Household Exposure to Secondhand Smoke is Associated with Decreased Physical and Mental Health of Mothers in the USA

ArticleinMaternal and Child Health Journal 15(1):128-37 · December 2009with7 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s10995-009-0549-z · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Secondhand smoke is one of the most common toxic environmental exposures to children, and maternal health problems also have substantial negative effects on children. We are unaware of any studies examining the association of living with smokers and maternal health. To investigate whether non-smoking mothers who live with smokers have worse physical and mental health than non-smoking mothers who live in homes without smokers. Nationally representative data from the 2000-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used. The health of non-smoking mothers with children <18 years (n = 18,810) was assessed, comparing those living with one or more smokers (n = 3,344) to those living in households with no adult smokers (n = 14,836). Associations between maternal health, household smoking, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, and marital, educational, poverty and employment status were examined in bivariable and multivariable analyses using SUDAAN software to adjust for the complex sampling design. Scores on the Medical Outcomes Short Form-12 (SF-12) Physical Component Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Scale (MCS) were used to assess maternal health. About 79.2% of mothers in the USA are non-smokers and 17.4% of them live with ≥1 adult smokers: 14.2% with 1 and 3.2% with ≥2 smokers. Among non-smoking mothers, the mean MCS score is 50.5 and mean PCS is 52.9. The presence of an adult smoker and increasing number of smokers in the home are both negatively associated with MCS and PCS scores in bivariable analyses (P < 0.001 for each). Non-smoking mothers with at least one smoker in the household had an 11% (95% CI = 0.80-0.99) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean MCS score and a 19% (95% CI = 0.73-0.90) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean PCS score compared to non-smoking mothers with no smokers in the household. There is an evidence of a dose response relationship with increasing number of smokers in the household for PCS (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized child health risk: living with smokers is independently associated with worse physical and mental health among non-smoking mothers.
    • "Low infant birth weight and asthma in children may also occur if pregnant woman are exposed to SHS [12, 13]. In addition, SHS was associated with poor mental health, including depression and insufficient sleep14151617. Less is known, however, about the effect of exposure to SHS on stress. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Secondhand Smoking (SHS) has been suggested as a major health problem in the world and is known to cause various negative health effects that have in turn caused the deaths of almost 600,000 people per year. Evidence has suggested that SHS may have an effect on health problems and such findings have influenced the implementation of smoking-free areas. However, few studies have investigated the effects of SHS on stress which is considered major risk factor for mental health. Thus, the purpose of our study was to investigate the association between exposure to SHS and stress. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2012). In our study, a total of 33,728 participants were included to evaluate the association between SHS exposure and stress based on smoking status. Association between SHS exposure and stress was examined using logistic regression models. Results A total of 12,441 participants (42.9 %) were exposed to SHS in the workplace or at home. In our study, exposure to SHS was significantly associated with higher stress compared to non-exposure, regardless of smoking status (smoker odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; ex-smoker OR: 1.25; never-smoker OR: 1.42). Our results showed that the effect of SHS on stress was greater when exposure took place both at home and in the workplace in smokers and never-smokers. Conclusions Exposure to SHS in the workplace and at home is considered to be a risk factor for high stress in both smokers and never-smoker. Therefore, strict regulations banning smoke which can smoking ban reduce SHS exposure are recommended in order to improve the populations’ health.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "Other studies of specific subpopulations have also noted positive associations. Two studies of women exposed to SHS found that compared to non-exposed women, those exposed reported poorer social functioning and lower health-related quality of life (Bridevaux et al., 2007; Sobotova, Liu, Burakoff, Sevcikova, & Weitzman, 2009). Meanwhile, a study of workers in rural Tokyo found an increase in the risk of depressive symptoms in non-smokers exposed in the workplace (Nakata et al., 2008 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of this paper was to examine the association between exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers, in the home and the vehicle, and poor mental health outcomes (mood disorder, anxiety disorder, poor/fair mental health, and high stress). Methods: Data were drawn from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey, a representative sample of 62,909 Canadians 12years and older. Measures of SHS exposure are drawn from self-reported daily or near daily exposure in the home or in the vehicle. Mental health indicators include self-reported diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders, and self-report measures of overall mental health and experiences of stress. Associations between SHS exposure and poor mental health among non-smokers were examined in a series of logistic regression models. Additional analyses stratified on respondent's smoking status, physical health, and gender. Results: Analyses revealed that SHS exposure among non-smokers was associated with increased anxiety disorders, poor/fair mental health, and high stress, with no association to mood disorders. Stratified analyses demonstrated that associations between SHS and poor mental health are contextualized by respondent's gender, physical health, and smoking status. Conclusions: Beyond changes to physical health, SHS exposure in private spaces was negatively associated with the mental health of non-smokers. Public health efforts to reduce SHS exposure in private spaces are warranted. Findings also reveal additional targets for decreasing and eliminating the societal burden of mental health disorders. Further research is needed to examine causality and to explore associations between SHS exposure and specific mental health outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphate is ubiquitous in the environment. However, its impact on sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds in soils has received little attention. Some effects of phosphate on phenanthrene sorption were investigated in this study using two Chinese soils with contrasting properties. The presence of phosphate significantly decreased the capacity and increased the nonlinearity of phenanthrene sorption in the soils, and this sorption-inhibiting effect was more significant at high phosphate concentration. The influence of phosphate on phenanthrene sorption in the soils was governed by the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particularly higher-molecular-weight and highly aromatic DOC, which tended to be enhanced in the presence of phosphate (p<0.01) as evidenced by size exclusion chromatography and specific UV absorbance analysis. Atomic force microscopy and ζ potential analysis reveal that the ringed microaggregates of DOC were disrupted into larger condensed microaggregates and the solid interfaces tended to be more hydrophilic in the presence of phosphate which also inhibited the accumulation of phenanthrene in the soils. This study for the first time points to an important role of phosphate in the sorption of phenanthrene in soils and provides substantial evidence for the mechanisms involved using a combination of microscopic and chromatographic techniques.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010
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