Conference Paper

Analyzing the dependence between RADARSAT-1 vessel detection and vessel heading using CFAR algorithm for use on fishery management

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Abstract

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environment Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) provides synthetic aperture radar (SAR) derived products under a demonstration project named the Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO) to the US government community. The AKDEMO near real-time data and products include SAR wind images and vectors, hard target locations, and ancillary data. The hard target locations are available for use in fishery management by agencies such as the Alaska Department of Fish and Games (ADF&G), the National Marine Fisheries Service ( NMFS) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Vessel positions are obtained form hard target signatures through the use of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) vessel detection algorithm developed by Veridian Systems Division. This algorithm has gone through testing and validation, using fleet information and vessel observer reports, during the Red King Crab fisheries in Alaska in 1999 and 2000. The goal was to maximize the number of ships found while minimizing the number or false alarms. Using general fleet location information, it was found that the minimum vessel size detected by the CFAR algorithm was 36 m using RADARSAT-1 ScanSAR wide mode data with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 m. Still, when comparing the CFAR results with the actual positions reported by the ship observers, vessels over 36 m were not always detected. This led to the hypothesis that the heading and perhaps wind conditions may have affected the ability of the SAR to detect the vessels. In 2001, vessel observers again reported their positions during SAR overpasses, this time also reporting heading and wind conditions. Unfortunately, due to high winds and waves, SAR was not able to detect the fishing fleet. In 2002, this was repeated, resulting in 3 days during the fishery opening when RADARSAT-1 was able to image the fishing fleet in the ScanSAR wide B mode. Approximately twenty ships each day in the a rea covered by the RADARSAT-1 data reported their position and heading. Results showing the dependence between RADARSAT-1 vessel detection and vessel heading are presented using the GIS platform.

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Article
NOAA/NESDIS a initié le programme “Alaska SAR Demonstration” dont l'objectif est de faire la démonstration du potentiel des images RSO en bande C de RADARSAT-1 à fournir une information utile et en temps opportun sur l'environnement et pour la gestion des ressources pour des utilisateurs en Alaska. Un des produits développés dans le cadre du programme est une liste de localisations des navires. Cet article décrit l'algorithme développé pour générer ce produit par le biais de la détection automatique des navires basée sur des changements dans les statistiques locales. À l'aide d'images à basse résolution (100 mètres d'espacement), on démontre que l'on peut détecter des navires de dimension supérieure à 35 mètres (représentant 105 navires sur un total de 272 dans la zone test) avec un taux de fausse alerte de 0,01% pour une seule détection. Avec des images à haute résolution (50 mètres d'espacement), on peut détecter des navires d'une dimension supérieure à 32 mètres (représentant 124 navires sur 272) avec un taux de fausse alerte de 0,002% pour une seule détection. L'algorithme est entièrement automatisé et prend environ 10 minutes de temps-machine pour traiter une image ScanSAR en mode B large.
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1 The Regional Information Report Series was established in 1987 to provide an information access system for all unpublished division reports. These reports frequently serve diverse ad hoc informational purposes or archive basic uninterpreted data. To accommodate timely reporting of recently collected information, reports in this series undergo only limited internal review and may contain preliminary data; this information may be subsequently finalized and published in the formal literature. Consequently, these reports should not be cited without prior approval of the author or the Division of Commercial Fisheries.
Conference Paper
The National Oeanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Environmental Satellite, Data, And Information Service (NESDIS) is in the second year of a two-year demonstration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) derived products called the Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO). This demonstration provides near real-time SAR data and derived products, including wind images and vectors, hard target locations, along with ancillary data, to specific users in the government community. One of the derived products are vessel positions obtained from a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) vessel detection algorithm developed by Veridian ERIM. This algorithm has been tested and validated to maximize the number of ships found while minimizing the number or false alarms on one SAR image of the Red King Crab fishery in Bristol Bay on October 18, 1999. This resulted in using a detection statistic threshold of about 5.5, depending on image resolution used. Until now, this validation has been done with only general knowledge of fishing fleet size and location, but no in situ vessel information. This paper presents the results of a validation of the SAR vessel detection algorithm using observer reported vessel positions along with information on vessel size and local wind speed
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