results indicated that social problem-solving orientation and problem-solving skills were associated with depressive and anxious symptoms, but that these results remained significant only to depressive symptoms when anxiety was statistically controlled. Results also supported the primary role of negative problem-solving orientation and the importance of assessing problem orientation and skills dimensions. Discussion centers on the meaning of the results in relation to problem-solving theory and treatment.
Article
Previous research has typically failed to show a difference between the self‐esteem ratings of persons who are at‐risk for depression and those who are not. Despite these null findings, it is possible that problems with self‐esteem do precede depression but are masked by thought suppression. The present research investigated the possibility that at‐risk individuals' relatively positive self‐appraisals belie uncertainty about the self that is related to high levels of thought suppression and reassurance seeking. To test this idea, participants completed Rosenberg's (1965) Self‐Esteem Scale and immediately reported certainty of their responses. Participants then completed measures of excessive‐reassurance seeking and chronic thought suppression. Participants also reported past and present experiences with depression. The results indicated that at‐risk individuals did not differ from never‐depressed individuals in their reported levels of trait self‐esteem. However, at‐risk individuals were more uncertain about their beliefs than were never‐depressed individuals. Moreover, this uncertainty was associated with high levels of thought suppression and excessive reassurance seeking.
Article
This study investigated (1) the moderating effects of gender and cognitive avoidance coping on the negative life events–depressive/anxious symptoms relationship, and (2) the validity of the cognitive avoidance coping construct. One hundred seventy-nine men and women completed the Coping Responses Inventory (CRI), Negative Life Events Questionnaire, and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories at Time 1 and, 3 weeks later, at Time 2. A confirmatory factor analysis of the four CRI Avoidant Coping subscales revealed that a two-factor model, comprising Cognitive and Behavioral Avoidance Coping, was superior to the one-factor model composed of Avoidant Coping. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high negative life event scores were predictive of significant increases in symptoms among females who endorsed greater use of cognitive avoidance coping, but not among males. Behavioral avoidance coping was unrelated to changes in depressive and anxious symptoms.
Article
Worry and depressive rumination have both been described as unproductive, repetitive thought which contributes to anxiety or depression, respectively. It was hypothesized that repetitive thought, rather than its specific forms, is a general concomitant of negative mood. Study 1 was a cross-sectional test of the hypothesis. Repetitive thought was positively correlated with anxiety and depression in students (n = 110). In patients (n = 40), repetitive thought was positively correlated with anxiety and depression, and rumination was also specifically correlated with depression. Study 2 was a prospective test of the hypothesis. In students (n = 90), there were significant cross-sectional relationships between repetitive thought and both anxiety and depression. In addition, repetitive thought at least partially predicted maintenance of anxious symptoms. Phenomena such as goal interruption, failures of emotional processing, and information processing may lead to repetitive thought which increases negative mood states, including both anxiety and depression.
Article
According to the SLT of alcohol abuse, problem drinkers exhibit coping deficits and hold positive expectancies or beliefs about the effects of alcohol that promote the use of alcohol as a generalized coping strategy (Abrams, D.B. and Niura, R.S. (1987). Social learning theory. In: Blane, H.T. and Leonard, K.E. (Eds.), Psychological Theories of Drinking and Alcoholism, pp. 131–178. Guilford Press, New York; Wilson, T.G. (1987). Cognitive studies in alcoholism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(3), 325–331.). Coping is often conceptualized as consisting of emotion-focused, problem-focused, and avoidance coping categories (Folkman, S. and Lazarus, R.S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21(3), 219–239; Billings, A.G. and Moos, R.H. (1981). The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4(2), 139–157.). Despite some researchers’ belief that this is an oversimplification (Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F. and Weintraub, J.K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267–283.), studies that have examined the relation of coping tendencies to alcohol consumption in college samples have used these categories (Evans, M. and Dunn, N.J. (1994). Alcohol expectancies, coping responses and self-efficacy judgements: a replication and extension of Cooper et al.'s 1988 study in a college sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56(2), 186–193; Fromme, K. and Rivet, K. (1994). Young adults’ coping style as a predictor of their alcohol use and response to daily events. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23(1), 85–97.). The results of the current investigation indicate that researchers should consider the relation of individual coping strategies to different aspects of consumption and alcohol-related consequences, and suggest that the tendency to use substances to cope may be an especially important determinant of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences for college students.
Article
Self-in-relation theory (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991) proposes that a lack of mutuality in women's relationships predisposes them to depression and inhibits their ability to acknowledge and address effectively emotions such as anger. Research linking anger to depression has not examined women's emotional expressivity within the context of their partner relationships. Women's depression as a function of both their level of anger suppression or inappropriate anger expression and the level of perceived relationship mutuality was studied in a sample of 223 college women, aged 18 to 54. Lower levels of mutuality and higher levels of suppressed or inappropriately expressed anger were associated with depression. Moreover, mutuality made contributions to predicting depression beyond that explained by anger. Lower mutuality was also related to higher anger suppression, but unrelated to inappropriately expressed anger.
Article
This study explored the associations and interactions between social rank (submissive behaviour and social comparison), shame, rumination and depression. 125 undergraduate students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring the research variables. It was found that social rank and shame are highly related and that both shame and social rank are significantly correlated with rumination. A moderator analysis suggested an effect of gender on the relationship between external shame and rumination. A mediational path analysis suggested that rumination partially mediated a link between shame and depression, but shame retained a unique contribution to depression after controlling for rumination.
Chapter
Investigations of emotional processes such as sadness, elation, fear, and anxiety have historically been viewed as core components of numerous psychopathological conditions (Barlow, 2002; Kring & Werner, 2004). Despite their centrality in psychopathology, emotions have historically been a source of confusion and disagreement in clinical psychology, in part due to a lack of conceptual clarity in the definition of emotion, awareness of the purpose it serves, and an understanding of how psychopathology can be generated from absence, deficits, or excesses in efforts to regulate emotions (Greenberg, 2002; Samoilov & Goldfried, 2000). The affective science field (e.g., Davidson, Jackson, & Kalin, 2000) provides an opportunity to expand our paradigms regarding the role of emotion-related processes in conceptualizing and treating psychopathology. In this chapter, we review (1) a conceptualization of emotion regulation that stresses distinctions in generative and regulatory characteristics; (2) the application of an emotion dysregulation perspective to various forms of psychopathology; and (3) the utilization of an emotion regulation framework for integrating various emotion-related approaches to treatment.
Article
This study investigated the relation betweeninterpersonal sensitivity and social problem-solving aspredictors of three outcomes in a college population (N= 207): self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and academic performance. Consistent with predictions,interpersonal sensitivity was related to problem-solving-- in particular, negative problem orientation. Bothinterpersonal sensitivity and social problem-solving were significant predictors of self-esteem anddepressive symptoms, each accounting for uniquevariance. Interpersonal sensitivity was a significantpredictor of academic performance, for both males and females. However, in females, social problemsolving was not related to academic performance. Inmales, negative problem orientation and dysfunctionalproblem-solving styles were important aspects of problem solving related to academic performance. Theresults are discussed in terms of the identification of“at risk” college students.
Article
A number of recent laboratory and prospectivefield studies suggest that the tendency to ruminateabout dysphoric moods is associated with more severe andpersistent negative emotional experiences (e.g., Morrow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1990;Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991). The current paperreports two studies that tested the hypotheses that (a)ruminative response styles act as a trait vulnerabilityto dysphoria, particularly to relativelypersistent episodes of dysphoria; (b) aspects ofrumination that are not likely to be contaminated withthe presence and severity of previous symptomatology(introspection/self-isolation, self-blame) demonstrate vulnerability effects;and (c) rumination mediates the effects of gender andneuroticism on vulnerability to dysphoria. Consistentsupport was found for each of these hypotheses. Overall, our data suggest that rumination mightreflect an important cognitive manifestation ofneuroticism that increases vulnerability to episodes ofpersistent dysphoria.
Article
Being preoccupied with the pursuit of money, wealth, and material possessions arguably fails as a strategy to increase pleasure and meaning in life. However, little is known about the mechanisms that explain the inverse relation between materialism and well-being. The current study tested the hypothesis that experiential avoidance mediates associations between materialistic values and diminished emotional well-being, meaning in life, self-determination, and gratitude. Results indicated that people with stronger materialistic values reported more negative emotions and less relatedness, autonomy, competence, gratitude, and meaning in life. As expected, experiential avoidance fully mediated associations between materialistic values and each dimension of well-being. Emotional disturbances such as social anxiety and depressive symptoms failed to account for these findings after accounting for shared variance with experiential avoidance. The results are discussed in the context of alternative, more fulfilling routes to well-being.
Article
Cognitive theories of depression (e.g., the hopelessness theory, Beck's cognitive theory, and the response styles theory) as well as trait neuroticism and low self-esteem have been shown to contribute to the onset and maintenance of depression. It is unknown the extent to which these cognitive and personality vulnerability factors overlap or are distinct. Two independent factor analytic studies addressed the degree of construct independence using measures from the three cognitive theories along with trait neuroticism, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Principal factor analysis from Study 1 (n = 950) revealed four discriminable factors. Three of the factors corresponded to each theory's vulnerability: negative cognitive style, dysfunctional attitudes, and rumination. A fourth factor consisted of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, neuroticism. Confirmatory factor analysis from Study 2 (n = 431) showed that the best fit for the data was a four factor model that replicated the exploratory factor analyses.
Article
Binge eating within Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may represent ineffective management of, and inappropriate escape from, strong, dysphoric emotions, but treatments have been slow to incorporate an emotion regulation focus. Eleven women meeting criteria for BED participated in 11 sessions (2 hours per week) of a psychoeducational group program providing training in emotion recognition and management, problem-solving, assertion training, relaxation and stress management. Outcome was evaluated using a multiple-baseline design replicated across groups. Binges were self-monitored daily, and self-report questionnaires assessed wellbeing and emotion regulation at pretreatment, posttreatment and follow-up. Cognitive changes from pre to posttreatment were evaluated by Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations. The program was effective in reducing binge eating, alexithymia, stress and depression, and it improved coping and positive cognitions. No participant met criteria for BED at follow-up. The findings provide support for the inclusion of training in emotion recognition and regulation in treatments for BED and for affect regulation models of binge eating.