Criteria for Assessing Esophageal Motility in Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band Patients: The Importance of the Lower Esophageal Contractile Segment

Centre for Obesity Research and Education (CORE), Monash Medical School, The Alfred Hospital, Commercial Rd Prahran, 3181, Melbourne, Australia.
Obesity Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.75). 12/2009; 20(3):316-25. DOI: 10.1007/s11695-009-0043-0
Source: PubMed


Esophageal function appears critical in laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) patients; however, conventional motility assessments have not proven to be clinically useful. Recent combined video fluoroscopic and high-resolution manometric studies have identified important components of esophageal function in LAGB patients.
Successful and symptomatic LAGB patients, with normal or mildly impaired esophageal peristalsis, underwent a standardized, water swallow, high-resolution manometry protocol designed specifically to assess the lower esophageal contractile segment (LECS), in combination with conventional measures of esophageal motility. Differences in response to changes in LAGB volume were assessed.
There were 101 symptomatic and 29 successful patients. More symptomatic patients had a mild impairment in esophageal motility (39.6% vs. 3.4%, p < 0.005). Successful patients demonstrated an intact LECS during normal swallows more frequently than symptomatic patients (95% vs. 43%, p < 0.005). Absolute intraluminal pressures were not different between the groups. Removing all fluid from the LAGB revealed more hypotensive swallows in the symptomatic patients (30% vs. 17%, p = 0.002), an effect not observed when the LAGB volume was increased (8% vs. 5%, p = 0.21). Receiver operator characteristic analysis determined that an intact LECS in 70% of normal swallows defined normal motility in LAGB patients.
The LECS is a valuable measure of esophageal function in LAGB patients and complements conventional manometric criteria. Symptomatic patients have less normal swallows; however, these also frequently demonstrate a deficient LECS. Further information can be elucidated by performing swallows at differing LAGB volumes. High-resolution manometry, using these adapted criteria, is now a useful in the investigation in symptomatic LAGB patients.

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    • "Bariatric surgery which alters anatomy may result in side effects like dysphagia, vomiting or reflux. Studies in laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands (LAGB) which assess the transition of peristaltic waves to a sustained LES after-contraction have shown that hypotensive distal esophageal contractions and the absence of the lower esophageal contractile segment is predictive of side effects.43 HRM may also detect anatomical abnormalities such as obstruction secondary to paraprosthetic fibrosis in patients who underwent LAGB which is demonstrated by the presence of a gastric high pressure zone after removal of the gastric band.44 "
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) and the Chicago classification have improved the diagnosis and management of esophageal motility disorders. However, some conditions have yet to be addressed by this classification. This review describes findings in HRM which are not included in the current Chicago classification based on the experience in our center. This includes the analysis of the upper esophageal sphincter, proximal esophagus, longitudinal muscle contraction, disorders related to gastroesophageal reflux disease and respiratory symptoms. The utility of provocative tests and the use of HRM in the evaluation of rumination syndrome and post-surgical patients will also be discussed. We believe that characterization of the manometric findings in these areas will eventually lead to incorporation of new criteria into the existing classification.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility
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    • "However, dysphagia, vomiting, and regurgitation are common side effects of gastric banding. Several studies have aimed to assess esophageal motility and clearance in symptomatic LAGB patients using high resolution manometry [25, 26]. By comparing symptomatic patients with successfully treated patients, relevant parameters such as intra-bolus pressure and lower esophageal contractile segment have been identified [25, 26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Esophageal impedance monitoring and high-resolution manometry (HRM) are useful tools in the diagnostic work-up of patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. Impedance monitoring increases the diagnostic yield for gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults and children and has become the gold standard in the diagnostic work-up of reflux symptoms. Its role in the work-up for belching disorders and rumination seems promising. HRM is superior to other diagnostic tools for the evaluation of achalasia and contributes to a more specific classification of esophageal disorders in patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. The role of HRM in patients with dysphagia after laparoscopic placement of an adjustable gastric band seems promising. Future studies will further determine the clinical implications of the new insights which have been acquired with these techniques. This review aims to describe the clinical applications of impedance monitoring and HRM.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Current Gastroenterology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Dysphagia and vomiting are frequent after laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB). These symptoms could be secondary to esophageal motility disorders. Our aim was to assess esophageal motility and clearance in symptomatic LAGB patients using high resolution manometry (HRM). Twenty-two LAGB patients with esophageal symptoms (dysphagia, vomiting, and regurgitations) were included. Esophageal motility was studied using HRM (ManoScan®, Sierra Systems) and classified according to the Chicago classification. The median delay between surgery and manometry evaluation was 6.3 years (range 1-10). Manometric data were considered as normal in only 2 patients. Achalasia was diagnosed in 3 cases, functional EGJ obstruction in 15, hypotensive peristalsis in 2. During swallowing pan-esophageal pressurization was observed in 6 patients, hiatal hernia pressurization in 7 and gastric pouch pressurization in 2. The intra-bolus pressure was elevated in 18 patients. LAGB was deflated in 6 patients and removed in 12. In 2 patients with unchanged symptoms after LAGB removal motility disorders persisted (1 achalasia, 1 functional EGJ obstruction). In symptomatic LAGB patients, esophageal dysmotility is frequent. High resolution manometry allows the assessment of esophageal clearance and provides guidance for the choice of treatment.
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