Transglutaminase 2 is expressed and active on the surface of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages
The multifunctional enzyme, transglutaminase 2 (TG2), can be found intracellularly, in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surface. Cell surface TG2 (csTG2) could not be detected by TG2-specific antibodies or autoantibodies on immunocompetent cells. A supposedly csTG2-specific antibody, 6B9, was recently shown to actually react with CD44. Though the importance of TG2-mediated deamidation of gluten in the pathogenesis of celiac disease has been well recognized, it is not known in which intestinal cells or cell compartment the deamidation occurs. Duodenal dendritic cells (DCs) can be directly involved in gluten-reactive T-cell activation. Here we use blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iDC) and macrophages (MPhi) as a model for intestinal antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and show that they contain large amounts of TG2. We found that TG100, a commercial TG2-specific monoclonal antibody can recognize TG2 on the surface of these cells, that is monocyte-derived APCs express surface-associated TG2. TG2 expression was found on the surface of individual tunica propria cells in frozen small bowel tissue sections from both normal and celiac subjects. We also demonstrate that the pool of TG2 on the surface of iDCs can be catalytically active, hence it might directly be involved in the deamidation of gliadin peptides. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the level of TG2 on the surface of maturing DCs, supporting the hypothesis that an unspecific inflammatory process in the gut may expose more transglutaminase activity.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI) may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD) onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI. Methods: Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC). IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1. Results: CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004) and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009) antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039). During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides. Conclusions: Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals.0Comments 1Citation
- "" considering that in a non-genetically-susceptible individual such an auto-immune process would be down-regulated by elimination of autoreactive lymphocytes. It is interesting to note that active transglutaminase was recently shown to be expressed on dendritic cell membranes  suggesting that the close contact established with C. albicans hyphae during infection places the enzyme in direct contact with Hwp1. Indeed, anti-transglutaminase levels were lower in CI than in CeD patients, but patients with CI nevertheless presented significantly higher anti-transglutaminase IgA levels than HC, whereas the differences in anti-transglutaminase IgG were close to the limit of significance. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional protein cross-linking enzyme that has been implicated in apoptotic cell clearance but is also important in many other cell functions including cell adhesion, migration and monocyte to macrophage differentiation. Cell surface-associated TG2 regulates cell adhesion and migration, via its association with receptors such as syndecan-4 and β1 and β3 integrins. Whilst defective apoptotic cell clearance has been described in TG2-deficient mice, the precise role of TG2 in apoptotic cell clearance remains ill-defined. Our work addresses the role of macrophage extracellular TG2 in apoptotic cell corpse clearance. Here we reveal TG2 expression and activity (cytosolic and cell surface) in human macrophages and demonstrate that inhibitors of protein crosslinking activity reduce macrophage clearance of dying cells. We show also that cell-impermeable TG2 inhibitors significantly inhibit the ability of macrophages to migrate and clear apoptotic cells through reduced macrophage recruitment to, and binding of, apoptotic cells. Association studies reveal TG2–syndecan-4 interaction through heparan sulphate side chains, and knockdown of syndecan-4 reduces cell surface TG2 activity and apoptotic cell clearance. Furthermore, inhibition of TG2 activity reduces crosslinking of CD44, reported to augment AC clearance. Thus our data define a role for TG2 activity at the surface of human macrophages in multiple stages of AC clearance and we propose that TG2, in association with heparan sulphates, may exert its effect on AC clearance via a mechanism involving the crosslinking of CD44.0Comments 3Citations
- "Our initial western blot studies addressed whole cell and cell surface TG2 expression in a panel of THP-1 cell-derived macrophage models and HMDMØ. These cells expressed TG2 at the cell surface  with the exception of THP-1 parental cells and THP-1/VD3 cells where TG2 was not detectable. Given the monocyte-like (relatively immature) morphology of these cells , these data suggest that TG2 expression is linked to monocyte/macrophage maturity [40,41]. "
- "The DQ2 and DQ8 α/β heterodimers in wheat gluten mediate the activation of glutenreactive CD4+T cells in the bowel . HLA-DQ molecules as key steps leading to the intestinal inflammatory response on antigen-presenting cells specifically bind gluten-derived peptides, modified by the enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG) [2,789, and present them to intestinal T cells [2, 4, 10]. Therefore, celiac disease is generally characterized by the production of anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG)  and anti-endomysial (EmA) antibodies [4, 10]. "