Article

Relationship of serum cholesterol levels to atopy in the US population

Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Allergy (Impact Factor: 6.03). 12/2009; 65(7):859-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02287.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol promotes Th2 immunity and allergic inflammation in rodents; whether this occurs in humans is unclear. Reports of both direct and inverse associations between serum cholesterol and atopy in different populations suggest that race and/or other demographic variables may modify these relationships. Aims OF THE STUDY: To determine the relationships between levels of three serum cholesterol measures [total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and non-HDL-C] and atopy in a sample representative of the US population.
Cross-sectional study of 6854 participants aged > or =6 years from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
In the overall population, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) per two-standard deviation increase in TC and non-HDL-C for biochemical atopy (defined as > or =1 allergen-specific IgE to 19 allergens) were 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.38] and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03-1.39), respectively. Interactions by race were noted for the two relationships (interaction P = 0.004 and P = 0.009, respectively) with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) having direct relationships [TC: AOR 1.27 (95% CI, 1.03-1.57); non-HDL-C: AOR 1.27 (95% CI, 1.03-1.56)] and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) inverse relationships [TC: AOR 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62-0.95); non-HDL-C: AOR 0.86 (95% CI, 0.69-1.08)]. The adjusted HDL-C-atopy relationship was nonsignificant for NHWs and inverse for NHBs [AOR 0.77 (95% CI, 0.61-0.96)]. Relationships were independent of body mass index and serum C-reactive protein and unmodified by corticosteroid or statin usage. Results were similar using current hay fever/allergy as the atopy outcome.
There are marked inter-racial differences in the relationship between serum cholesterol and atopy in the US population.

Full-text preview

Available from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  • Source
    • "However, Fessler et al found that the odds ratio of atopy defined as serum specific IgE positivity against allergens was OR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.38) per two standard deviation increase in total cholesterol which is comparable to ORs of serum cholesterol for myocardial infarction[14]. The possible underlying mechanism may be an effect of serum lipids on proatopic Th2 immunity and allergic inflammation[13,14]. The strengths of our study include the large population-based samples and the inclusion of multiple studies. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of allergic respiratory disease tends to increase in populations that adopt the so-called Westernized lifestyle. We investigated the association between atopy and several possible lifestyle-related factors in seven Danish population-based studies. Methods: A total of 20048 persons participated in the seven studies. We used logistic regression to analyse the associations between possible determinants and atopy defined as serum specific IgE or skin prick test positivity against inhalant allergens. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In addition, individual participant data meta-analyses were performed. Results: Atopy was significantly associated with younger age (OR per 1 year increase in age: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98); male sex (OR for males versus females: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.45), heavy drinking (OR for heavy drinkers versus light drinkers: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27), never smoking (OR for current versus never smokers: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.80), and higher educational level (OR for educated versus uneducated: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.41). Atopy was not associated with blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, physical activity or body mass except in women only, where we found a positive association (OR for obese vs. normal weight: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) with ptrend = 0.032. Conclusions: Of interest for preventive purposes, we found that atopy was associated with some of the reversible lifestyle-related factors that characterize a Westernized lifestyle.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Analysis of general childhood population data showed that there was a significant positive association between total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and atopy, independent of obesity or sex, which suggest a relationship between hyperlipidemia and greater allergic sensitization among schoolchildren.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of pediatrics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whilst emerging evidence from animal and cell experiments has shown high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to have anti-inflammatory effects consistent with a protective role in asthma, human studies investigating the relationship of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with asthma have produced conflicting results. To examine the association between serum lipids among Cypriot children aged 11-12 years and prevalence of asthma at age 15-17 years. In 3982 children, we assessed serum lipids, body mass index and maximal oxygen consumption at baseline (2001-2003) and explored associations with respiratory health at follow-up (2007) using multiple logistic regression models. Lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at age 11-12 years were found in subjects who reported ever asthma (58.2 vs. 60.0 mg/dL, P = 0.005) and active asthma (57.5 vs. 59.9 mg/dL, P = 0.010) in adolescence, in comparison with their respective reference groups. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides had no association with any of the asthma outcomes. In contrast, with estimated odds ratios of 1.89 (95% CI 1.19-3.00) and 1.89 (95% CI 1.02-3.53), ever asthma and active asthma respectively appeared particularly pronounced among those who at baseline had high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dL, even after adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index and maximal oxygen consumption. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Low-serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in childhood is associated with an increased risk for asthma in adolescence, suggesting a potential role of this lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of paediatric asthma.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Clinical & Experimental Allergy
Show more