Defects in DNA ligase i trigger PCNA ubiquitylation at Lys 107

University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Nature Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 19.68). 12/2009; 12(1):74-9; sup pp 1-20. DOI: 10.1038/ncb2007
Source: PubMed


In all eukaryotes, the ligation of newly synthesized DNA, also known as Okazaki fragments, is catalysed by DNA ligase I (ref. 1). An individual with a DNA ligase I deficiency exhibits growth retardation, sunlight sensitivity and severe immunosuppression, probably due to accumulation of DNA damage. Surprisingly, not much is known about the DNA damage response (DDR) in DNA ligase I-deficient cells. As DNA replication and DDR pathways are highly conserved in eukaryotes, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to address this issue. We uncovered a new pathway, which facilitates ubiquitylation at Lys 107 of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Unlike ubiquitylation at Lys 164 of PCNA in response to UV irradiation, which triggers translesion synthesis, modification of Lys 107 is not dependent on the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) Rad6 (ref. 4) nor the ubiquitin ligase (E3) Rad18 (ref. 5), but requires the E2 variant Mms2 (ref. 6) in conjunction with Ubc4 (ref. 7) and the E3 Rad5 (Refs 8, 9). Surprisingly, DNA ligase I-deficient S. cerevisiae cdc9-1 cells that carry a PCNAK107R mutation are inviable, because they cannot activate a robust DDR. Furthermore, we show that ubiquitylation of PCNA in response to DNA ligase I deficiency is conserved in humans, yet the lysine residue that is modified remains to be determined. We propose that PCNA ubiquitylation provides a 'DNA damage code' that allows cells to categorize different types of defects that arise during DNA replication.

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Available from: Anja Katrin Bielinsky, Mar 20, 2014
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    • "PCNA monoubiquitination at lysine (Lys) 164 was shown to regulate DNA polymerase by switching interaction from DNA polymerase δ to DNA polymerase η, when the replication fork encounters a blocking lesion (12,13). Lys107 ubiquitination was also described in response to DNA ligase I deficiency (14). Polyubiquitination of PCNA has been also shown to play important roles in maintaining genome integrity (15–19). "
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    ABSTRACT: The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein serves as a molecular platform recruiting and coordinating the activity of factors involved in multiple deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) transactions. To avoid dangerous genome instability, it is necessary to prevent excessive retention of PCNA on chromatin. Although PCNA functions during DNA replication appear to be regulated by different post-translational modifications, the mechanism regulating PCNA removal and degradation after nucleotide excision repair (NER) is unknown. Here we report that CREB-binding protein (CBP), and less efficiently p300, acetylated PCNA at lysine (Lys) residues Lys13,14,77 and 80, to promote removal of chromatin-bound PCNA and its degradation during NER. Mutation of these residues resulted in impaired DNA replication and repair, enhanced the sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, and prevented proteolytic degradation of PCNA after DNA damage. Depletion of both CBP and p300, or failure to load PCNA on DNA in NER deficient cells, prevented PCNA acetylation and degradation, while proteasome inhibition resulted in accumulation of acetylated PCNA. These results define a CBP and p300-dependent mechanism for PCNA acetylation after DNA damage, linking DNA repair synthesis with removal of chromatin-bound PCNA and its degradation, to ensure genome stability.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Nucleic Acids Research
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    • "When we complemented cdc9-1 cells with wild-type Cdc9 (cdc9-1+ pCDC9), both PCNA mono- and poly-ubiquitination were abolished (Figure 1B). Because PCNA ubiquitination is readily detectable at 25°C [16], the disappearance of the ubiquitinated PCNA molecules presented a true reversal of the ubiquitination response. This result allowed us to exclude nonspecific, secondary effects as a trigger of PCNA ubiquitination. "
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    ABSTRACT: Deficiency in DNA ligase I, encoded by CDC9 in budding yeast, leads to the accumulation of unligated Okazaki fragments and triggers PCNA ubiquitination at a non-canonical lysine residue. This signal is crucial to activate the S phase checkpoint, which promotes cell cycle delay. We report here that a pol30-K107 mutation alleviated cell cycle delay in cdc9 mutants, consistent with the idea that the modification of PCNA at K107 affects the rate of DNA synthesis at replication forks. To determine whether PCNA ubiquitination occurred in response to nicks or was triggered by the lack of PCNA-DNA ligase interaction, we complemented cdc9 cells with either wild-type DNA ligase I or a mutant form, which fails to interact with PCNA. Both enzymes reversed PCNA ubiquitination, arguing that the modification is likely an integral part of a novel nick-sensory mechanism and not due to non-specific secondary mutations that could have occurred spontaneously in cdc9 mutants. To further understand how cells cope with the accumulation of nicks during DNA replication, we utilized cdc9-1 in a genome-wide synthetic lethality screen, which identified RAD59 as a strong negative interactor. In comparison to cdc9 single mutants, cdc9 rad59Δ double mutants did not alter PCNA ubiquitination but enhanced phosphorylation of the mediator of the replication checkpoint, Mrc1. Since Mrc1 resides at the replication fork and is phosphorylated in response to fork stalling, these results indicate that Rad59 alleviates nick-induced replication fork slowdown. Thus, we propose that Rad59 promotes fork progression when Okazaki fragment processing is compromised and counteracts PCNA-K107 mediated cell cycle arrest.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Indeed, in addition to NER, PRR was shown to be functionally linked to homologous recombination genes [93] and to the DNA damage checkpoint, which seems to affect the error-free sub-pathway but not the error-prone sub-pathway [94]. Moreover, it was recently found that defects in DNA ligase I (codified by CDC9 gene) leads to mono-ubiquitylation of PCNA on the K107 residue, rather than on K164 [95]. This PCNA modification requires the E2 variant Mms2 in conjunction with Ubc4 and the E3 Rad5, and occurs before full checkpoint activation [95]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The genome of living organisms is constantly exposed to several damaging agents that induce different types of DNA lesions, leading to cellular malfunctioning and onset of many diseases. To maintain genome stability, cells developed various repair and tolerance systems to counteract the effects of DNA damage. Here we focus on Post Replication Repair (PRR), the pathway involved in the bypass of DNA lesions induced by sunlight exposure and UV radiation. PRR acts through two different mechanisms, activated by mono- and poly-ubiquitylation of the DNA sliding clamp, called Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). Results We developed a novel protocol to measure the time-course ratios between mono-, di- and tri-ubiquitylated PCNA isoforms on a single western blot, which were used as the wet readout for PRR events in wild type and mutant S. cerevisiae cells exposed to acute UV radiation doses. Stochastic simulations of PCNA ubiquitylation dynamics, performed by exploiting a novel mechanistic model of PRR, well fitted the experimental data at low UV doses, but evidenced divergent behaviors at high UV doses, thus driving the design of further experiments to verify new hypothesis on the functioning of PRR. The model predicted the existence of a UV dose threshold for the proper functioning of the PRR model, and highlighted an overlapping effect of Nucleotide Excision Repair (the pathway effectively responsible to clean the genome from UV lesions) on the dynamics of PCNA ubiquitylation in different phases of the cell cycle. In addition, we showed that ubiquitin concentration can affect the rate of PCNA ubiquitylation in PRR, offering a possible explanation to the DNA damage sensitivity of yeast strains lacking deubiquitylating enzymes. Conclusions We exploited an in vivo and in silico combinational approach to analyze for the first time in a Systems Biology context the events of PCNA ubiquitylation occurring in PRR in budding yeast cells. Our findings highlighted an intricate functional crosstalk between PRR and other events controlling genome stability, and evidenced that PRR is more complicated and still far less characterized than previously thought.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Systems Biology
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