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The importance of a servant leader orientaton

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Abstract

Ensuring a quality nursing workforce for the future in a time of increasing labor shortage and declining nurse satisfaction is a key challenge to the health care industry. Understanding what impacts job satisfaction is vital to solving the problem of nurse attrition. We suggest that the approach to supporting staff in the care giving role requires additional expectations of managers who supervise inpatient nursing staff. This study empirically tested the impact of nurse managers' servant leadership orientation on nurse job satisfaction. Nurses providing direct bedside patient care within inpatient departments of a five-hospital system were asked to respond to four questionnaires. Seventeen departments participated. There were 346 available nurses across the departments. The average response rate was 73% across all of the units surveyed. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate regression analysis of the nurse-nurse manager dyad. Statistical findings of this study provided evidence that behaviors and attitudes of the nurse manager do impact employee job satisfaction. Departments where staff perceived that managers had higher servant leadership orientation demonstrated significant positive impact on individual employee job satisfaction. Nursing is a unique occupation in that it requires both competence in professional service and compassion in patient caregiving. Hospitals are not factories dealing with inanimate objects or data. The results of this research suggested that the management approach in a health care environment might be enhanced by a more servant-oriented management approach. Specific policy changes that may be implied on the basis of findings of this research include key areas of management selection, management development, and management reward/evaluation.

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... Servant leadership influences the job satisfaction of employees (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010;Shaw & Newton, 2014). For example, in nursing departments where staff members perceive managers demonstrate a higher servant leadership orientation, a significant positive impact on individual employee job satisfaction occurs (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010). ...
... Servant leadership influences the job satisfaction of employees (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010;Shaw & Newton, 2014). For example, in nursing departments where staff members perceive managers demonstrate a higher servant leadership orientation, a significant positive impact on individual employee job satisfaction occurs (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010). In the field of education, higher job satisfaction and teacher retention rates predominate when principals display traits of servant-leaders (Cerit, 2009;Shaw & Newton, 2014). ...
... Employees in the current study who rated their athletic directors as displaying servant-leader qualities were more satisfied with their jobs. Cerit (2009), Jenkins andStewart (2010), and Shaw and Newton (2014) also determined servant leadership positively stimulates job satisfaction. High levels of job satisfaction improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency (Saari & Judge, 2004). ...
... Finnsk rannsókn (Harju, Schaufeli og Hakanen, 2018) sýnir að aukið vaegi þjónandi forystu í fari naesta yfirmanns er jákvaett og marktaekt tengt meiri ánaegju í starfi. Þá hafa rannsóknir sýnt tengsl milli starfsánaegju og haefileika leiðtogans til að vera jafningi (Jenkins og Stewart, 2010) og haefni leiðtogans í því að sýna auðmýkt í samskiptum (Hayes og Comer, 2010). Ný rannsókn Sousa og van Dierendonck (2015) varpar ljósi á samspil auðmýktar og stefnumiðaðra aðgerða í þjónandi forystu og hvernig þetta samspil tengist áhuga og virkni starfsfólks. ...
... Að mati viðmaelenda er mikilvaegt að leiðtoginn gefi starfsfólki ákveðið frelsi en sé jafnframt fastur fyrir, að leiðtoginn sé til staðar fyrir starfsfólk en gaetir þess að þvaelast ekki fyrir, leiðtoginn þarf að vera fljótur að taka ákvörðun og sömuleiðis að vera viðbúnn að hlusta á rök og skipta um skoðun. Þetta samspil ólíkra hlutverka sem stjórnendur Fyrirmyndarfyrirtaekja VR lýsa er í takt við eitt megineinkenni þjónandi forystu, að leiðtoginn er fremstur meðal jafningja (Greenleaf, 2008;Jenkins og Stewart, 2010) og skapar jafnvaegi þjónustu og forystu (Coetzer o.fl., 2017;Blanchard, 2018;van Dierendonck, 2011). ...
... Greina má sterka áherslu viðmaelenda á að eiga opin samskipti á jafningjagrunni og að skapa rými fyrir regluleg samskipti stjórnenda og starfsmanna. Rannsóknir hafa sýnt að með jafningjabrag skapa þjónandi leiðtogar vinnustaðamenningu sem styður við opin samskipti (Belias og Koustelios, 2014), eflir starfsánaegju (Jenkins og Stewart, 2010;Laub, 2010) og rennir stoðum undir auðmýkt í samskiptum (Hayes og Comer, 2010). Áherslur stjórnendanna sem tóku þátt í rannsókninni eru í takt við niðurstöður Hayes og Comer (2010) sem gefa vísbendingar um að auðmjúkir stjórnendur ávinni sér traust og virðingu og uppskeri meðal annars meiri ánaegju sinna fylgjenda. ...
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Síðustu árin hefur orðið viðhorfsbreyting til forystu og stjórnunar í takt við nýjar rannsóknir um að aukið vægi leiðsagnar, jafningjabrags og sameiginlegrar framtíðarsýnar geti skilað betri árangri gagnvart starfsfólki og fyrirtækinu í heild samanborið við fyrirskipanir með áherslu á völd fárra. Fáar rannsóknir fjalla um hvaða þættir einkenni fyrirtæki sem ná góðum árangri en meðal kannana á þessu sviði er könnun Verzlunarmannafélags Reykjavíkur (VR) um fyrirtæki ársins. Þjónandi forysta byggir á sjálfstæði starfsfólks, skýrri framtíðarsýn, ábyrgðarskyldu, hlustun og stuðningi stjórnenda. Markmið þessarar rannsóknar er að kanna áherslur stjórnenda og leiðtoga hjá fyrirtækjum sem eru í hópi fyrirtækja sem endurtekið hafa fengið viðurkenninguna „fyrirmyndarfyrirtæki“ hjá VR. Jafnframt er markmiðið að kanna hvort og þá hvernig áherslur þeirra endurspegli hugmyndafræði þjónandi forystu. Framkvæmd var eigindleg rannsókn og tekin viðtöl við sjö stjórnendur Fyrirmyndarfyrirtækja VR til að varpa ljósi á mikilvægar áherslur leiðtoga fyrir árangur fyrirtækjanna. Greind voru lykilatriði í stjórnun og forystu viðmælenda og dregnar fram áherslur sem skipta máli fyrir árangur fyrirtækjanna og koma fram í þremur þemum. Fyrsta þemað er stjórnun sem stuðningur og samspil ólíkra hlutverka, annað þemað er hagur starfsmanna og jafningjatengsl leiðtoga og starfsmanna og þriðja þemað er framtíðarsýn og virk upplýsingagjöf. Niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar eru í takt við niðurstöður nýrra rannsókna um mikilvæga þætti leiðtoga sem tengjast árangri og ánægju starfsfólks. Þá sýna niðurstöður að áhersluþættir í stjórnun viðmælenda eru í takt við megineinkenni hugmyndafræði þjónandi forystu og styðja fyrri rannsóknir um tengsl þjónandi forystu við starfsánægju og árangur skipulagsheilda. Rannsóknarniðurstöður gefa áhugaverða innsýn í áherslur stjórnenda sem náð hafa sérstökum árangri og hvernig þær endurspegla hugmyndafræði þjónandi forystu. Rannsóknin er framlag til þekkingar á sviði þjónandi forystu og hefur hagnýtt gildi fyrir fyrirtæki, stjórnendur og starfsmenn.
... Nevertheless, leaders must show emotional intelligence to manage their own and others' feelings. In addition, leaders must have a transformational role to influence their own and others' performances that impact problem-solving in the workplace (9,10). ...
... Despite it, the hospital size is considered to be a fundamental feature with important implications for nursing leadership in hospital settings. Furthermore, nursing leadership is higher in bigger hospitals than in small ones (10). ...
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The sustainability of nursing leadership is a very important problem. Every country continually strives to find the best ways to advance in nurse management and patient care services. Nursing leadership is most desirable in the delivery of health care services. Since there is limited information about leadership skills in Mongolia, to solve the problem of the sustainability of nursing leadership, we carried out this study to explore factors contributing to the sustainability of nursing leadership and their correlation relatively to nurse managers in healthcare institutions. A sample of 205 nurse managers from all forms of health facilities participated in this study. The data were analyzed by descriptive, correlation, and multiple linear regression models using SPSS 19 version. The linear combination of the five independent variables was significantly related to the dependent variable (nurse leadership). Both the behavior and problem-solving are significant regressors of the dependent variable. The correlation analysis significance of the independent study variables, two were found to have a significant effect on nursing leadership: behavior and performance of nurses significantly and positively effect nursing leadership. The transformational role and nurse leadership produced a significantly positive Correlation coefficients give a direction of causation in the relationships of variables, and the multiple linear regression analysis says that two of the variables, namely, behavior and problem-solving, positively contribute to nursing leadership, two of the variables namely, work environment and performance nurse manager do not support; however, variable transformational ability majorly contributes to the sustainability of nursing leadership.
... The most important of these characteristics which is not available are (persuasion and commitment to build a community, and commitment to the development of others). The study of (Jenkins and Stewart, 2010) showed that a change of managers of the methods of leadership and using the principles of servant leadership has led to a positive improvement in the performance of their nursing duties as well as higher job satisfaction for these employees. The study of (Mustafa, 2015) have shown that there is a trace of the characteristics of servant leadership on the quality of working life, also it showed that there are differences between the public sector banks and private sector banks in terms of servant leadership characteristics. ...
... This result shows that whenever there is a greater interest in the characteristics of Servant Leadership than before by technical colleges, the prospects for access to excellence in performance increases, and therefore accept the alternative hypothesis. This result agree with the study of (Nada, 2012) and study of (Mustafa, 2015), and the study of (Rashid and Mattar, 2014), and the study of (Abdel Rasoul, and Abdul Alsadaa, 2012), and the study of (Atallah, 2015), and the study of (Jenkins and Stewart, 2010), and disagreed with the study of (Ajjour, 2010). ...
... It has been noted that leadership styles are important in transforming, creating meaning, and producing desirable employee outcomes; thus they can benefit organizational performance and even survival (McNeese-Smith, 1995). Leadership styles have been shown to be related to, named several, hospital financial performance and organizational culture (Khaliq, Walston, & Thompson, 2007); employee behaviors such as employee work attendance (Dellve, Skagert, & Vilhelmsson, 2007;Rubin & Stone, 2010); employee productivity and performance (Carmeli, Ben-Hador, Waldman, & Rupp, 2009;Chiok Foong Loke, 2001); employee well-being in the workplace such as the degree of work stress (Hintsa, Hintsanen, Jokela, Pulkki-Råback, & Keltikangas-Järvinen, 2010), employee health (Lohela, Björklund, Vingård, Hagberg, & Jensen, 2009), and job satisfaction (Chiok Foong Loke, 2001;Jenkins & Stewart, 2010;Sellgren, Ekvall, & Tomson, 2008). ...
Article
The role of the leader of a medical unit has evolved over time to expand from simply a medical role to a more managerial one. This study aimed to explore how the behavior of a hospital-based emergency department's (ED's) leader might be related to ED unit performance and ED employees' work satisfaction. One hundred and twelve hospital-based EDs in Taiwan were studied: 10 in medical centers, 32 in regional hospitals, and 70 in district hospitals. Three instruments were designed to assess leader behaviors, unit performance and employee satisfaction in these hospital-based EDs. A mail survey revealed that task-oriented leader behavior was positively related to ED unit performance. Both task- and employee-oriented leader behaviors were found to be positively related to ED nurses' work satisfaction. However, leader behaviors were not shown to be related to ED physicians' work satisfaction at a statistically significant level. Some ED organizational characteristics, however, namely departmentalization and hospital accreditation level, were found to be related to ED physicians' work satisfaction.
... Job satisfaction plays an important factor in intention to leave nursing (Camerino et al. 2006, Van der Heijden et al. 2009) or even push nurses practicing in developing countries to migrate (Fang & Fang 2007, Beechinor et al. 2008, El-Jardali et al. 2008, Siantz et al. 2008, Alonso-Garbayo et al. 2009). Understanding correlates of job satisfaction is one of the important factors to solving the problem of nurse attrition and immigration (Utriainen et al. 2009, Jenkins et al. 2010). Job satisfaction is a concept that has evolved from organisation theory (Moore et al. 2006), is a complex phenomenon with many affecting components (Coomber & Barriball 2007) and has been extensively studied in numerous disciplines (Wild et al. 2006). ...
Article
The influence of self-expectation, social interaction, and organisational situation on job satisfaction among nurses is examined. Understanding determinants and correlates of job satisfaction are important factors that help to reduce the problem of nurse attrition. Utilizing the Hybrid Model of concept development, job satisfaction was examined in three phases: (1) the theoretical phase, a working definition and the dimensions of job satisfaction were established; (2) the fieldwork phase, a qualitative semi-structured interview was employed to capture participants' perceptions of the concept; and (3) the analytical phase, the experiences of nurses were evaluated using the conceptual model. The results indicate that personal beliefs, rather than social interaction or organisational situation, constitute the core of job satisfaction. Despite the variety of dissatisfaction factors rooted in social interaction and organisational situation, participants achieved the highest job satisfaction when trusting in self-value systems and the spiritual value of their job objectives. Intervention is needed to increase organisational and professional support for nurses. However, highlighting the sacred and spiritual value of the nursing profession, which is rooted in religious values and culture, provides additional reinforcement for enhancing the job satisfaction among this segment of health care providers.
... These studies showed conceptually and empirically how servant leadership influences followers' well-being by creating a positive work climate (Neubert et al. 2008;Black 2010;Jaramillo et al. 2009a), which is related to greater organizational commitment (Cerit 2010;Hamilton and Bean 2005;Hale and Fields 2007;Han et al. 2010;Pekerti and Sendjaya 2010). Greater commitment to the organization increases employee job satisfaction (Cerit 2009;Jenkins and Stewart 2010;Mayer et al. 2008;Chung et al. 2010) and consequently decreases employee turnover (Jaramillo et al. 2009b;Babakus et al. 2011). Servant leaders create these positive outcomes by developing trust while nurturing followers, which encourages the creativity, helping behaviors, and well-being of followers (Jaramillo et al. 2009a;Babakus et al. 2011;Rieke et al. 2008). ...
Article
A new research area linked to ethics, virtues, and morality is servant leadership. Scholars are currently seeking publication outlets as critics debate whether this new leadership theory is significantly distinct, viable, and valuable for organizational success. The aim of this study was to identify empirical studies that explored servant leadership theory by engaging a sample population in order to assess and synthesize the mechanisms, outcomes, and impacts of servant leadership. Thus, we sought to provide an evidence-informed answer to how does servant leadership work, and how can we apply it? We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR), a methodology adopted from the medical sciences to synthesize research in a systematic, transparent, and reproducible manner. A disciplined screening process resulted in a final sample population of 39 appropriate studies. The synthesis of these empirical studies revealed: (a) there is no consensus on the definition of servant leadership; (b) servant leadership theory is being investigated across a variety of contexts, cultures, and themes; (c) researchers are using multiple measures to explore servant leadership; and (d) servant leadership is a viable leadership theory that helps organizations and improves the well-being of followers. This study contributes to the development of servant leadership theory and practice. In addition, this study contributes to the methodology for conducting SLRs in the field of management, highlighting an effective method for mapping out thematically, and viewing holistically, new research topics. We conclude by offering suggestions for future research.
... 간호 부 조직은 간호부장, 간호과장, 수간호사, 책임간호사, 일반간 호사 등으로 수직적 계층을 이루고 있으며 (Kim & Park, 1995), 직위가 책임간호사, 수간호사 이상일 때 고객에게 감 정전달, 감정조절 노력을 더 많이 하는 것으로 나타났다 (Koh, 2010 (Greenleaf, 1973). 국외 선행 연구결과 상사의 서번트 리더십은 간호사의 직무 만족도를 증 가시키고 감정노동을 감소시키며 (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010), 인간 존중정신을 바탕으로 구성원들의 잠재력을 발휘하여 협 력할 수 있는 틀을 제공하여 동료 간의 능력을 심화시키고, 창 조적이고 생산적인 연구 환경을 조성하게 한다고 하였다 (Jackson, 2008 ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify correlations among emotional labor, servant leadership, and communication competence in hospital nurses. Methods: A self-administrated survey was conducted with a convenient sample of 210 nurses, using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson`s correlation coefficient using SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. Results: The mean emotional labor score was 3.4?0.60. There was very strong and negative correlation between emotional labor and servant leadership (r
... As a result of the servant leader's behavior, followers' capabilities and sense of their own worth improve (Yoshida et al., 2014). Evidence suggests that SL promotes followers' well-being by inducing a positive work climate (Neubert et al., 2008;Jaramillo et al., 2009a), thus generating higher organizational commitment (Cerit, 2010;Pekerti and Sendjaya, 2010), higher employee job satisfaction (Jenkins and Stewart, 2010) and lower employee turnover (Jaramillo et al., 2009a(Jaramillo et al., , 2009b. As a transformational leader, the servant leader emphasizes the importance of appreciating and valuing individuals. ...
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Purpose – Although servant leadership (SL) improves the overall effectiveness of individuals and teams, it remains understudied. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the mediating mechanisms through which perceived SL affects salespersons' proactive and adaptive behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered from 145 industrial salespeople and their supervisors across a variety of businesses and sectors in Spain. Findings – SL enhances salespeople's adaptivity and proactivity by positively affecting their self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, SL directly shapes the development of adaptive behaviors among salespeople, although this direct influence is not significant when considering proactivity. Additionally, the use of outcome-based control mechanisms enhances the positive effects of SL on salespeople's intrinsic motivation. Practical implications – The results demonstrate that sales managers can promote more proactive and adaptive behaviors among sales staff by recognizing the importance of service and their moral responsibilities to the success of their subordinates. Originality/value – Cognitive evaluation theory was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of perceived SL on two emergent change-oriented behaviors (adaptivity and proactivity) using a matched sample of industrial salespeople from a variety of industries, thus providing a basis for the generalization of results. Moreover, in analyzing the moderating effects of outcome control, the conditions under which SL is more or less effective were examined.
... As a result of the servant leader's behavior, followers' capabilities and sense of their own worth improve (Yoshida et al., 2014). Evidence suggests that SL promotes followers' well-being by inducing a positive work climate (Neubert et al., 2008;Jaramillo et al., 2009a), thus generating higher organizational commitment (Cerit, 2010;Pekerti and Sendjaya, 2010), higher employee job satisfaction (Jenkins and Stewart, 2010) and lower employee turnover (Jaramillo et al., 2009a(Jaramillo et al., , 2009b. As a transformational leader, the servant leader emphasizes the importance of appreciating and valuing individuals. ...
Article
Purpose – Although servant leadership (SL) improves the overall effectiveness of individuals and teams, it remains understudied. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the mediating mechanisms through which perceived SL affects salespersons’ proactive and adaptive behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered from 145 industrial salespeople and their supervisors across a variety of businesses and sectors in Spain. Findings – SL enhances salespeople’s adaptivity and proactivity by positively affecting their self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, SL directly shapes the development of adaptive behaviors among salespeople, although this direct influence is not significant when considering proactivity. Additionally, the use of outcome-based control mechanisms enhances the positive effects of SL on salespeople’s intrinsic motivation. Practical implications – The results demonstrate that sales managers can promote more proactive and adaptive behaviors among sales staff by recognizing the importance of service and their moral responsibilities to the success of their subordinates. Originality/value – Cognitive evaluation theory was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of perceived SL on two emergent change-oriented behaviors (adaptivity and proactivity) using a matched sample of industrial salespeople from a variety of industries, thus providing a basis for the generalization of results. Moreover, in analyzing the moderating effects of outcome control, the conditions under which SL is more or less effective were examined.
... In many ways the Mayo Clinic model of Intentional Organization Development of Physician Leaders is a unique blend of two philosophies: transformational leadership and servant leadership. With servant leadership one observes community-building behaviors of listening, empathy, awareness and stewardship (Ebener and O'Connell, 2010;Hunter et al., 2013;Jenkins and Stewart, 2010;Liden et al., 2014;Parris and Peachey, 2013;Sendjaya and Pekerti, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is: first, to present a qualitative descriptive case study of the Mayo Clinic leadership and organization development philosophy and approach; second, to summarize a strategy for using intentional organization design as a foundation for culturally aligned physician leadership development and third, to describe the Mayo Clinic Leadership Model. Design/methodology/approach – This manuscript is a qualitative descriptive case study of the Mayo Clinic leadership development philosophy and approach. The authors reviewed the organization design and leadership development programs of a leading healthcare institution. In the systematic appraisal, the authors sought to understand the key features and elements of team-based leadership development and the supporting organizational characteristics that guide development with the use of a customized institutional leadership model. Findings – The authors identified four intentional characteristics of the multi-specialty group practice structure and culture that organically facilitate the development of leaders with the qualities required for the mission. The four characteristics are: patient-centered organizational design, collaborative leadership structure, egalitarian leader selection process and team-based development system. The authors conclude that organization culture and design are important foundations of leadership development. Leadership development cannot be separated from the context and culture of organizational design. Mayo Clinic’s organizational and governance systems are designed to develop culturally aligned leaders, build social capital, grow employee engagement, foster collaboration, nurture collegiality and engender trust. Effective organization design aligns the form and functions of the organization with leadership development and its mission. Originality/value – This qualitative descriptive case study presentation and analysis offers a unique perspective on physician leadership and organization development in healthcare.
... The correlation test showing a medium level of the positive relation of servant leadership with workplace wellbeing provides a further support of the effectiveness of servant leadership which is also consistent with other studies overseas [9,20,21]. It is worth promoting this type of program to other hospitals so that senior nursing managers may have a better support and a healthier work life. ...
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Background With the aim to enhance the senior nursing managers to be caring leaders so that they can nurture their team members to be holistic care providers, a one year program has been developed with emphasis on self-reflection and self-cultivation. Purpose It aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year leadership enhancement program in an acute general hospital. Design & Methods Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted. A pre and post questionnaire survey and the content analysis of self-reflective essays were conducted. Results The overall means of the servant leadership scale and the workplace wellness scale were significantly higher after the program. Both scales were also found to have a significantly medium level of positive correlation. Reflective essays showed positive feedbacks complementing the quantitative data that the program was well received and effective. Conclusion A servant leadership approach may be one way for hospital management to enhance a caring environment and a more quality workforce.
... Although accumulating evidence has shown the influence of servant leadership on employees' in-role and extra-role performance (Auxier, 2013;Choudhary, Akhtar, & Zaheer, 2013) and work attitudes (Amadeo, 2008;Chu, 2008;Engelhart, 2012;Jenkins & Stewart, 2010), limited attention has been paid to the individual differences of employees' affective and behavioral reaction to servant leaders (e.g., Liden, Wayne, Zhao, & Henderson, 2008;Meuser, Liden, Wayne, & Henderson, 2011). Of specific interest in the current investigation is to explore the way in which followers attribute the favorable treatment they receive from servant leaders. ...
... The followers' sense of well-being, in turn, is found to be related to greater organizational commitment (Cerit, 2010;Hale & Fields, 2007;Hamilton & Bean, 2005;Han et al., 2010;Pekerti & Sendjaya, 2010). It has also been found that greater the organizational commitment, higher is the employee job satisfaction (Cerit, 2009;Chung et al., 2010;Jenkins & Stewart, 2010;Mayer et al., 2008) and lower is the employee turnover (Babakus et al., 2011;Jaramillo et al., 2009b). ...
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: A number of empirical studies have suggested that servant leadership can enhance the well-being /emotional health of its followers by creating a positive work climate (Black, 2010; Jaramillo et al., 2009a; Neubert et al., 2008). Followers’ sense of well-being, in turn, has been found to be related to greater organizational commitment (Cerit, 2010; Hale & Fields, 2007; Hamilton & Bean, 2005; Han et al., 2010; Pekerti & Sendjaya, 2010). Greater the organizational commitment, higher is the employee job satisfaction (Cerit, 2009; Chung et al., 2010; Jenkins & Stewart, 2010; Mayer et al., 2008) and lower the employee turnover ( Babakus et al., 2011; Jaramillo et al., 2009b). A servant leader, with his reported behavior characteristics such as empathy, compassion, altruistic calling and healing may not only build a mentally and emotionally healthy workforce, but also inculcate a sense of cohesiveness, collaboration and sustainable relationships among the followers by understanding and addressing their feelings and emotions. It has been reported that cohesiveness and collaboration in a servant led organization increases pro-social and altruistic behavior among followers that improves organizational performance (Ebener & O’Connell, 2010; Ehrhart, 2004; Hu & Liden, 2011; Walumbwa et al., 2010), and overall team effectiveness (Mayer et al. 2008; Mc Cuddy & Cavin, 2008; Taylor et al., 2007). The significance of understanding and addressing the feelings and emotions of followers and ensuring their well-being thus becomes evident from the above findings. The aim of the present qualitative study was to understand as to how servant leaders understand, empathize with, and address the emotional turmoil of their employees. Orientation for emotional healing is reported to be a unique characteristic of servant leaders. But negligible empirical research has been done to understand the way servant leaders alleviate the suffering of their employees. The present study fills this gap by exploring this area using personal accounts of servant leaders about their experiences, reflections and analysis of their approach to emotional healing. Qualitative methods and techniques were used from different qualitative methodologies for data collection and analysis. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with leaders in corporate, education and government sectors. Our results suggest that servant leaders, with their orientation for empathy, compassion, healing, altruistic-calling, and listening etc..., adopt a compassionate approach to manage employees’ emotional turmoil. All three parts of the process of compassion, described by Clark (1997) and Kanov et al (2004) are clearly visible in the narratives of our respondents. Their characteristics of empathy and compassion automatically orient the servant leaders toward immediate awareness of followers’ suffering. This leads to felt /experienced empathic concern and compassion that trigger in them an urge to take some action to relieve the suffering of the followers. This ‘action’, also termed as ‘ compassionate responding’, manifests itself in a set of three step-wise behaviors- (1) Patient listening and discussion; (2) Empathetic handling that includes comforting and calming as well as guiding and counseling the suffering employee; and (3) Taking personal responsibility and providing support (emotional, social, financial and administrative). Insight provided by this study will guide the working managers to understand and practice the process of alleviating the emotional turmoil of employees in such a way that a culture of compassion and benevolence will emerge and sustain for the long term health and growth of the organization.
... The patient loses the most as a result of the care service deficit caused by turnover. During this time, experienced nurses are unavailable, and new replacements need time to learn about the patient's medical background and develop a trusting relationship (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010). ...
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Over the last decade, scholars have been particularly involved in the theory of servant leadership. Servant leadership requires one-on-one interaction for leaders to understand their followers' skills, desires, hopes, goals, and abilities and, as a result, bring out the best in them. Understanding each follower’s unique characteristics and expectations, according to current literature, enables leaders to assist their followers in reaching their full potential. The convenience sampling method was used to collect data from 297 nurses in a cross-sectional study to investigate the impact of servant leadership style on predicting employees' trust in leadership, psychological safety, and turnover intention. The healthcare industry is facing significant challenges in retaining the best employees who are motivated to do their jobs. The data was analyzed using PLS-SEM. The assessment of the measurement model achieved composite reliability and validity. The structural model assessment revealed that servant leadership predicts trust and psychological safety, which reduces the intention to leave among Pakistani nurses. Theoretical and practical implications were explored.
... Niðurstöðurnar eru einnig í takt við rannsóknir erlendis með öðrum maelitaekjum á þjónandi forystu (sjá t.d. Alonderiene og Majauskaite, 2016;Chung o.f l., 2010;Jenkins og Stewart, 2010;Mayer, Bardes og Piccolo, 2008;Zhang, Lee og Wong, 2016). Þá eru niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar í takt við fyrri rannsóknir hér landi (Sigrún Gunnarsdóttir og Birna Gerður Jónsdóttir, 2013;Gunnarsdóttir, 2014;Sólveig Reynisdóttir og Sigrún Gunnarsdóttir, 2015;Hulda Rafnsdóttir, Ragnheiður Harpa Arnardóttir og Sigrún Gunnarsdóttir, 2015). ...
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... ). However, there are also limited number of empirical studies that show that servant leadership increases the well-being of followers by increasing employee job satisfaction(Chung, Jung, Kyle, & Petrick, 2010, Jenkins & Stewart, 2010Mayer, Bardes, & Piccolo, 2008) and organizational commitment(Hamilton & Bean, 2005;Han, Kakabadse, & Kakabadse, 2010;Pekerti & Sendjaya, 2010) while reducing employee turnover(Babakus, Yavas, & Ashill, 2011;Jaramillo, Grisaffe, Chonko, & Roberts, 2009) and creating a positive work climate ...
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This chapter analyzes servant leadership theory from the perspective of Islamic nonprofits. It is one of the rare management science approaches to examining Islamic nonprofits and waqfs. Definitions and characteristics of servant leaders are derived from major studies on servant leadership, and outcomes for nonprofit organizations are discussed based on available evidence in the literature. Servant leadership is compared to other major leadership theories and examined in cultural context. Although the studies in the West dominate the servant leadership literature, it is argued that the philosophy of a servant leader is deeply rooted in other cultures and faiths, particularly Islamic tradition. The author examines whether servant leadership fits the leadership definitions in recent studies on Islamic leadership. There is also a comparison of the Organizational Leadership Assessment (OLA) for servant leadership and the Islamic Leadership Inventory (ILI). The author points to gaps in the literature and provides suggestions for future research.
... The patient loses the most as a result of the care service deficit caused by turnover. During this time, experienced nurses are unavailable, and new replacements need time to learn about the patient's medical background and develop a trusting relationship (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010). ...
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There is considerable confusion about what constitutes servant leadership. This paper outlines an approach to guide empirical investigation, while also addressing current inexact specifications of servant leadership, the issue of the unique dimensions of the construct, and distinctive characteristics of servant leadership considering other leadership styles. With knowledge of the abundance of servant leadership domain elements from the literature as a background, we provide a conceptually distinct approach to studying servant leadership to advise future measurement of the construct. Additionally, we discuss the convoluted state of the conceptual and empirical attributes that currently comprise the dimensions of servant leadership in relation to those proposed in existing definitions. Likewise, we delineate the challenges of empirically parsing out distinctive servant leadership traits in search of an operational definition, identifying traits that might be distinct to servant leaders, and discuss the implications from both theoretical and managerial perspectives; also, we provide directions for future research.
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This chapter provides a summary of the conceptual and empirical literature on the nature and influence of spiritual intelligence. It presents a detailed analysis of the conceptual definitions of CSLSI and its influence on key job-related attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes, including organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and well-being. A detailed review of one key CSLSI outcome, servant leadership, affords additional support for CSLSI and its efficacy. The chapter concludes with a summary of the research protocol and sample demographics for the field interviews.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address the statistical issues associated with the hierarchically structured data in previous studies that focused on servant leadership. To resolve these issues, multilevel modeling methods were applied to re-visit the construct validity of the servant leadership questionnaire developed by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) and investigate the relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction under a multilevel framework. Design/methodology/approach The survey data was obtained from a sample of 2,089 teachers from 117 primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. The analyses were conducted using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MLCFA) and multilevel structural equation modeling (MLSEM). Findings The results revealed the significant and non-trivial variances that were explained at the organization level in the items measuring servant leadership, which justified the use of MLCFA and MLSEM. The results of MLCFA provided empirical support for the multidimensional construct as well as the second-order factorial structure of servant leadership measures at both the individual and organization levels. In addition, the positive relationships between servant leadership and the followers’ job satisfaction were found to vary at different levels. Originality/value This study reiterates the importance of using appropriate methods to capture a solid definition of the construct of servant leadership and provides new insights into the conceptual framework of servant leadership as well as the effects of servant leadership on individual and organizational outcomes.
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The goal of this article is to present qualitative and quantitative reviews of servant leadership literature since its formal inception in 1970. Summarizing previous studies, we theorized and explored issues concerning the conception and relevance of servant leadership, the merits of varied measurements, issues concerning construct dimensionality, and the potential effects of national culture on the relationship between servant leadership and its correlates. We developed theory to distinguish servant leadership from competing leadership theories of transformational leadership and leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and examined the direct and the incremental influence of servant leadership on individual and unit-level outcomes. To consolidate extant research and to guide future theory development we tested a mediational process model linking servant leadership to outcomes. Meta-analytic results supported distinctiveness of servant leadership, showed effects of servant leadership on individual-level and unit-level outcomes, and supported theorized mediating effects of trust and fairness perceptions in the relationship.
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One of the enduring images of Christianity is that of Christ as the good shepherd, which is a relevant metaphor for servant leadership’s emphasis on promoting enduring and desirable organizational change. Functional organizational change is a global construct that reflects the overall efficacy of servant leadership in promoting desirable employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes (Roberts, 2016). Servant leadership emphasizes two meta-dimensions of stewardship and servanthood directly promoting efficacious change management practices (Roberts, 2015). This chapter will review a large sample of servant leader empirical studies and present clear evidence of its positive influence on the attributes of servant leadership that promote effective organizational change. The research literature and subsequent analysis for this chapter is based upon 138 empirical mostly quantitative studies published from 2004 to 2019. Change related studies were then selected from this group of 138 by key word search in the 138 article abstracts. A total of 18 change related studies were identified through this process. The 138 studies generated 285 empirical outcomes of which 275 (96.5%) are favorable in directionality regarding the influence of servant leadership on change related outcomes. There were only nine nonsignificant (3.3%) and one negative (0.35%) relationships identified. Of the 138 studies, a final grouping of 104 studies was selected for the final analysis through the elimination of nonchange related dependent variables.
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This essay examines the challenges facing servant leadership as a theoretical construct, specifically the variety of definitions that results in a lack of construct clarity, the lack of agreed upon measures, and the sparse empirical evidence. This essay addresses the need for consensus, empirical research, and examination of the phenomenon of servant leadership across multiple levels of the organization.
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This article presents an integrated construct of servant leadership derived from a review of the literature. Subscale items were developed to measure 11 potential dimensions of servant leadership: calling, listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, growth, and community building. Data from 80 leaders and 388 raters were used to test the internal consistency, confirm factor structure, and assess convergent, divergent, and predictive validity. Results produced five servant leadership factors—altruistic calling, emotional healing, persuasive mapping, wisdom, and organizational stewardship—with significant relations to transformational leadership, leader-member exchange, extra effort, satisfaction, and organizational effectiveness. Strong factor structures and good performance in all validity criteria indicate that the instrument offers value for future research.
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Although early research suggested that the performance of emotional labor had deleterious effects on workers, recent empirical investigations have been equivocal. The performance of emotional labor appears to have diverse consequences for workers—both negative and positive. Variation in the consequences of emotional labor may be due to the different forms of emotion management involved. There is also evidence that the effects of emotional labor are specified by other work conditions. The effects of two forms of emotional labor on work stress, job satisfaction, and psychological distress—self-focused and other-focused emotion management—are explored using data from a survey of workers in a large organization. Results indicate that both forms of emotional labor have uniformly negative effects on workers, net of work complexity, control, and demands. Emotional labor increases perceptions of job stress, decreases satisfaction, and increases distress. Self-focused emotion management has the most pervasive and detrimental impacts. There is little evidence of interaction effects of work conditions and emotional labor.
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The worsening hospital nurse shortage and recent California legislation mandating minimum hospital patient-to-nurse ratios demand an understanding of how nurse staffing levels affect patient outcomes and nurse retention in hospital practice. To determine the association between the patient-to-nurse ratio and patient mortality, failure-to-rescue (deaths following complications) among surgical patients, and factors related to nurse retention. Cross-sectional analyses of linked data from 10 184 staff nurses surveyed, 232 342 general, orthopedic, and vascular surgery patients discharged from the hospital between April 1, 1998, and November 30, 1999, and administrative data from 168 nonfederal adult general hospitals in Pennsylvania. Risk-adjusted patient mortality and failure-to-rescue within 30 days of admission, and nurse-reported job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics (size, teaching status, and technology), each additional patient per nurse was associated with a 7% (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.12) increase in the likelihood of dying within 30 days of admission and a 7% (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) increase in the odds of failure-to-rescue. After adjusting for nurse and hospital characteristics, each additional patient per nurse was associated with a 23% (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.34) increase in the odds of burnout and a 15% (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.25) increase in the odds of job dissatisfaction. In hospitals with high patient-to-nurse ratios, surgical patients experience higher risk-adjusted 30-day mortality and failure-to-rescue rates, and nurses are more likely to experience burnout and job dissatisfaction.
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This excerpt, chapter 12 from the book Nursing Management: Principles and Practice, edited by Mary Magee Gullatte, RN, MN, ANP, AOCN, FAAMA, is part of a series of clinically relevant reprints that appear periodically in the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing.
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Turnover of nursing staff is a significant issue affecting health care cost, quality, and access. In recent years, a worldwide shortage of skilled nurses has resulted in sharply higher vacancy rates for registered nurses in many health care organizations. Much research has focused on the individual, group, and organizational determinants of turnover. Labor market factors have also been suggested as important contributors to turnover and vacancy rates but have received limited attention by scholars. This study proposes and tests a conceptual model showing the relationships of organization-market fit and three local labor market factors with organizational turnover and vacancy rates. The model is tested using ordinary least squares regression with data collected from 713 Canadian hospitals and nursing homes. Results suggest that, although modest in their impact, labor market and the organization-market fit factors do make significant yet differential contributions to turnover and vacancy rates for registered nurses. Knowledge of labor market factors can substantially shape an effective campaign to recruit and retain nurses. This is particularly true for employers who are perceived to be "employers-of-choice."
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Just as customer satisfaction is the key to retaining customers, satisfaction with job and career choices are important for keeping staff nurses on the job. The roles of employment setting, job commitment, tenure, years until retirement, short staffing, and patient load in predicting satisfaction were assessed for RN and LPN staff nurses. Results show that when RNs and LPNs feel short staffing interferes with their ability to meet patient care needs, they are also less satisfied with both their job and their career. In order not to exacerbate the current nursing shortage, employers must find ways to ensure adequate staffing to keep staff nurses satisfied and on the job.
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Context The worsening hospital nurse shortage and recent California legislation mandating minimum hospital patient-to-nurse ratios demand an understanding of how nurse staffing levels affect patient outcomes and nurse retention in hospital practice.Objective To determine the association between the patient-to-nurse ratio and patient mortality, failure-to-rescue (deaths following complications) among surgical patients, and factors related to nurse retention.Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional analyses of linked data from 10 184 staff nurses surveyed, 232 342 general, orthopedic, and vascular surgery patients discharged from the hospital between April 1, 1998, and November 30, 1999, and administrative data from 168 nonfederal adult general hospitals in Pennsylvania.Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted patient mortality and failure-to-rescue within 30 days of admission, and nurse-reported job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout.Results After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics (size, teaching status, and technology), each additional patient per nurse was associated with a 7% (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.12) increase in the likelihood of dying within 30 days of admission and a 7% (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) increase in the odds of failure-to-rescue. After adjusting for nurse and hospital characteristics, each additional patient per nurse was associated with a 23% (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.34) increase in the odds of burnout and a 15% (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.25) increase in the odds of job dissatisfaction.Conclusions In hospitals with high patient-to-nurse ratios, surgical patients experience higher risk-adjusted 30-day mortality and failure-to-rescue rates, and nurses are more likely to experience burnout and job dissatisfaction.
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Just as customer satisfaction is the key to retaining customers, satisfaction with job and career choices are important for keeping staff nurses on the job. The roles of employment setting, job commitment, tenure, years until retirement, short staffing, and patient load in predicting satisfaction were assessed for RN and LPN staff nurses. Results show that when RNs and LPNs feel short staffing interferes with their ability to meet patient care needs, they are also less satisfied with both their job and their career. In order not to exacerbate the current nursing shortage, employers must find ways to ensure adequate staffing to keep staff nurses satisfied and on the job.
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This study investigates the level of satisfaction of Lebanese nurses in their job and the influence of their personal characteristics. Given the current difficulties experienced by Lebanese hospitals in recruiting and retaining a sufficient number of nurses, the need to understand the reasons of nurses' dissatisfaction became urgent. Moreover, satisfaction at work is essentially a personal experience also affected by cultural factors. Therefore, it was necessary to study the links between personal characteristics and nurses' dissatisfaction. The study included 421 registered nurses. A modified version of Measure of Job Satisfaction, developed by Taynor and Wade, was used to assess the effect of the personal characteristics, namely educational level, age, years of work experience, position, and marital and parental status, on 5 dimensions of satisfaction: personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, pay and prospect, and training. The findings suggest that personal characteristics have important influences on nurses' job perceptions. University graduate nurses reported more dissatisfaction with the quality of supervision and with respect and treatment they receive from their superiors. Nurses younger than 30 years and the technically trained were more dissatisfied with the available opportunities to attend continuing education courses. Results of staff nurses and unmarried nurses showed trends of more dissatisfaction than the married and nurses of higher positions. Moreover, the whole sample perceived that nursing provided a high level of personal satisfaction, but nurses were most dissatisfied with salary and lack of prospects for promotion. The results indicate the importance of personal characteristics on nurses' retention. Furthermore, intrinsic factors related to the nature and experience of nursing are more job satisfying than extrinsic factors.
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To test an exploratory model of the antecedents and consequences of nurses' perceptions of respect in hospitals. Although nurses in hospital settings often state that they do not receive the respect they deserve for their contribution to patient care, there is little empirical research on this phenomenon. Interactional organizational justice theory framed the analysis. A random sample of 285 staff nurses from Ontario teaching hospitals completed measures of interactional justice, structural empowerment, perceived respect, work pressures, emotional exhaustion, and work effectiveness. More than half of the nurses felt that managers did not show concern or deal with them in a sensitive and truthful manner regarding decisions affecting their jobs. The strongest predictors of perceptions of respect were interactional organizational justice, followed by structural empowerment and job stress resulting from lack of recognition, poor interpersonal relationships and heavy workload. Consequences of nurses' feelings of respect included greater job satisfaction, trust in management, and lower emotional exhaustion, as well as higher nurse ratings of quality of care and perceived staffing adequacy. A positive organizational environment increases nurses' perceptions of respect, resulting in positive outcomes for both the nurse and the organization.
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This is the second article in a 2-part series focusing on nurse turnover and its costs. Part 1 (December 2004) described nurse turnover costs within the context of human capital theory, and using human resource accounting methods, presented the updated Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. Part 2 presents an application of this method in an acute care setting and the estimated costs of nurse turnover that were derived. Administrators and researchers can use these methods and cost information to build a business case for nurse retention.
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Evidence from several studies suggests that there is widespread job dissatisfaction among nurses. Coupled with a critical shortage of RNs, this situation threatens the provision of safe healthcare. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships and relative contributions of selected work (stress, work load, weekends off), shift worker health (sleep, depression), and demographic variables (age, number of individuals needing care after work) to job satisfaction in a random, nationwide sample of 247 critical care RNs. The Dillman Tailored Design Method of survey research was used to recruit participants and collect data. A descriptive, correlational design evaluated the relationships between the variables. There were no significant differences in these variables among self-defined day-, night-, and rotating-shift nurses. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that more weekends off per month and less depression and emotional stress contributed significantly to job satisfaction in nurses. Improvements in scheduling and interventions designed to reduce depression and emotional stress may help to improve job satisfaction in nurses and aid in nurse recruitment and retention.
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A critical shortage of registered nurses exists in the United States and this shortage is expected to worsen. It is predicted that unless this issue is resolved, the demand for nursing services will exceed the supply by nearly 30% in 2020. Extensive analysis of this pending crisis has resulted in numerous recommendations to improve both recruitment and retention. The purpose of this article is to clearly outline the issues contributing to this problem, and to provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on job satisfaction as it relates to job turnover and employee retention. To accomplish this, an analysis of the literature using both national and international sources is used to formulate the lessons learned as well as strategies and future courses of action designed to address this shortage.
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The purpose of this study was to understand the job satisfaction of nurses who work in intensive care nurseries. The design used a convenience sample of eight nurses with an average of 11 years of active and current experience as neonatal intensive care nurses. METHOD/DATA COLLECTION: Human rights were protected according to the institutional guidelines. Data collection included semi-structured, intensive face-to-face interviews, observation, and field notes. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Collaizzi's (1978) interpretation method was used to interpret and analyze the data using significant statements, formulated meanings, and clustering. Each participant was allowed to review the typed interview as one means of credibility. Analysis of the described experiences revealed that nurses were able to identify enough satisfying situations that compelled them to continue working in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). These rewards included compensation, team spirit, support from physicians, and advocacy. Knowledge of the factors that contribute to nurses' job satisfaction can provide a useful framework to implement policies to improve working conditions for nurses.
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Although several variables have been correlated with nursing job satisfaction, the findings are not uniform across studies. Three commonly noted variables from the nursing literature are: autonomy, job stress, and nurse-physician collaboration. This meta-analysis examined the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and autonomy, job stress, and nurse-physician collaboration among registered nurses working in staff positions. A meta-analysis of 31 studies representing a total of 14,567 subjects was performed. Job satisfaction was most strongly correlated with job stress (ES = -.43), followed by nurse-physician collaboration (ES = .37), and autonomy (ES = .30). These findings have implications for the importance of improving the work environment to increase nurses' job satisfaction.
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