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Available from: Agneta Yngve, Jan 13, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The German food pyramid was set up to foster and communicate healthy food choices. The adherence to recommendations of the food pyramid was translated into an index (German Food Pyramid Index (GFPI)) by scoring the ratio of consumed and recommended daily servings of eight food groups, wherein higher scores indicated greater adherence. The GFPI was calculated for 23 531 subjects who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study and were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Associations between quintiles of GFPI scores and risk of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type-2 diabetes (T2D) and cancer were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. During 183 740 person-years of follow-up, 363 incident cases of CVD (myocardial infarction or stroke), 837 incident cases of T2D and 844 incident cases of cancer occurred. The GFPI was inversely related to CVD risk in men (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for highest versus lowest quintiles=0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-0.94) but not in women (HR=1.39; 95% CI: 0.76-2.55). No association between GFPI and cancer was observed. An inverse relation between GFPI and T2D (men: HR= 0.71 (0.52-0.97); women: HR= 0.69 (0.50-0.96)) in age-adjusted models was substantially attenuated after multivariable adjustments, particularly by body mass index (BMI) (men: HR=0.94 (0.69-1.30); women: HR=1.09 (0.77-1.54)). The same was observed for overall major chronic disease risk (CVD, T2D and total cancer). Adherence to the German food pyramid recommendations is not associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases when considering BMI as confounder, except of CVD in men.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · European journal of clinical nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for diabetes; however, little is known about this association across ethnic groups with different diabetes risk. Therefore, we evaluated the association between physical activity and diabetes and potential effect modification by ethnicity in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort. Participants, aged 45 to 75 years, were enrolled by completing a questionnaire on demographics, diet, and self-reported weekly hours of strenuous sports, vigorous work, and moderate activity. Among the 74,913 participants (39% Caucasian, 14% Native Hawaiian, 47% Japanese American), 8561 incident diabetes cases were identified by self-report, a medication questionnaire, and through health plan linkages. Cox regression was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) while adjusting for known confounders. Engaging in strenuous sports was inversely related to diabetes risk with HRs (4+ hours/week vs. never) of 0.67 (95%CI: 0.57-0.79) in women and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.72-0.88) in men. In stratified analyses, the inverse association was consistent across ethnic groups. The inverse association of vigorous work with diabetes was limited to men, while beneficial effects of moderate activity were observed only in Caucasians. These findings support a role of high-intensity physical activity and ethnic-specific guidelines in diabetes prevention.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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    ABSTRACT: Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from wave 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n = 7,116) and men (n = 6,604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9 kg/m(2) units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Obesity
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