SHIELD Study Group: Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA.
Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.6). 12/2009; 8(1):57. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-57
Source: PubMed


Body mass index (BMI) is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM.
Respondents (n = 13,887) to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD) 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM.
Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p < 0.05).
Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions.

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Available from: Debbra Bazata
    • "All 2082 participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding selfperceived body image and 2065 completed the questionnaire. People who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during the follow-up period were excluded (n = 323), as the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes may alter a person's body image perception (Bays et al., 2009). Furthermore, people who were underweight (BMI b 18.5) were excluded, as this group was extremely small (n = 9). "
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    ABSTRACT: Weight loss is important for prevention of type 2 diabetes and an accurate self-perceived body image can promote weight reduction. We evaluated the association of self-perceived body image with body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes. Data from the Danish ADDITION-PRO cohort study (2009-2011) were used. A total of 2,082 men and women attended a health examination including assessment of BMI, waist circumference, the Stunkard scale of self-perceived obesity and an oral glucose tolerance test for assessment of diabetes risk. Mean (SD) age was 66.2 (6.9) years and 24% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). However, only 7% of obese men and 11% of obese women perceived themselves as obese. Among obese women, for a given level of BMI and waist circumference, one unit higher self-perceived body image was associated with 52% (95% CI: 14-73) lower risk of having type 2 diabetes and 45% (95% CI: 12-65) lower risk of having pre-diabetes. Overweight, but not obese, men had a 35% (95% CI: 36-56) lower risk of type 2 diabetes per unit increase in body image. Obese individuals seem to underestimate their body shape. However, having a realistic body image (higher self-perceived obesity) is independently associated with lower diabetes risk. Self-perceived body image might serve as a valuable tool for type 2 diabetes risk assessment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Preventive Medicine
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    • "Considering that figure rating scales were used in previous studies [16,17], the objective of the present study springs from concern with the need for valid methods to measure body image and body dissatisfaction in Brazilian adolescents. Childress and coworkers [18] adapted a scale to evaluate body contour based upon the body contour figures developed by Stunkard & Sorensen [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC). The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year) of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1) to obese (contour 8). Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity). Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Nutrition Journal
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    • "These figures were developed by Stunkard , Sorensen, and Schulsinger [18]. This figure scale has been widely used to assess perceived body images among many populations, such as people of various ages [19] [20], people with type 2 diabetes mellitus [21], different ethnic groups [22] [23], and people from different countries [24]. In this study, participants were asked to select their perceived and ideal body shapes. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored cross-cultural differences between Japan and Russia in terms of women's body images, proneness to eating disorders, and the effects of dichotomous thinking. Par-ticipants included 419 Japanese and 187 Rus-sian college women who completed the Dicho-tomous Thinking Inventory (DTI), the 26-item ver-sion of the Eating Attitudes Test, and responses regarding nine figures representing female body shapes. The mean age of the participants was 19.8 years, with no significant age differences between the countries. The results showed that Japanese women have leaner ideal body images than Russian women, whereas there were no cross-cultural differences in the participants' real body images. DTI scores among Russian par-ticipants were higher than DTI scores among Japanese participants, which indicated that Rus-sian women think more dichotomously than Ja-panese. Structural equation modeling indicated a significantly negative effect of dichotomous thinking only on real body image in Russia; the ideal body image had greater effects on eating disorder in Russia than in Japan.
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