Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-daily arbekacin during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in critically ill patients
This study examined the pharmacokinetics of arbekacin during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and assessed the pharmacodynamics to consider arbekacin dosage adaptation in CVVHDF. Arbekacin was administered by 0.5-h infusion once daily, using a polymethyl methacrylate membrane hemofilter, to three critically ill patients undergoing CVVHDF; the flow rates were 0.8 l/h for the filtrate and 0.6 l/h for the dialysate. The drug concentrations in plasma and in the filtrate-dialysate were determined using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay and analyzed pharmacokinetically. The average sieving coefficient of arbekacin was 0.739 and the average drug clearance by CVVHDF was 1.03 l/h. A pharmacokinetic model with three compartments (1, central; 2, peripheral; 3, filtrate-dialysate side hemofilter) accurately reflected the concentration-time data for both plasma and filtrate-dialysate. The pharmacokinetic model assessed the pharmacodynamic profile of arbekacin once-daily regimens (0.5-h infusions) at filtrate-dialysate flow rates of 1.4 and 2.8 l/h, and demonstrated that only the 150-mg and 200-mg regimens achieved an effective target range for C(max) (9-20 microg/ml), suggesting that empirical dosages lower than the usual 150-200 mg should be avoided in patients undergoing CVVHDF. The minimum regimens needed to achieve an effective pharmacodynamic target for the free C(max)/MIC ratio (>8) were 75 mg for an MIC of 0.5 microg/ml, 200 mg for an MIC of 2 microg/ml, and 400 mg for an MIC of 4 microg/ml. These results will help us to better understand the pharmacokinetics of arbekacin during CVVHDF, while also helping in the selection of the appropriate arbekacin regimens, based on a pharmacodynamic assessment, for patients receiving this renal replacement therapy.
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