ArticleLiterature Review

Effects of Warming-up on Physical Performance: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis

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Abstract

The value of warming-up is a worthy research problem because it is not known whether warming-up benefits, harms, or has no effect on individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence relating to performance improvement using a warm-up. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken. Relevant studies were identified by searching Medline, SPORTDiscus, and PubMed (1966-April 2008). Studies investigating the effects of warming-up on performance improvement in physical activities were included. Studies were included only if the subjects were human and only if the warm-up included activities other than stretching. The quality of included studies was assessed independently by 2 assessors using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Thirty-two studies, all of high quality (6.5-9 [mean = 7.6] of 10) reported sufficient data (quality score >6) on the effects of warming-up on performance improvement. Warm-up was shown to improve performance in 79% of the criterions examined. This analysis has shown that performance improvements can be demonstrated after completion of adequate warm-up activities, and there is little evidence to suggest that warming-up is detrimental to sports participants. Because there were few well-conducted, randomized, controlled trials undertaken, more of these are needed to further determine the role of warming-up in relation to performance improvement.

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... A widely suggested preventive measure for sports injury is performing a preparatory warm-up (14,41). The main goal of these warm-up exercises is to prepare the athlete for subsequent sport participation through activity-induced alterations in, among others, blood flow and stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex (15,32). These parameters are suggested to be of key importance in the reduction of injury susceptibility and improvement of the athletic performance (15,32). ...
... The main goal of these warm-up exercises is to prepare the athlete for subsequent sport participation through activity-induced alterations in, among others, blood flow and stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex (15,32). These parameters are suggested to be of key importance in the reduction of injury susceptibility and improvement of the athletic performance (15,32). During physical activity, the vascularization of the muscle-tendon complex plays an important part in regulating the changes in metabolic demand (11). ...
... Exercise-based warm-up programs have been widely encouraged because of the assumed beneficial influence on both injury prevention and athletic performance (14). Whereas the preparatory effects of warming up on the muscle properties have already been investigated before (15,41), less is known about the acute effects of warm-up exercises on important Achilles tendon properties. This study is the first to investigate the immediate effect of commonly used warm-up exercises on both the Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness. ...
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Pieters, D, Wezenbeek, E, De Ridder, R, Witvrouw, E, and Willems, T. Acute effects of warming up on Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of frequently used warm-up exercises on the Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness. In doing so, we want to explore which exercises are suitable to properly prepare the athlete's Achilles tendon in withstanding high amounts of loading during sport activities. This knowledge could help sport physicians and physiotherapists when recommending warm-up exercises that are able to improve sport performance while reducing the injury susceptibility. Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness measurements of 40 healthy subjects (20 men and 20 women) aged between 18 and 25 years were obtained before and immediately after 4 different warm-up exercises: running, plyometrics, eccentric heel drops, and static stretching. The effect of these warm-up exercises and possible covariates (sex, age, body mass index, rate of perceived exertion, and sports participation) on the Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness was investigated with linear mixed models. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. The results of this study showed a significant increase in Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness after 10 minutes of running (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) and plyometrics (p < 0.001 and p = 0.039). Static stretching and eccentric exercises elicited no significant changes. From these results, it could be suggested that warm-up exercises should be intensive enough to properly prepare the Achilles tendon for subsequent sport activities. When looking at Achilles tendon blood flow and stiffness, we advise the incorporation of highly intensive exercises such as running and plyometrics within warm-up programs.
... Appropriate warm-up can enhance a human athlete's performance (Fradkin et al., 2010;Kilduff et al., 2013;McGowan et al., 2015), and optimising the warm-up protocol is therefore a major concern for athletes and a focus for research. Still, many factors come into play when designing a warm-up protocol, and not least the fact that sports performance is a very broad field, encompassing short high-intensity sprints as well as prolonged endurance races. ...
... A typical warm-up protocol contains both a general and a specific dynamic segment. The purpose of the general warm-up segment is to increase muscle temperature and flexibility, while the specific warm-up segment is implemented to prepare muscles for specific movements required for performance (Bishop, 2003;Fradkin et al., 2010;Woods et al., 2007). Stretching was not included in our trial protocol, although traditionally, static stretching has been part of pre-performance warm-up protocols for human athletes (Fradkin et al., 2010). ...
... The purpose of the general warm-up segment is to increase muscle temperature and flexibility, while the specific warm-up segment is implemented to prepare muscles for specific movements required for performance (Bishop, 2003;Fradkin et al., 2010;Woods et al., 2007). Stretching was not included in our trial protocol, although traditionally, static stretching has been part of pre-performance warm-up protocols for human athletes (Fradkin et al., 2010). Stretching may reduce risk of muscular injury during physical activity, but it should be used as part of a regular long-term routine (Woods et al., 2007). ...
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Agility is physically demanding and dogs encounter a considerable risk of injury during training and competition. Pre-performance warm-up is used routinely among human athletes to prepare the tissues for these physical demands, but in canine sports evidence for effects of warm-up is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of warm-up in dogs on two major muscles involved in locomotion. It was hypothesised that, after warm-up, the muscles would be used more efficiently (more fibre resting time/total time), recruit fewer fibres (reduced spatial summation) and/or activated with a lower firing frequency (reduced temporal summation). The following factors ‘sex, age, weight, height, training level and agility experience’ were evaluated for their potential impact on muscle function parameters. Fourteen large (≥46 cm at the withers) agility dogs of different breeds and training levels performed a 5 min warm-up program three times, with a 2 min break between the programs for recording purposes. Acoustic myography sensors were attached on the skin over the muscles m. triceps brachii (TB) and m. gluteus superficialis (GS). Recordings of muscle activity were made, while the dogs trotted before warm-up and after each 5 min warm-up program. The dogs used TB more efficiently after 5 min (P<0.05), 10 min (P<0.05) and 15 min (P<0.001) of exercise compared to pre-warm-up values. No changes were found in the activity of GS. For well-trained dogs, TB recruited fewer muscle fibres after 10 and 15 min of warm-up compared to dogs that trained less than 1 h weekly (P<0.03). For dogs with more than 2 years of experience, GS had a lower firing frequency before and after 10 min warm-up compared to dogs with less experience. The results indicate that warm-up alters muscle activation by an increased muscular efficiency. Training level and experience have an influence on muscle function parameters.
... Benefits of warm-ups include mitigated muscle and joint viscous resistance (17), increased oxygen kinetics (14), increased nerve conduction (22), and enhanced muscle metabolism (8). Fradkin et al. (9) meta-analysis of 32 studies examined the effects of warm-up on performance in different athletic events and found that warm-ups International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com 1401 improved performance in 79% of studies, led to no change in 3% of studies, and negatively affected performance in 17% of studies. ...
... 1401 improved performance in 79% of studies, led to no change in 3% of studies, and negatively affected performance in 17% of studies. While several studies have examined physiological responses to warm-ups (15,16), fewer studies have assessed changes in performance following different warm-up volumes (9). Skof and Strojnik (21) reported that a warm-up for middle distance runners that included slow running, stretching, sprinting, and bounding increased muscle activation more than a warm-up that included slow running and stretching only. ...
... Numerous studies have assessed performance following warm-ups on single sprint performance or continuous exercise (10,20,23); however, there is a paucity of well-documented studies assessing low, medium, and high-volume warm-up protocols on 800-meter performance found in the literature (9). In a study of 800-meter runners, researchers reported that higher volume and intensity warm-ups resulted in better performance (12). ...
Article
Track and Field athletes perform different types of warm-ups at varying levels of volume and/or intensity prior to competition. Theoretically, this prepares sport specific muscles for activity by increasing muscle temperature, thus mitigating the chance for injury. There is a paucity of information regarding the optimum level for warm-ups regarding maximizing performance in middle distance events. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of three different warm-ups on 800-meter performance. Thirteen Division I student-athletes (seven males and six females) from the Southeastern Conference (SEC) who were middle distance runners participated in this study. We utilized a randomized, cross-over study design to test low, medium, and high-volume warm-up protocols on 800-meter performance. Trials were conducted over a span of three weeks on a SEC University outdoor track. We used a 2 (Sex) x 3 (Warm-Up Protocol) mixed-factor ANOVA, and our results show a main effect of warm-up volume that is not moderated by sex. Post-hoc tests reveal a high-volume warm-up yields superior results for the 800-meter run in comparison to a medium volume warm-up, which provides better results than a low-volume warm-up. These findings may be of value in providing information in program design for coaches on the most effective warm-up protocols for 800-meter runners. Identifying the best warm-up protocol to prime an 800-meter runner for peak performance may not only assist in preventing injury, but enhance performance thus leading to an increased of achievement, and confidence in personal ability.
... The completion of a pre-exercise preparatory routine (i.e. a warm-up) prior to exercise is a widely utilised practice in competitive sporting environments and is also commonly used before resistance training or rehabilitation sessions. It is performed with the belief that both muscle performance will improve (Bishop, 2003a;Fradkin et al., 2010) and injury risk will decrease in subsequent activities (Small et al., 2008). For example, one systematic review reported that warm-ups improved performance in 79% of the criteria examined (Fradkin et al., 2010). ...
... It is performed with the belief that both muscle performance will improve (Bishop, 2003a;Fradkin et al., 2010) and injury risk will decrease in subsequent activities (Small et al., 2008). For example, one systematic review reported that warm-ups improved performance in 79% of the criteria examined (Fradkin et al., 2010). ...
... Tm is an important determinant of muscle function, and a large body of evidence supports the premise that performance improvements associated with both passive (i.e. temperature-only) (Bishop, 2003a) and active (Fradkin et al., 2010) warm-ups result from the increase in Tm. Performance improvements due to increased Tm have been estimated to be 1-5%/°C increase (although it may be greater in very high-speed movement). ...
... Sport coaches and strength coaches alike have sought to optimize player performance through the design and administration of a variety of training sessions. One of the key components to any training program or individual training session is the application of an appropriate warm-up designed to enhance performance [11][12][13]. ...
... Numerous studies have identified the benefits associated with participation in an organized warm-up protocol prior to athletic competition [12][13][14][15][16]. Studies have also shown improvements, such as increased preparedness and improvement in sport performance skills such as sprinting, jumping and change in direction, following training programs that incorporate plyometric exercises and jumps into their warm-up routines [1,12,15,[17][18][19][20][21][22]. ...
... The previously identified benefits and improvements include physiological improvements, [1,15,[17][18][19]. While there is some debate on which warm-up protocols produce the best results, there is a consensus that the warmup performed should consist of dynamic movements as well as an active stretching routine for agonist and antagonist muscles groups to reduce risk of injury and improve sport-related performance [12][13][14][15]23,24]. Other benefits of a dynamic warm-up include thermogenic effects, including: decreased viscous resistance of joints [12], increased blood flow to working muscles [25,26], increased anaerobic metabolism [14] and improved central nervous system functioning [25]. ...
Article
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The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement (Dm) of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of both legs before and after each warm-up, while countermovement jump height variables, 20 m sprint, t-test and sit-and-reach were measured following the warm-ups. TMG was analyzed using a three-way [condition × time × leg] ANOVA, while performance variables were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. Main effects of time were observed for BF-Tc (p = 0.035), RF-Td (p < 0.001), and BF-Td, (p = 0.008), and a main effect of condition was seen for RF-Tc (p = 0.038). Moreover, participants’ 20 m sprint improved following SSG (p = 0.021) compared to DYN and PLY. Sit-and-reach was greater following PLY (p = 0.021). No significant interactions were noted for the measured TMG variables. Warm-up-specific improvements were demonstrated in sprint speed and flexibility following SSG and PLY, respectively. The present study revealed changes in certain TMG measures following the warm-ups that suggest enhanced response of lower leg muscles regardless of specific activities used.
... Despite the positive influence of warm-up on sports performance, [9] there is still a lack of specific investigations about the variables that compose it, the optimal warm-up design as well as its effects on the force production and strength training performance. [11,12] Any movement performed during physical activity requires the use of specific muscles to produce movement. The movement depends on muscle performance and therefore force production, either in maximal or submaximal efforts so that the exercise could be carried out successfully. ...
... It is then important to understand the effect of warm-up in strength performance and this may be through the assessment of maximum dynamic strength (load at 1 repetition maximum: 1RM), isometric strength, or even through the rate of production of muscle strength. [3,[10][11][12]14] Previous findings suggested that the warm-up procedure (for example, aerobic exercise, specific activity, and stretching) seems to influence the results of the 1RM assessment, as well as to improve the strength produced during the assessments. [3,12,15] Generally, it is recommended that the warm-up routine prior to a 1RM test includes general (aerobic) and specific (imitating target activity) exercises. ...
Chapter
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Warming-up is an indispensable component of any type of training, aiming to prepare the body for the intensity required by the following exercises. The use of different types of warm-up seems to produce different results, mainly because of the effects on force production. However, the research is not clear and further research is needed. The present study aimed to analyze and discuss the main results of the literature regarding the effects of warm-up on force production, as well as to analyze those responses during resistance training and maximal strength assessments. Additionally, based on the outcomes, we intended to suggest some practical recommendations for sports-related professionals and researchers, providing essential knowledge for their intervention near the athletes, and also to contribute to the performance optimization during training and in the competition. For this, a search on four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect) for original research published until November 2020 was performed, and then the outcomes were critically analyzed. The literature revealed that there is still little agreement on what should be the best warm-up to be used for strength performance and training. We, therefore, concluded that more research must be carried out and new approaches must be taken to clarify this issue.
... El calentamiento como parte inicial de una sesión de ejercicio físico, es una estrategia habitualmente utilizada con el objetivo de generar efectos agudos en la optimización del desempeño motor (Fradkin et al., 2010;Kar & Banerjee, 2013), caracterizadas por un conjunto de actividades organizadas en relación a los objetivos principales de la sesión (McGowan et al., 2015). En niños y adolescentes ha mostrado tener efectos agudos sobre el rendimiento en actividades lineales como velocidad, salto, fuerza o ejercicios de larga duración Iacono et al., 2019), así como también en el desempeño en actividades de características no lineales como deportes, compuestos de cambios de velocidad y de dirección (Chatzopoulos et al., 2014) y habilidades específicas de deportes (Frikha et al., 2017). ...
... El objetivo de estudio fue valorar los efectos de distintos tipos de calentamientos aplicados en escolares sobre la calidad de movimiento de las habilidades motrices y el rendimiento de salto y carrera. Los resultados encontrados muestran que la estrategia de calentamiento FIFA11+ es efectiva para mejorar el desempeño en pruebas de velocidad y salto, al mismo tiempo que la intervención basada en juegos adaptados reducidos (CJAR) mejora la calidad de ejecución de las habilidades motrices, principalmente locomoción Los efectos agudos del calentamiento sobre el rendimiento físico han sido descritos previamente en diversas poblaciones (Fradkin et al., 2010;Kar & Banerjee, 2013;McGowan et al., 2015). Los resultados de nuestra investigación muestran diferencias estadísticamente significativas para CMJ no así para sprint, con tamaños del efecto grandes y pequeños, respectivamente. ...
Article
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The objective of this research is to assess the effects of different types of warm-ups applied in schoolchildren on the quality of movement of motor skills and jumping and sprint performance.The methodology used was based on a randomized crossover study design (n = 27 schoolchildren), which included three experimental conditions to assess the acute effect of different types of warm-up (traditional, based on reduced adapted games and FIFA 11+) on the vertical jump, sprint in 20 meters and motor skills of locomotion and control of objects in children. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used through repeated measures ANOVA and Friedman with its post-hoc tests as appropriate. The results show that all types of warm-up showed significant differences in sprint, vertical jump and motor skills, compared to the control condition without warm-up. The warm-up based on reduced adapted games presented greater effects than the other modalities on the motor skills of locomotion (p <.05). Comparisons between warm-ups showed that the intervention based on FIFA 11+ was shown to be more effective in reducing sprint time by 20 meters and increasing vertical jump height (p <.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that the selection of an appropriate strategy based on a diversity of motor experiences such as those offered by the FIFA11 + warm-up protocols and reduced adapted games could be key to improving motor performance and the magnitude of the benefits associated with warm-up. © Federación Española de Asociaciones de Docentes de Educación Física (FEADEF)
... Coaches recommend warm-ups to avoid injuries and boost their athletes' performance [1,2]. Furthermore, the warm-up has been an important topic of research and previous studies have provided strong evidence of its effectiveness [3,4]. A well-designed warm-up appears to induce physiological changes and enable the athlete to improve mental concentration for the next challenge [5]. ...
... The numerous parameters and the nature of their partnership make it difficult to characterize the key features of the correct warm-up technique [3]. Therefore, more evidence is required to test the efficacy of the warm-up to minimize muscle injury, and improve athletic performance, which should be performed considering the need for new approaches that contribute to better performance. ...
Preprint
(1) Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different types of warm-ups on the strength and skin temperature of Paralympic powerlifting athletes; (2) Methods: The participants were 15 male Paralympic powerlifting athletes. It was analyzed the effects of three different types of warm-up (without warm-up (WW), traditional warm-up (TW), or stretching warm-up (SW)) on static and dynamic strength tests as well as in the skin temperature, which was monitored by thermal imaging; (3) Results: show no differences in the dynamic and static indicators of the force in relation to the different types of warm-up. No significant differences were found in relation to the Peak Torque (p = 0.055, F=4.560, η2p= 0.246 medium effect), and 1-Repetition Maximum (p = 0.139, F=3.191, η2p = 0.186, medium effect) between the different types of warm-up. In the thermographic analysis, there was a significant difference only in the Pectoral muscle clavicular portion between the TW (33.04 ± 0.71ºC) and the WW (32.51 ± 0.74ºC) (p = 0.038). The TW method also presented slightly higher values than the SW and WW in the Pectoral Muscles Sternal portion and in the Deltoid anterior portion, but with p-value > 0.05; (4) Conclusions: that the types of warm-up studied do not seem to interfere with the performance of Paralympic Powerlifting athletes. However, the thermal images showed that traditional warm-up best meets the objectives expected for this preparation phase.
... Tennis players normally perform different types of warm-up routines prior to formal training and competitions aiming to achieve high levels of explosive force before the beginning of the competitive activity [4]. Thus, apart from a reduction in the injury risk, increases in intra-muscular temperature and nerve conductance velocity through warm-up exercises can enhance physical performance [5]. In this regard, traditional warm-up protocols in tennis typically involve lowto-moderate intensity aerobic activities (e.g., jogging at a self-selected pace), dynamic stretching exercises to enhance joint range of motion (ROM), coordination exercises and sport-specific drills executed at, or just below, game intensity [6]. ...
... A 10-m sprint test (with 5-m split times) was performed in a straight line while running time was measured using beam photocell gates placed 1.0 m above the ground level (Smartspeed, Fusion Sport, Australia). Each sprint was initiated 50 cm behind the photocell gate as previously reported [5]. Each player performed two maximal 10-m sprints with 2 min of passive recovery between the attempts. ...
Article
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To date, there is a lack of information about the optimal conditions of the warm-up to lead to a better performance in elite tennis players. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different warm-up protocols (dynamic vs. self-myofascial release with foam rolling) on neuromuscular variables associated with physical determinants of tennis performance. Using a crossover randomised experimental design, eleven professional men tennis players (20.6 ± 3.5 years) performed either a dynamic warm-up (DWU) or a selfmyofascial release with foam rolling (SMFR) protocol. DWU consisted of 8 min of dynamic exercises at increasing intensity and SMFR consisted of 8 min of rolling on each lower extremity unilaterally. Just before (baseline) and after completing warm-up protocols, players performed a countermovement jump (CMJ), the 5-0-5 agility test, a 10-m sprint test and the Straight Leg Raise and Thomas tests to assess range of motion. Compared to baseline, the DWU was more effective to reduce the time in the 5-0-5 test than SMFR (-2.23 vs. 0.44%, respectively, (p = 0.042, ηp2 = 0.19). However, both warm-up protocols similarly affected CMJ (2.32 vs. 0.61%, p = 0.373, ηp2 = 0.04) and 10-m sprint time changes (-1.26 vs. 1.03%, p = 0.124, ηp2 = 0.11). Changes in range of motion tests were also similar with both protocols (p = 0.448–1.000, ηp2 = 0.00–0.02). Overall, both DWU and SMFR were effective to prepare well-trained tennis players for highly demanding neuromuscular actions. However, DWU offered a better preparation for performing change of direction and sprint actions, and hence, in high-performance tennis players, the warm-up should include dynamic exercises.
... An fMRI study evidenced that a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity was sufficient to improve cognitive performance, and that this positive effect of physical activity was linked to an increase in arousal levels (Byun et al., 2014). In the literature, this beneficial effect of physical exercise has been largely reported for cognitive performance , but also motor learning (Marin Bosch et al., 2020), or physical performance (Fradkin et al., 2010). In this context, conducting acute physical exercise could also be a promising and effective strategy to counteract mental fatigue. ...
... De façon intéressante, et à l'instar de la caféine , la pratique d'une activité physique à intensité modérée durant 15 min permet même d'obtenir de meilleures performances qu'avant induction de fatigue mentale. Une possible explication à ce résultat est l'effet bénéfique général de l'activité physique qui a déjà été montré sur les performances cognitives (Hillman et al., 2009;Yanagisawa et al., 2010) et physiques (Fradkin et al., 2010;Hajoglou et al., 2005). Ces effets bénéfiques sont liés aux effets précédemment mentionnés sur la fonction dopaminergique, induisant non seulement une augmentation de la dopamine Meeusen et al., 1994), mais aussi une baisse de la sensibilité des récepteurs de l'adénosine ce qui provoque une meilleure sécrétion dopaminergique. ...
Thesis
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La fatigue mentale est un phénomène courant dans la société actuelle provoquant une altération des performances cognitives comme physiques. Elle peut conduire à une augmentation des risques d’accident, une baisse de productivité, et à certaines pathologies comme la dépression. L’objectif de ce travail de thèse était d’étudier le phénomène de fatigue mentale en examinant plus spécifiquement ses marqueurs électrophysiologiques, ainsi que de trouver des stratégies de compensation pour limiter et/ou éviter ses effets délétères.La première étude a identifié des modulations de l’activité cérébrale lors d’une tâche prolongée de Stroop modifiée. Une augmentation globale des ondes thêta et alpha, ainsi qu’une diminution de l’amplitude des ondes N100 et P300 interprétées comme reflétant une baisse de l’attention ont été observées. La seconde étude a mis en évidence que l’augmentation de la perception de l’effort lors d’un exercice physique d’endurance en présence de fatigue mentale était liée à une augmentation de l’activité des aires motrices et prémotrices (lors de contractions réelles et imaginées). Dans une troisième étude, nous avons montré que les effets de la fatigue mentale persistaient dans le temps. Les performances lors d’une tâche de pointage étaient de plus en plus altérées après la tâche mentalement fatigue, et ce malgré un effet de récupération sur le niveau de fatigue mentale perçue. La quatrième étude a montré que l’utilisation de stratégies de compensation, comme l’écoute de musique agréable ou la pratique d’une activité physique durant 15 min étaient efficaces pour contrer les effets liés à la fatigue mentale et maintenir le niveau de performance motrice. Ces travaux ont montré que la fatigue mentale engendre des modifications de l’activité cérébrale au cours d’une tâche cognitivement exigeante mais également lors d’une exercice physique subséquent. De plus, le phénomène de fatigue mentale semble persister dans le temps et impacter de plus en plus nos performances. Cependant des stratégies de compensation comme l’écoute de musique ou la pratique d’une activité physique semblent efficaces pour contrecarrer ses effets délétères.
... [1][2][3][4][5] Una meta-analisi ha mostrato che le procedure di WU hanno condotto a un miglioramento delle prestazioni nel 79% delle ricerche raccolte. 6 Le procedure di WU influenzano le prestazioni tramite meccanismi correlati e non correlati alla temperatura. 1 I meccanismi correlati alla temperatura consistono in una ridotta resistenza dei muscoli e delle articolazioni, un maggiore rilascio di ossigeno da emoglobina e mioglobina, un'accelerazione delle reazioni metaboliche, un aumento della velocità di conduzione nervosa e un aumento dello sforzo di termoregolazione. I meccanismi non correlati alla temperatura sono rappresentati da aumento del flusso sanguigno ai muscoli, aumento del consumo basale di ossigeno, potenziamento post-attivazione, effetti psicologici e maggiore preparazione. ...
... [1][2][3][4][5] A meta-analysis showed that WU procedures conducted to an improvement in performance in 79% of collected researches. 6 WU procedures affect performances via temperature-related and non-temperature related mechanisms. 1 The temperature-related mechanisms consist of a decreased resistance of muscles and joints, a greater release of oxygen from hemoglobin and myoglobin, a speeding of metabolic reactions, and increased nerve conduction rate and an increased thermoregulatory strain. The non-temperature related mechanisms are increased blood flow to muscles, an elevation of baseline oxygen consumption, postactivation potentiation, psychological effects and increased preparedness. 1 During the last decade, a large number of researches dealing with this introductory phase in physical education and sports training was conducted. ...
Article
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: the present study aimed to investigate the effect of different warm-up (WU) durations on muscular fatigue, power output and psycho-physiological responses after high-intensity effort. METHODS: in a randomized order, twenty-three males physical education students, volunteered to participate in this study. They were invited to perform a 30s Wingate-test after three WU durations (i.e., WU5, WU15 and WU20 min) at an intensity of 50% of the maximal aerobic power. Total power (Pt), Peak (PP), mean (MP) and the fatigue index (FI) were recorded and analyzed. Likewise, heart rate (HR), oral temperature (T) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during each session. RESULTS: the ANOVA showed higher elevation in core temperature after both WU15 and WU20 (p<0.001 for both comparisons) and in RPE estimations (p<0.001 for both comparisons) in comparison to WU5. PM and Pt during the Wingate-test were: (i) higher when recorded after WU15 than after AWU5 (p<0.01 for both comparisons). (ii) not affected by increasing the duration of WU up to 20min (p=0.132 and p=0.094 respectively). Moreover, PP and FI were affected by the WU durations with higher values recorded after WU15 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively) and WU20 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively). CONCLUSION: WU duration of 15min with RPE estimation ~11-12 has a better impact on high-intensity powerful exercise in physically active male. The extension of WU duration to 20min develops more fatigue sensations and remains not useful for muscular power output.
... Coaches and practitioners regularly utilise the pre-competition warm-up to acutely enhance neuromuscular performance [1][2][3]. The use of a warm-up is thought to influence performance through several temperature-related (decreased resistance of muscles and joints, increased nerve conduction rate and thermoregulatory strain, greater release of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, and speeding up of metabolic reactions) and non-temperature-related (increased blood flow, elevation of baseline oxygen consumption and psychological effects) mechanisms [3]. ...
... An element that has often been ignored in the pre-post study designs is the effect of the warm-up on the apparent PAPE effect. The many benefits of a warm-up to athletic performance has been established previously [1][2][3]. If it is currently accepted that the mechanisms of warm-up and PAPE are similar [5], then it is difficult to isolate the two elements and correctly attribute a performance enhancement in prepost study designs, in the absence of a control trial. ...
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Background Research on post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) is dominated by lower-body conditioning activities/performance test complexes. Despite the contribution of the upper body to many sporting actions, no review on upper-body PAPE currently exists. Objectives The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to provide a synthesis of the available research on the inclusion of upper-body PAPE conditioning activities to improve athletic performance. Methods A review of the literature was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses guidelines, including a literature search of EBSCOhost, SPORTDiscus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. A total of 127 studies were identified through database searches, and were assessed against the following criteria: (1) randomised controlled trial or pre-and-post study design; (2) studies explored the effects of prior voluntary muscle activity, and not electrically induced contractions, (3) evidence, or lack thereof, of PAPE was quantified by the monitoring of individual performance to commonly applied physical tests or sport-specific tasks; (4) conditioning activities and performance tests were primarily upper-body; (5) detailed description of a standardised warm-up; and (6) full-text versions of studies could be accessed in English language peer-reviewed journals. Studies were quality assessed for methodological quality via the PEDro scale and ranked accordingly. Results Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were classified into different conditioning activity modes: bench press variations, sport-specific (modified implement throws, swing-specific, cable pulley, elastic resistance, combination) and bodyweight activity. Acute performance enhancement in several movement-specific combinations was found. A meta-analysis revealed that bench press at ≥ 80% one repetition maximum significantly ( p = 0.03; ES = 0.31) improves subsequent power output in the ballistic bench throw at 30–40% one repetition maximum, following 8–12 min recovery. Additionally, sport-specific overweight implement throws improved subsequent throwing distance at competition weight by ~ 1.7–8.5%; ES = 0.14–0.33, following 3 min recovery. Sport-specific lighter weighted bat swings and swing-specific isometrics resulted in improved subsequent competition weight bat swing velocities, ranging from ~ 1.3–3.3%; ES = 0.16–0.57. Conclusions This review presents several upper-body movement-specific conditioning activities that could be considered by coaches and practitioners as part of complex or contrast training, or used in pre-competition warm-ups to acutely enhance performance.
... 36 Previous reviews have found positive effects of warm-up on performance 37 and injury prevention in sports. [37][38][39][40][41] However, it is surprising that data on the effects of warm-up on WMSD are scarce and, when available, lead to rather conflicting/inconclusive results. [42][43][44] Within this context, the aim of this systematic review will be to evaluate the effectiveness of workplace warm-up interventions on WMSDs and physical and psychosocial functions among workers. ...
... Workplace physical activity is now well recognised as a potential intervention to prevent WMSDs. 7 8 11-17 Although benefits of a warm-up have been previously documented in sports context, [37][38][39][40][41] to the best of our knowledge, the effectiveness of such intervention in workplaces remains to be established. Interestingly, the primary outcome analysed in this review will be associated with WMSDs such as pain, discomfort or fatigue. ...
Article
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Introduction Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a growing worldwide burden and effective interventions to prevent them are needed. Physical activity at the workplace is now recognised as a relevant component of WMSDs prevention. Along these lines, warm-up interventions are now offered in a large number of companies to manage WMSDs. Although benefits of warm-up have been previously documented in sports context, to the best of our knowledge, the effectiveness of such intervention in workplaces still remains to be established. Within this context, the aim of the present review is to identify from published literature the available evidence regarding the effects of warm-up on WMSDs and physical and psychosocial functions. Methods The following electronic databases will be searched (from inception onwards to June 2020): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed (Medline), Web of Science and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Randomised and non-randomised controlled studies will be included in this review. Participants should be adult employees without specific comorbidities. Interventions should include a warm-up physical intervention in real-workplaces. The primary outcomes will be pain, discomfort or fatigue. The secondary outcomes will be job control or motivation at work. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and two team members will independently screen all citations, full-text articles and abstract data. A systematic narrative synthesis will be provided with information presented in the text and tables to summarise the characteristics and findings of the included studies. Ethics and dissemination The approval of an ethical committee is not required. All the included studies will comply with the current ethical standards. The results of this review will summarise the effects of warm-up intervention on WMSDs, physical or psychosocial functions. This information could help professionals in decision making related to the use of these interventions to prevent WMSDs. Findings will be disseminated to academic audiences through peer-reviewed publications, as well as to policy-makers. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019137211.
... En una revisión de literatura que analiza la eficacia del calentamiento en el rendimiento en natación, los autores señalan que la investigación científica no ha demostrado la eficacia del calentamiento sobre el desempeño del nadador, ya que los estudios han demostrado efectos ambiguos, además que la variabilidad en los diseños de investigación (por ejemplo, protocolos, resultados seleccionados, Además, en los tipos de calentamiento (activo y pasivo) el calentamiento activo ha sido mucho más investigado (Fradkin et al. 2010), donde se pueden encontrar más cambios en la parte metabólica y cardiovascular de los atletas que en el calentamiento pasivo (Bishop, 2003). ...
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RESUMEN El estudio analizó el efecto del calentamiento en una prueba de 100 metros crol. Participaron nueve integrantes del equipo de natación de la Universidad de Costa Rica con rangos de edad entre los 19 y 22 años. Se desarrolló un estudio experimental aleatorizado, las personas participantes fueron sometidas a tres escenarios: una condición consistió en realizar la prueba de 100 metros crol sin un calentamiento previo, en otra situación se efectuó un calentamiento fuera de la piscina y en una tercera condición el calentamiento se desarrolló dentro de la piscina. El orden de las distintas condiciones fue aleatorizado. Los tiempos registrados fueron analizados mediante un análisis de varianza de medidas repetidas. No se encontraron diferencias en los tiempos de la prueba 100 metros crol (f = 0,57 p=0,73) al no calentar (76.6 ± 11.2 s), al calentar fuera (76.8± 9.5 s), o dentro de la piscina (77.9 ± 10.2 s). En conclusión, en la muestra de nadadores universitarios estudiada, el rendimiento en la prueba de 100 metros crol no se ve afectado por el tipo de calentamiento.
... Warm-up usually consists of aerobic exercises as a general warm-up for increasing body and muscle temperature followed by stretching to increase mobility and specific exercises focusing on performance enhancement (Fradkin et al., 2010). Purported mechanisms of warm-up comprise increased muscle metabolism (Robergs et al., 1991), kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) (Burnley and Jones, 2007) and post-activation potentiation (Derrenne, 2010). ...
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Jump performance is affected by warm-up intensity and body temperature, but the time course effects have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate time course effects on jump performance after warm-up at different intensities. Nine male athletes (age: 20.9 ± 1.0 years; height: 1.75 ± 0.03 m; weight: 66.4 ± 6.3 kg; mean ± SD) volunteered for this study. The participants performed three warm-ups at different intensities: 15 min at 80% VO2 max, 15 min at 60% VO2 max, and no warm-up (control). After each warm-up, counter movement jump (CMJ) height, vastus lateralis temperature, heart rate and subjective fatigue level were measured at three intervals: immediately after warm-up, 10 min after, and 20 min after, respectively. Significant main effects and interactions were found for muscle temperature (intensity: p < 0.01, η2p = 0.909; time: p < 0.01, η2p = 0.898; interaction: p < 0.01, η2p = 0.917). There was a significant increase of muscle temperature from the baseline after warm-up, which lasted for 20 min after warm-up with 80% VO2 max and 60% VO2 max (p < 0.01). Muscle temperature was significantly higher with warm-up at 80% VO2 max than other conditions (P < 0.01). Significant main effects and interactions for CMJ height were found (intensity: p < 0.01, η2p = 0.762; time: p < 0.01, η2p = 0.810; interaction: p < 0.01, η2p = 0.696). Compared with the control conditions, CMJ height after 80% VO2 max and 60% VO2 max warm-ups were significantly higher (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). CMJ height at 20 min after warm-up was significantly higher for 80% VO2 max warm-up than for 60% VO2 max warm-up (p < 0.01). However, CMJ height at 10 min after 60% VO2 max warm-up was not significantly different from the baseline (p < 0.05). These results showed that both high and moderate intensity warm-up can maintain an increase in muscle temperature for 20 min. Jump performance after high-intensity warm-up was increased for 20 min compared to a moderate intensity warm-up.
... The mean time for 20 meter sprint without vest is 3.95sec and gradually decrease by 3.78sec and 3.75sec respectively for weighted vest 6% of body weight and 12% of body weight which is the smaller the number the better the result. Intensity of dynamic warm-up is an important part of having a greater sport performance whereby adding some load in pre-exercise event may improve the understanding of the suitable intensity of warm-up and in long run improve the sport performance [10]. Dynamic warm-up with weighted vest can be broken down into an affective component where it can be viewed as how the athletes improve the performance in term of winning the game. ...
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Abstract : Our finding may improve the understanding of Dynamic warm-up protocol with and without weighted vest on fitness performance and may help clinicians develop effective warm-up protocols for sports practice and competition. This paper aims to investigate the effect of dynamic warm-up protocol with and without weighted vest on fitness performance in varsity female athlete. A total of 40 female university athletes were recruited voluntarily. After 5 minutes of jogging, subjects performed dynamic warm-up protocols: (1) Nine moderate-intensity to high-intensity dynamic exercises without weighted vest (DY), (2) the same nine dynamic exercises performed with a vest weighted with 6% of body weight weighted vest (DY6) and (3) the same nine dynamic exercises performed with a vest weighted with 12% of body mass (DY12). The main outcome measures are vertical jump (VJ), standing broad jump jump (SBJ), seated medicine the ball toss (SMBJ), and 20 meter sprint (S). The result showed that VJ performance was significantly greater after weighted vest with DY6 and DY12 (39.93±1.06cm, 40.68±0.94cm, respectively), compared with DY (37.63±1.00cm), and SBJ performance was significantly greater after DY6 and DY12 (65.00±9.40 inch, 66.30±8.41inch) compared with DY and DY6 (62.80±8.70 inch) (P<.05). SMBT with DY12 had been increase to 2.80±0.27m from DY and DY6 (2.55±0.30m vs 2.70±0.29m, respectively) and 20m sprint with DY12 weighted vest had been reduced to 3.75±0.29sec while 20m sprint from DY with DY6 weighted vest (3.95±0.85sec vs 3.78±0.28sec, respectively). Therefore dynamic warm-up performed with a vest weighted with 6% and 12% of body mass may be the most effective warm up protocol for enhancing jump performance in varsity female athlete. Keywords: female athlete, dynamic warm-up, fitness performance
... The type, intensity and volume of exercise seem to be the most important risk factors of injury (168). Warm-up and cooldown, stretching, and gradual progression of volume and intensity seem to be of paramount importance for reducing musculoskeletal injury and complications (43, [169][170][171]. ...
Article
The novel pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a global public health emergency, seems to be having a major impact on physical activity (PA) behaviors. Older adults are at high risk of death from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Health authorities around the world have been implementing preventive health measures, including quarantine and self-isolation, to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak. This period is characterized by cessation of outdoor exercising. During this period of lockdown, PA has been one of the rare reasons for going out in some countries. To avoid the harmful effects of periods of exercise cessation, PA could be prescribed to older adults, which is of great importance for breaking their sedentary lifestyle and improving their immunity. The present review discusses the potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in older adults. The importance of performing PA to reduce the harmful effects of COVID-19 pandemic is discussed, and useful recommendations on home-based exercise for the older adults to maintain their level of independence, physical and mental health as well as their wellbeing are provided.
... Warming up prior to competition is common practice among athletes and has been reported to improve performance across a wide range of sports. 1,2 One of the main benefits of warming up is an elevation in muscle temperature, which appears to have a positive effect on various mechanisms of muscle function and metabolism. 2,3 Other nontemperature-related physiological effects of warm-up may include enhancedVO 2 kinetics 4,5 and muscle postactivation potentiation (PAP). ...
Article
Context: Warming up in very cold climates and maintaining an elevated body temperature prior to a race is challenging for snow-sport athletes. Purpose: To investigate the effects of active (ACT), passive (PAS), and a combination of ACT and PAS (COM) warm-ups on maximal physical performance in a subzero environment among snow-sport athletes. Methods: Ten junior alpine skiers completed 3 experimental trials in -7.2 (0.2)°C. The ACT involved 5 minutes of moderate cycling, 3 × 15-second accelerations, a 6-second sprint, 5 countermovement jumps (CMJs), and a 10-minute passive transition phase, while in PAS, participants wore a lower-body heated garment for 24 minutes. In COM, participants completed the active warm-up, then wore the heated garment during the transition phase. Two maximal CMJs and a 90-second maximal isokinetic cycling test followed the warm-up. Results: CMJ performance was likely (P = .150) and very likely (P = .013) greater in ACT and COM, respectively, versus PAS. Average power output during the cycling test was likely (P = .074) greater in ACT and COM versus PAS. Participants felt likely to almost certainly warmer (P < .01) and more comfortable (P = .161) during ACT and COM versus PAS. In addition, participants felt likely warmer (P = .136) and very likely more comfortable (P = .161) in COM versus ACT. Conclusions: COM resulted in significantly improved CMJ performance versus PAS while both ACT and COM led to likely improved 90-second cycling performance. Participants felt significantly warmer during ACT and COM versus PAS and likely warmer in COM versus ACT. Therefore, a combined warm-up is recommended for alpine skiers performing in subzero temperatures.
... It is widely accepted that a well-structured pre-competition warm-up routine can enhance subsequent competition performance. (Bishop, 2003a;Fradkin et al., 2010;McGowan et al., 2015;Woods et al., 2007) In sports such as sprint kayaking, where the margins of victory are narrow, (Bishop et al., 2001) an effective pre-race warm-up routine could impact the athletes' finishing position. (Bishop et al., 2001) However, there is limited knowledge of the current competition warm-up strategies employed by sprint kayak athletes, and what impact such strategies may have on subsequent race performance. ...
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This study compared warm-up strategies employed by sub-elite and world-class elite sprint kayak athletes, evaluating their impact on subsequent race performance. Forty-seven (n = 33 male, n = 14 female) athletes competing at a National Sprint Kayak Championships had Global Navigation Satellite System devices fitted to their kayak to measure speed, distance and stroke rate during the on-water warm-up before racing (OW WU), and during racing. The OW WU total duration, average/peak speeds and stroke rates, and the time spent in speed-zones classified based upon athletes' relative race-pace (low-to-moderate, moderate-to-high, and race-specific) were compared between events, sexes, and athlete standard. The relationship of these variables to subsequent race performance, expressed as a percentage of the best time-to-completion for each event (%racebest), was also examined. Women spent greater OW WU time at moderate-to-high and race-specific speeds compared to men prior to 200-m and 500-m races (P ≤.001). Sub-elite men reported greater total OW WU duration for 200-m and 500-m (P ≤.025), but not for 1000-m races (P >.05) compared to elite men. Finally, %racebest had large inverse correlations to OW WU peak speed for men's 200-m (r = −.53), and average stroke rate for women's 500-m races (r = −.50). This study provides valuable insight for competition warm-up routines based upon data from an elite athlete population.
... According to [21], stretching method consists of three. The first one is static stretching. ...
... Warm-up before exercise or competition is commonly used in preparing for athletic demands and for injury prevention [1]. A recent meta-analysis reported that warm-up effectively enhances performance [2]. Structural warm-up routines were reported to reduce lower limb injuries [3,4]. ...
Article
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With this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different warm-up intensities on counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance over time under cold conditions. Eleven male collegiate athletes volunteered. The participants performed high-intensity warm-up (HWU) at 80% VO2max and moderate-intensity warm-up (MWU) at 60% VO2max for 15 min on a bicycle ergometer in a laboratory room at 10 °C. CMJ height, vastus lateralis muscle temperature, heart rate, and perceived fatigue were measured before warm-up (Pre), immediately after (Post 0), 10 min after (Post 10), and 20 min after (Post 20). Significant main effects and interactions were found for CMJ height (time, p < 0.001 and ηp2 = 0.859; interaction, p = 0.007 and ηp2 = 0.327). HWU significantly increased CMJ height at Post 0 to Post 20 compared to that at Pre (p < 0.01), whereas MWU increased CMJ height at Post 0 only compared to that at Pre (p < 0.001). The results indicate that HWU achieved an increase in CMJ height for 20 min. MWU changed CMJ height instantly, but the change did not last compared to HWU in a cold environment.
... La influencia y efectos del APD sobre el rendimiento son estudiados desde 1930(Simonson, Teslenko y Gorkin, 1936). Un interesante estudio de revisión sistemática y metaanálisis(Fradkin, Zazryn y Smoliga, 2010) informa que el 79% de los trabajos incluidos demuestran incremento del rendimiento deportivo posterior, este trabajo revisa 92 combinaciones diferentes de APD.La mayoría de los efectos del APD son atribuidos a mecanismos relacionados con el incremento de la temperatura (por ejemplo, disminución del stiffness 1 , incremento de la tasa de conducción del estímulo nervioso, aumento del aporte de energía anaeróbica, disociación de la hemoglobina, etc.). Sin embargo, otros mecanismos no dependientes del incremento de la temperatura (por ejemplo, efectos de la acidemia, aumento del consumo de oxígeno de reposo e incremento de la post activación fisiológica, etc.), son eficaces para potenciar el rendimiento(Bishop, 2003a).III 1. Mecanismos Termodependientes.Una de las características de los sistemas biológicos es su dependencia con la temperatura.Estos sistemas son sensibles a los pequeños incrementos: por debajo de 35°C y por encima de 45°C las proteínas tisulares comienzan a degradarse o desnaturalizarse. ...
Thesis
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El acondicionamiento previo en un entrenamiento y competición deportiva es la estrategia utilizada por los deportistas y entrenadores para optimizar el rendimiento. Las rutinas suelen basarse en conocimiento empírico y en la influencia de modelos que surgen de las prácticas de los equipos de élite. El presente Trabajo Final de Grado diferencia el conjunto de actividades incluidas al inicio de cada sesión de entrenamiento o competición deportiva para el rendimiento inmediato. Asimismo, esta revisión bibliográfica propone su análisis identificando los efectos principales, 1) dependiente del incremento de la temperatura (por ejemplo, disminución de la rigidez muscular, incremento de la tasa de conducción del estímulo nervioso, aumento del aporte de energía oxidativa y no oxidativa, etc.), y 2) independiente del incremento de la temperatura (por ejemplo, efectos de la acidemia, aumento del consumo de oxígeno e incremento de la post activación fisiológica). En consecuencia, precisar la relación con el rendimiento deportivo en general, y finalmente proponer un modelo de acondicionamiento previo para el Taekwondo Olímpico. Deporte que se encuentra en el listado de las artes marciales más practicadas del mundo, contando con más de 60.000 deportistas en la modalidad de combate, y caracterizado fisiológicamente por la realización de esfuerzos rápidos y explosivos, con acciones que incluyen numerosos golpes, bloqueos, saltos y desplazamientos.
... Zuchdi (2008) Sequero (1998). Dalam pembelajaran membaca khususnya membaca pemahaman, teknik ini lebih efektif, kreatif dan inovatif digunakan (Hal ini sejalan dengan laporan hasil penelitian (Fradkin, Zazryn, and Smoliga 2010;Sequero 1998;Sunarti 2020 Meskipun petunjuk kegiatan dan manfaat dari penggunaan teknik Warming Up for Reading Sequero (1998) ini secara jelas telah tercantum pada kertas kerja, akan tetapi guru harus tetap memberi penjelasan kepada peserta didik. Kegiatan ini memiliki tujuan agar antara guru dan peserta didik selalu ada kedekatan dan dalam pembelajaran saling membantu. ...
... Nevertheless, some studies show proper warm-up programs before exercise, stimulating muscle readiness and increasing physical fitness by 79% and reducing the injury rate. Besides, they can stimulate a motor unit recruitment that allows the muscles to work more efficiently (8) . So, the hip-core warm-up protocol might immediately stimulate those muscles to control runners' movements and last long until they finish exercises to decrease the risk of knee injuries. ...
Article
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Changing of Q-angle could detect abnormal biomechanics while running especially lower extremity. Increasing the angle can cause knee pain in various runners. Weakness and fatigue of hip-core muscles during exercises are the main factors that alter the angle and contribute to knee pain. Maintaining muscle performance through the running race and improving their strength are beneficial to athletic performance and decrease the injury rate. Unfortunately, there is no evidence of effectiveness of hip–core warm-up affects the Q-angle. The study aimed to investigate the effects of a hip–core warm-up protocol on the Q-angle during single-leg drop jump in 18–35 years old healthy female runners. Twenty-eight healthy female runners at the age of 18–35 participated and were randomly assigned to the exercise and control groups, fourteen in each. All runners performed pre-warm-up, post-warm-up and post-exercise single-leg drop jump test and the Q-angle was recorded by video cameras. The exercise group was assigned to have the hip–core warm-up protocol and the warm-up protocol for runners, while the control group was assigned to have only the warm-up protocol for runners. The results were compared within testing conditions and between two groups. In the exercise group, the result demonstrated that the Q-angle after warm-up programs was significantly decreased and was slightly increased after the 30-minute treadmill running. In the control group, this angle did not show any change. However, after 30-minute treadmill running, the angle showed a considerable increase and reached more than both pre-warm-up and post-warm-up angles. When compared between groups, the Q-angle was not altered significantly in any comparable. In conclusion, the hip-core warm-up protocol could immediately decrease the Q-angle and maintain the angle though 30-minute running. In contrast, the warm-up routine program could not decrease the angle, and it was higher than pre-warm up after finishing treadmill running. So, professionals should advise the hip-core warm-up protocol to reduce the risk of knee injuries in the runner
... Warm-up is a preparatory exercise period that helps athletes adapt to the intensity demanded by competition, improve sports performance, and decrease the risk of injury [1]. However, the structure of modern sports often reduces the efficacy of warming up due to the inactivity of the athletes during the competition breaks (also known as half times or quarters) [2]. ...
Article
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Background and Objectives: The passive nature of rest breaks in sport could reduce athletes’ performance and even increase their risk of injury. Re-warm-up activities could help avoid these problems, but there is a lack of research on their efficacy. This systematic review aimed at analyzing the results of those randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that provided information on the effects of re-warm-up strategies. Materials and Methods: Four electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from their inception to January 2021, for RCTs on the effects of re-warm-up activities on sports performance. Interventions had to be implemented just after an exercise period or sports competition. Studies that proposed activities that were difficult to replicate in the sport context or performed in a hot environment were excluded. Data were synthesized following PRISMA guidelines, while the risk of bias was assessed following the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Results: A total of 14 studies (178 participants) reporting data on acute or short-term effects were analyzed. The main outcomes were grouped into four broad areas: physiological measures, conditional abilities, perceptual skills, and sport efficiency measures. The results obtained indicated that passive rest decreases physiological function in athletes, while re-warm-up activities could help to improve athletes’ conditional abilities and sporting efficiency, despite showing higher fatigue levels in comparison with passive rest. The re-warm-up exercise showed to be more effective than passive rest to improve match activities and passing ability. Conclusions: Performing re-warm-up activities is a valuable strategy to avoid reducing sports performance during prolonged breaks. However, given that the methodological quality of the studies was not high, these relationships need to be further explored in official or simulated competitions.
... In this high-demand environment, it is widely accepted that an adequate warm-up should significantly improve player performance but should also be adjusted over time to prevent negative effects due to fatigue (Bizzini et al., 2013). Previous studies have investigated the effect of warm-ups on lower extremity injury rates (Grooms et al., 2013;Soligard et al., 2009) and sport performance by manipulating related factors such as specificity, duration, volume, content, and intensity; this has been combined with varying the time interval between the warm-up and the onset of the main activity (Bishop, 2003a;Fradkin, 2010;Taylor et al., 2013;van den Tillaar & von Heimburg, 2016;Yanci et al., 2019). ...
Article
This study analyzed the effects of with (WC) or without conducting a warm up on youth soccer players immediately before performing physical and cognitive tests. Fourteen youth soccer player (age 11.64 ± 0.50) participated in a counterbalanced cross-sectional study in which three conditions were tested: (a) basal lineal condition; (b) WC (immediately before the physical and cognitive tests); and (c) without WC (passive resting for 15 min between the warm-up and physical and cognitive tests). A 30-m sprint test, countermovement jump, and psychomotor vigilance task were also applied. The WC revealed significant improvements in countermovement jump (p < .05), 30-m sprint test performance (p < .05), and reaction time in psychomotor vigilance task (p < .05) in comparison to basal lineal condition and without WC. A 15-min rest after a warm-up has a meaningfully decremental effect on the physical and cognitive readiness of youth soccer players, in comparison with when they warm-up immediately before the demands are imposed.
... Warming up before competition or physical activity is a practice that necessary to achieve optimum PP. Because it is well documented that warming-up increases muscle flexibility (O'Sullivan et al., 2009), balance (Erkut et al., 2016;, sprint (Zmijewski et al., 2020), agility (Fradkin et al., 2010), endurance (Wei et al., 2020) and strength (Park et al., 2018;Ozdal et al. 2019). While the relationship between the warm-up protocol and physical performance is affected by many factors, the type of exercises chosen while creating the protocol is essential to achieve optimum performance. ...
... 59 Although exact protocols and approaches differ, most warm-ups aim to improve performance and reduce risk of injury by raising body and muscle temperature, and by activating, mobilising, and potentiating relevant musculature. 30,44 A recent systematic review highlighted several considerations for developing warm-up protocols for golfers. 26 Firstly, warm-ups that prioritise static stretching should not be prioritised before golf, as studies have demonstrated that intensive static stretching can reduce metrics of golf performance. ...
Article
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Historically, golf is not a sport that has a strong tradition of strength and conditioning (S&C). However, a greater understanding of the health and performance-related benefits of S&C training has resulted in players starting to take their physical fitness much more seriously. As a result, professional players are hitting the ball much further than 20 years ago, primarily due to increases in club head speed (CHS). Owing to the unique nature of the sport, it is not always entirely obvious how S&C practitioners can impact golf performance. This article aims to provide practitioners with an overview of the biomechanics associated with golf, common sites of injury, required physical capacities and proposed recommendations for testing and training the golf athlete.
... Warm up in sports can be defined as a preparatory period before exercise to enhance performance in competition or training 5 . Preparing the body for physical activity through proper Warm up protocols is a training that has been incorporated into training programs dependent on research proposing WU prior to activity allows the body to gradually prepare for an increase in physical activity 6 . An increase in body heat level, muscle temperature, circulation and heart rate trigger a course of physiological reactions increasing blood flow, and increment the rate at which nerve impulses travel 7. A good warm up exercise prepare body for more intense activity. ...
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A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Faisalabad division. 100 badminton players (N=60Male and N=40Female) with age 18-30 years playing badminton with different skill level like club, competitive, recreational and national level were participated. Injured and pregnant players were excluded in this study. Sample size was 100 calculated via Raosoft. Random non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. The data was collected through general demographics and physical self-description questionnaire. This study was initiated after approval from advanced study and research committee of Isra institute of rehabilitation sciences, Isra University Islamabad and data collection approval was taken by divisional officer sports, Faisalabad Division and duration of data collection was 3-months after approval. Objective: objective of this particular study was to find out the effect of warm-up exercises on performance of badminton players. Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study Place and duration of study: Study was carried out in Faisalabad division and duration of the study was 3 months. Methodology:A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Faisalabad division. 100 badminton players (N=60Male and N=40Female) with age 18-30 years playing badminton with different skill level like club, competitive, recreational and national level were participated. Injured and pregnant players wereexcluded in this study. Sample size was 100 calculated via Raosoft. Random non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. The data was collected through general demographics and physical self-description questionnaire. This study was initiated after approval from advanced study and research committeeof Isra institute of rehabilitation sciences, Isra University Islamabad and data collection approval was taken by divisional officer sports, Faisalabad Division and duration of data collection was 3-months after approval. Main Findings: 40% (40) were females and 60% (60) were males. The mean age of the male participants was 25.15±2.60 years and female participants were 25.55±3.22 Years. Based on the body mass index (BMI) data, Majority of the participants were found to be normal (83.3% male vs. 87% females). The results of Physical self-description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S, Marsh) in which the overall mean, ±SD and p-value of coordination, strength, flexibility, endurance, activity and sports of the participants(N=100) were 5.474±1.397 p<0.00, 5.396 ±1.112 p<0.00, 5.534 ±1.199 p<0.01, 5.390 ±1.215 p<0.01, 5.390 ±1.215 p<0.00, 4.880 ±1.372 p<0.00, 5.346 ±1.176 p<0.00 with respectively.All six domains of Physical self-description Questionnaire score shows majority of the participants Male vs. female were in the mostly true and true category which means that warm-up exercises had significant positive effects on performance of participantsWarm-up activities mentally prepare players for competition and enhance confidence level. Conclusion: Physical health is essential components of a player's for successful sport performance. Conclusion of the current study elaborates that warm up activities increase Coordination, strength, Flexibility, endurance, activity and sports. The results of the current study suggest that warm up exercise might improve coordination strength, flexibility, endurance and sports activities and warm up exercises to enhance performance of badminton players. Exercise change the player performance level and maintain the quality of life and to avoid the failure in sports career. Introduction: Badminton is most popular Racket sports over the world, in which two players (singles) or four players (two pairs in doubles) take a position on opposing rectangular court and strike a shuttlecock over a dividing net between them to score a point 1.
... Warm up in sports can be defined as a preparatory period before exercise to enhance performance in competition or training 5 . Preparing the body for physical activity through proper Warm up protocols is a training that has been incorporated into training programs dependent on research proposing WU prior to activity allows the body to gradually prepare for an increase in physical activity 6 . An increase in body heat level, muscle temperature, circulation and heart rate trigger a course of physiological reactions increasing blood flow, and increment the rate at which nerve impulses travel 7. A good warm up exercise prepare body for more intense activity. ...
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A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Faisalabad division. 100 badminton players (N=60Male and N=40Female) with age 18-30 years playing badminton with different skill level like club, competitive, recreational and national level were participated. Injured and pregnant players were excluded in this study. Sample size was 100 calculated via EFFECT OF WARM UP EXERCISES ON PERFORMANCE OF BADMINTON PLAYERS PJAEE, 18(8) (2021) 5094 Raosoft. Random non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. The data was collected through general demographics and physical self-description questionnaire. This study was initiated after approval from advanced study and research committee of Isra institute of rehabilitation sciences, Isra University Islamabad and data collection approval was taken by divisional officer sports, Faisalabad Division and duration of data collection was 3-months after approval. Objective: objective of this particular study was to find out the effect of warm-up exercises on performance of badminton players. Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study Place and duration of study: Study was carried out in Faisalabad division and duration of the study was 3 months. Methodology:A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Faisalabad division. 100 badminton players (N=60Male and N=40Female) with age 18-30 years playing badminton with different skill level like club, competitive, recreational and national level were participated. Injured and pregnant players wereexcluded in this study. Sample size was 100 calculated via Raosoft. Random non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. The data was collected through general demographics and physical self-description questionnaire. This study was initiated after approval from advanced study and research committeeof Isra institute of rehabilitation sciences, Isra University Islamabad and data collection approval was taken by divisional officer sports, Faisalabad Division and duration of data collection was 3-months after approval. Main Findings: 40% (40) were females and 60% (60) were males. The mean age of the male participants was 25.15±2.60 years and female participants were 25.55±3.22 Years. Based on the body mass index (BMI) data, Majority of the participants were found to be normal (83.3% male vs. 87% females). The results of Physical self-description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S, Marsh) in which the overall mean, ±SD and p-value of coordination, strength, flexibility, endurance, activity and sports of the participants(N=100) were 5.474±1.397 p<0.00, 5.396 ±1.112 p<0.00, 5.534 ±1.199 p<0.01, 5.390 ±1.215 p<0.01, 5.390 ±1.215 p<0.00, 4.880 ±1.372 p<0.00, 5.346 ±1.176 p<0.00 with respectively.All six domains of Physical self-description Questionnaire score shows majority of the participants Male vs. female were in the mostly true and true category which means that warm-up exercises had significant positive effects on performance of participantsWarm-up activities mentally prepare players for competition and enhance confidence level. Conclusion: Physical health is essential components of a player's for successful sport performance. Conclusion of the current study elaborates that warm up activities increase Coordination, strength, Flexibility, endurance, activity and sports. The results of the current study suggest that warm up exercise might improve coordination strength, flexibility, endurance and sports activities and warm up exercises to enhance performance of badminton players. Exercise change the player performance level and maintain the quality of life and to avoid the failure in sports career. Introduction: Badminton is most popular Racket sports over the world, in which two players (singles) or four players (two pairs in doubles) take a position on opposing rectangular court and strike a shuttlecock over a dividing net between them to score a point 1. Badminton is a
... An fMRI study evidenced that a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity was sufficient to improve cognitive performance, and that this positive effect of physical activity was linked to an increase in arousal levels (Byun et al., 2014). In the literature, this beneficial effect of physical exercise has been largely reported for cognitive performance (Oberste et al., 2019), but also motor learning (Marin Bosch et al., 2020), or physical performance (Fradkin et al., 2010). In this context, conducting acute physical exercise could also be a promising and effective strategy to counteract mental fatigue. ...
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Mental fatigue impairs both cognitive and physical performance. Bioactive substances (e.g., caffeine) have been used to counteract mental fatigue but could have side effects. The present study aimed to test two non-bioactive strategies to counteract mental fatigue: physical activity and listening to music. The participants first performed an arm-pointing task, then carried out a 32-min cognitively demanding task to induce mental fatigue (TLDB task), followed by another arm-pointing task at the end of the experiment. Between the end of the cognitively demanding task and the last arm-pointing task, 20 min went during which participants performed either 15 min of physical activity, of listening to music or of discussion (control). The subjective feeling of mental fatigue was assessed before each arm-pointing task and after the cognitively demanding task. For “physical activity” and “listening to music” groups, EEG was recorded at rest after each evaluation of subjective feeling of mental fatigue and during the cognitively demanding task. An increase in alpha power during the cognitively demanding task evidenced the presence of mental fatigue, without recovery during the following 20-min period. In the control condition, the arm-pointing task performance was deteriorated 20-min after the cognitively demanding task, while it remained stable after both physical activity and listening to music. Furthermore, recovery on the subjective feeling of mental fatigue was similar for both groups. The present results suggested that practicing physical activity and listening to music could be efficient strategies to counteract the negative effects of mental fatigue on motor performances.
... A previous systematic review of the literature showed that when performing explosive athletic tasks, a specific preparation is required which is frequently not matched by the traditional warm-ups in most of the football codes [41]. Warm-up routines commonly performed in soccer include locomotor activities, resistance tasks, and specific drills [40] and not only simple running exercises followed by stretching [161]. Among strength exercises included in warm-ups prior to kicking evaluations, only unloaded squats using both lower limbs were tested [108]. ...
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Background A number of reviews have collated information on the impact of warming-up, physical exertion and recovery strategies on physical, subjective and physiological markers in soccer players yet none have solely analyzed their potential effects on components of kicking performance. Objective To systematically analyse the influence of warm-up, exercise and/or recovery-related strategies on kicking performance in male soccer players and provide a critical appraisal on research paradigm related to kicking testing constraints and data acquisition methods. Methods A systematic literature search was performed (until July 2020) in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and ProQuest. Studies in male soccer populations, which included the effects of warm-up routines, physical exercise and/or recovery-related interventions, reported on comparisons pre–post or between experimental conditions and that computed at least one measure of kicking kinematics and/or performance were considered. Methodological quality and risk of bias were determined for the included studies. Constraints related to kicking testing and data acquisition methods were also summarized and discussed. Results Altogether, 52 studies were included. Of these, 10 examined the respective effects of a warm-up, 34 physical exercise, and 21 recovery-related strategies. The results of eight studies showed that lower limb kinematics, kicking accuracy or ball velocity were improved following warm-ups involving dynamic but not static stretching. Declines in ball velocity occurred notably following intermittent endurance or graded until exhaustion exercise (three studies in both cases) without inclusion of any ball skills. In contrast, conflicting evidence in five studies was observed regarding ball velocity following intermittent endurance exercise interspersed with execution of ball skills. Kicking accuracy was less frequently affected by physical exercise (remained stable across 14 of 19 studies). One investigation indicated that consumption of a carbohydrate beverage pre- and mid-exercise demonstrated benefits in counteracting the potentially deleterious consequences of exercise on ball velocity, while four studies reported conflicting results regarding kicking accuracy. Most evidence synthesized for the interventions demonstrated moderate level (77%) and unclear-to-high risk of bias in at least one item evaluated (98%). The main limitations identified across studies were kicks generally performed over short distances (50%), in the absence of opposition (96%), and following experimental instructions which did not concomitantly consider velocity and accuracy (62%). Also, notational-based metrics were predominantly used to obtain accuracy outcomes (54%). Conclusions The results from this review can help inform future research and practical interventions in an attempt to measure and optimise soccer kicking performance. However, given the risk of bias and a relative lack of strong evidence, caution is required when applying some of the current findings in practice. PROSPERO ID: CRD42018096942.
... Warm-up practices are commonly used before exercise, mainly aiming to increase body temperature, cardiovascular system activity (Camargo et al., 2020) and accelerate metabolism (Pagaduan et al., 2012). Warm-up increases muscle flexibility (Faigenbaum et al., 2006;O'Sullivan et al., 2009), balance (Erkut et al., 2016), sprint (Zmijewski et al., 2020;Marinho et al., 2017), agility (Fradkin et al., 2010), endurance (Zourdos et al., 2012;Barnes et al., 2015;Wei et al., 2020) and strength performance (Park et al., 2018;McCrary et al., 2015) and prevents sports injuries (Bizzini et al., 2013;Adelsberger et al., 2014;Amako et al., 2003;Soligard et al., 2008). ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different passive rest periods after the dynamic warm-up protocol on submaximal running performance. A total of 16 male volunteers who are physical activity for recreational purposes 2-3 days a week participated. The average age of the participants was 21.17 ± 2.21 years, their average height was 174.27 ± 3.41 cm, and their average body weight was 72.15 ± 4.78 kg. The participates were randomly divided into three groups (IAWarm-up n=5, 10min n=5, 20min=n=6). Submaximal heart rates of the participants were determined using the Karvonen formula. Two-way analysis of variance was used for repeated measurements in the analysis of the data. When comparisons between groups could not be achieved, analysis was made with Greenhouse-Geisser outputs. When differences were detected between groups, Bonferroni post-hoc test was used for multiple comparisons. As a result, different passive rest periods after the dynamic warm-up protocol affect the submaximal running performance. It is seen that submaximal running performance worsens as the passive rest period gets longer. Immediately after exercise and when the passive waiting time was up to 10 minutes, there was no significant difference in submaximal running performance, while significant decreases were found in performance when it was 20 minutes.
... The warm-up aims to favor a smooth transition of the athlete from a state of rest to a state of exercise, while reducing residual fatigue. Therefore, it is not surprising that 79% of studies investigating the effects of warm-up practices on subsequent physical performance had observed improvements, in terms of performance outcomes [20]. Furthermore, with regards to the effect of warm-up on cognitive function, our study corroborates Elsworthy et al.'s study [21]. ...
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The present study aimed to verify the effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use on cognitive function. The sample was composed of 17 healthy, non-smoking physical education students (age = 17.6 years, height = 1.71 m, and body mass = 69.7 kg). They were randomized to perform 15 min of warm-up exercises, while wearing a cloth facemask (EXP) or no mask (CON) on two separate occasions, with at least 48-h separating conditions. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and d2 Attention assessment were used to verify cognitive function, using a repeated measures general linear model. The warm-up improved cognitive abilities and the results demonstrated significant differences between the EXP vs. CON groups in post-concentration performance (186.06 ± 15.47 EXP-score vs. 178.12 ± 13.66 CON-score), post the total number of errors (23.47 ± 14.50 EXP-frequency < 29.06 ± 13.74 CON-frequency), and in the post RPE (6.0 ± 1.37 EXP-index > 4.7 ± 0.85 CON-index). Wearing a cloth facemask caused positive effects on cognitive function. This data suggests that wearing a cloth facemask during warm-up may stimulate/improve the cognitive function.
... Warming up prior to competitive events is considered an effective means of enhancing performance, with increases in muscle temperature, priming of oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) kinetics and the neuromuscular system, and enhanced feelings of readiness to perform proposed as effective mechanisms. [1][2][3][4] Typically, warmups (WUs) are structured using the RAMP principle to raise the heart rate (HR) and muscle temperature, activate the key musculature, mobilize the relevant joints, and potentiate for the upcoming event. 5 There is some published guidance on WU strategies with a comprehensive review of the available literature indicating that active WUs consisting of brief (∼15 min) aerobic activity, 4 to 5 sprints or race-pace efforts, and muscular potentiating activities elicit improved performance in certain sports. ...
Article
Purpose: To provide a descriptive analysis of the warm-up (WU) strategies employed by cross-country skiers prior to distance and sprint competitions at a national championship and to compare the skiers' planned and executed WUs prior to the respective competitions. Methods: Twenty-one national- and international-level skiers (11 women and 10 men) submitted WU plans prior to the distance and sprint competitions, and after the competitions, reported any deviations from the plans. Skiers used personal monitors to record heart rate (HR) during WU, races, and cooldown. Quantitative statistical analyses were conducted on WU durations, durations in HR-derived intensity zones, and WU loads. Qualitative analyses were conducted on skiers' WU plans and their reasons for deviating from the plans. Results: Skiers' planned WUs were similar in content and planned time in HR-derived intensity zones for both the distance and sprint competitions. However, 45% of the women and 20% of the men reported that their WU was not carried out as planned, with reasons detailed as being due to incorrect intensities and running out of time. WU activities including skiing across variable terrain, muscle-potentiating exercises, and heat-maintenance strategies were missing from the skiers' planned routines. Conclusions: Skiers favored a long, traditional WU approach for both the sprint and distance events, performing less high-intensity and more moderate-intensity exercise during their WUs than planned. In addition, elements likely relevant to successful performance in cross-country skiing were missing from WU plans.
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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if an aerobic warm carried out on a cycle ergometer had influence on vertical jump performance. Material and Methods: Participants: 25 football players males (2nd B, IV. Spanish Football League; age 22.7±3.3 years; height 178.8±3.9 cm, mass 75.3±6.8 kg) The warming-up consisted of pedalling for 5 minutes at 114.8±8.3 hr with a power intensity of 112.2±13.2 w, followed by 5 minutes at 147.2±6.7 hr (=197.5±38.4 w).Pre and post-test was carried out in successive days: 1 st5 day: 5 without countermovement vertical jumps (VJ1); 2 nd day:10 seconds repeated VJ 2 and third day: 60 seconds VJ 3. Heart rate was measured while performing and at recovery. Results: In VJ1, the height went from 41.9±5.4 cm in the pre-test to 43.9±5.8 in the post-test; (F=806.0; p=0.001), the flight increased in time (492.21±45.7 ms vs 508.3547.5 ms p≤ 0.001), the contact with the ground decreased (217.4 ±46.5 ms vs 211.2±23.6 ms p≤0.001) and the maximum heart rate raised 111.2±22.1 hr vs 30.0±13.8 hr. In VJ2 the height implies the jump went from 24.9±5.3cm to 25.0±4.9cm (F=329.3; p <0.001). In VJ3 the height shows the jump time went from 21.1±4.5cm to 21.3±4.2 (F=328.2; p <0.001). The number of jumps in VJ2 went from 15.7±1.7 to 15.6±0.9 (p <0.01) and in VJ3 from 97.5±6.6 to 96.6±7.2 (p <0.01). Conclusion: Two phases of 5 minute warm-ups on a cycle ergometer improves both the vertical jump performance and the heart rate throughout the process. Key words: vertical jump, cycle ergometer, heart rate, football.
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The use of Cryotherapy and Foam rolling methods is considered to speed up the post-exercise recovery process. However, so far there have been no studies comparing the two methods, thus the aim of this study was to compare the Cryotherapy and Foam rolling methods on performance and lactate levels in futsal athletes. This study uses an experimental method with a one-way crossover design pretest-posttest approach. The total subjects were 16 Amateur Futsal Players with an average age, 20.25 ± 1.23 years; height, 168.87 ± 2.02 cm; and weight, 54.61 ± 1.94 kg; BMI, 19.16 ± 1.01 kg/m-2. The results showed that foam rolling and cryotherapy had no effect on physical performance, but both methods could significantly reduce lactate levels. However, in this case the foam rolling method showed an improvement in the 20-meter sprint which was better than cryotherapy. Thus, the results of this study provide a recommendation for futsal athletes to use foam rolling in the post-exercise recovery process.
Chapter
As the world population is aging, there has also been an increase in the older athletic population. Master athletes are older individuals who engage in lifelong regular training and sports at a competitive level. This population is the epitome of health, physical strength, and speed. Master athletes also serve as non-pharmacological models for successful aging and prevention of chronic diseases and disabilities from a public health perspective. When caring for master athletes, clinicians should take into consideration unique characteristics of these individuals including key physiologic changes associated with aging which may impact their training and rehabilitation. In this chapter, we will discuss the age-related changes in the cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal, and neurological systems which may impact the performance of master athletes. We will focus on the relevant features of master athletes to prevent and manage common injuries among master athletes. Finally, we will discuss sports-specific considerations for master athletes.
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In pursuit of a healthy lifestyle, people are paying more attention to sports activities, even in winter. They are thus seeking high function and maximum comfort to improve their performance. However, cold weather may result in a higher risk of injuries. It is of prime importance to perform warm-up, which can increase body temperature to relieve muscle stiffness and allow improvement of performance. Unfortunately, the traditional approach of wearing multiple thick layers of clothing to keep warm can prevent the easy movement of the body. Therefore, the integration of flexible textile and wearable thermal technology has become a major research initiative in both sports and textile fields. Current attempts by high-tech start-ups and wearable textile enterprises are not able to overcome the hurdle of transforming wearable technology into a fashionable and marketable product. Hence, this paper introduces a design-driven method to develop a flexible wearable thermal textile accessory for winter sports usage. The relationships between thermal textiles, electrical resistance, thermal performance, stretchability, energy consumption, and function stability were evaluated to optimize the thermal textile fabrication. Then, a prototype was produced and its specification was defined. These enable the realization of mass production and provide a blueprint for the future development of wearable textiles.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the potential post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects of two different warm-up strategies, involving dynamic stretching (DS) or heavy load leg press (HL) on several key physical qualities in tennis players. Methods: Twenty-six elite male tennis players (age: 19.22 ± 4.20 years; body mass: 67.37 ± 8.19 kg; height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) performed both warm-ups, with 48-hours between protocols (DS and HL), performed in a randomized order. Pre- and post-tests included: countermovement jump, 5-m and 10-m sprint, 5-0-5 agility test, and hip extension and flexion range-of-motion which were performed before and after DS and HL warm-up protocols. Results: The DS warm-up led to substantial improvements in 5-m and 10-m sprint, 5-0-5 agility test, countermovement jump, and also to higher hip flexion range-of-motion. The HL warm-up caused impairments in 5-m and 10-m sprints, but improvements in 5-0-5 agility test, countermovement jump and hip extension range-of-motion. Compared to HL, DS warm-up induced possibly to likely positive effects on 5-m and 10-m linear sprint performance, as well as in hip flexion range-of-motion. Nevertheless, no differences in performance improvements in 5-0-5 agility test, countermovement jump and hip extension range-of-motion were found when comparing DS and HL warm-up protocols. Conclusion: DS seems to be more effective than HL when performing a short warm-up protocol in elite tennis players.
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Background Warm-up before competition and training is a strategy that is widely acknowledged to improve players’ physical condition and performance. However, the importance of warm-up is not well understood and so there is a research gap into this topic. Objective This study aimed to characterize the warm-up of professional soccer players by differences and similarities between different coaches’ methodologies. Methods A group of thirty-two Portuguese elite soccer coaches participated in this study An observational study design was conducted through a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire with nineteen questions. During the questionnaire, coaches were asked to provide specific information about the warm-ups prescribed for soccer players, about their importance from a technical, physical and psychological point of view and the importance they attached to the warm-up / reheating of substitute players. The questionnaire was administered to the coaches at the end of a training session. Results The results indicated that there is no consensus regarding the type of warm-up that should be prescribed. There are different opinions between elite coaches regarding the warm-up components that must be emphasized in order to prepare players for the game demands. Moreover, considering the tactical, technical, physical, and psychological dimensions, the coaches have different perspectives of the warm-up. Conclusion This study allowed to conclude that there is no standard regarding the prescription of warm-up in professional soccer players, in the opinion of coaches. This is mainly due to the fact that there is a distinct appreciation in relation to the importance and influence of warm-up for performance.
Thesis
Kurzzusammenfassung Ziele: Statisches Dehnen unterlag immer wieder starken Schwankungen in der Popularität. Im Raum stehen und standen die Fragen nach den Auswirkungen auf Verletzungsrisiko und Leistung. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird darauf eingegangen, welche Auswirkung statisches Dehnen direkt vor sportlicher Leistungserbringung im Bereich Kraft, Schnellkraft und Schnelligkeit hat. Methoden: Diese Arbeit wurde nach den PRISMA-Regeln für systematische Reviews erstellt. Randomisierte kontrollierte Studien in englischer und deutscher Sprache wurden über die Datenbanken PubMed, Sportdiscus und Cochrane CENTRAL gesucht und nach vordefinierten Inklusionskriterien ausgewählt. Die Ergebnisse wurden nach Dehnmethode, Belastungsparameter der Intervention und nach Outcome-Parametern im Bereich Kraft, Schnellkraft und Schnelligkeit aufgeschlüsselt und analysiert. Ergebnisse: Es konnten 88 Studien identifiziert werden, die den Einschlusskriterien genügen. Die Qualität der Studien wurde nach der PEDro-Skala bewertet. Die meisten Studien erreichten einen Gesamtscore von 4/10 Punkten. Die Dehninterventionen in den Primärstudien können als sehr heterogen beschrieben werden. Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass statisches Dehnen einen kurzfristigen adversen Effekt auf sportliche Leistungsfähigkeit haben kann (bis zu-15 %). Längere Dehnung, multiple Serien und kürzere Abstände zwischen Dehnung und Leistungserbringung verstärken diesen Effekt. Kürzere Dehnung (10s-30s), einzelne Serien, aktive Pausen bis zur Testung (≥ 10min) sowie Voraktivierungen negieren den negativen Effekt. Zusammengefasst kann statisches Dehnen vor komplexen Bewegungsaufgaben eingesetzt werden, wenn weitere Aufwärmstrategien vor der Leistungserbringung folgen. Bei hochspezifischen, singulären sportlichen Aufgaben, wie häufig in der Leichtathletik oder im Kraftsport, sollte wenn möglich auf statisches Dehnen kurz vorher verzichtet werden. Die Entscheidung für oder gegen Dehnen sollte auf individueller Ebene und auf Ebene der Sportartenanalyse getroffen werden. Abstract Aims: There is an ongoing debate about the use of static stretching before sports and exercise. Part of the debate is if static stretching could potentially change the risk of injury and performance in a relevant way. This thesis looks at the direct, acute effects of static stretching on sports performance concerning strength, explosiveness, and speed. Methods: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Only randomized, controlled studies got included in English and German language and searched via PubMed, Sportdiscus and Cochrane CENTRAL. The predefined inclusion criteria were used to identify the studies. The results were analyzed separately for stretching methods, loading and outcome parameters within strength, explosiveness, and speed. Results: 88 studies got included. The quality of the studies was analyzed using the PEDro scale. Most investigations hit a score of 4/10 possible points. The stretching interventions can be described as heterogenous. In summary, static stretching may provide short term adverse effects on performance (up to-15 %). Longer stretches, multiple series and a short timeframe between the stretching and testing increases this effect. Brief stretching interventions (10s-30s), single-sets, active rest (≥ 10min) and preactivation can nullify the adverse effects. It can be concluded that short passive stretching can be implemented prior to complex sporting tasks if additional warm-up strategies are. For specific sporting tasks, like in track and field or strength-sports, passive stretching should be avoided right before the tasks. The decision around the use of passive stretching should be made on an individual and sport-specific basis.
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Objectives A variety of acute strategies around competition are used to prepare and promote physical and mental restoration in athletes. However, to date no research exists on the prevalence of such methods in amateur boxing. Therefore, this study aimed to 1) examine the prevalence of pre-conditioning and recovery strategies in amateur boxing; 2) ascertain whether this was discriminated by competitor level. Methods This study surveyed 101 senior amateur boxers (Senior Elite SEB n= 59; Senior Development SDB n= 42), on their application and perceptions of pre-conditioning and recovery strategies. Results Reported findings determined a significantly greater number of SEB performed resistance priming activity up to 48 hours prior to competition (11, 19% vs 2, 5%; P = 0.040), and post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) activity in the pre-competition warm-up (18, 31% vs 1, 2%; P < 0.001), compared to SDB. Likewise, SEB reported they were also significantly more likely to utilise massage (SEB 35, 59%, SDB 11, 29%, P = 0.001) and cold-water immersion (CWI) (SEB 28, 47%, SDB 10, 29%, P = 0.016) as recovery modes, compared to their SDB counterparts. Conclusions This study was the first to provide data on the use of potentiating and recovery methods around amateur boxing bouts. Increased access to multi-disciplinary staff could be expected in SEB, possibly explaining the greater prevalence of evidence-based methods around competition. Once athlete responsiveness to acute and longer-term potentiating methods are initially assessed, these strategies could be implemented to improve punch-specific performance, though more research is needed on their efficacy. Likewise, boxers could utilise evidence-based recovery modes where possible, with increased importance during repeat-bout scenarios, such as domestic tournaments. Coaches and practitioners may use this data to implement pre-conditioning and recovery strategies, to optimise performance and reduce the risk of injury of amateur boxers.
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Bugünün dünyasında her şey hızla değişmektedir. Farkında olunan veya olunmayan, görülebilen veya görülemeyen, bilinen veya bilinmeyen tüm varlıklar değişim içerisindedir. Günümüzde değişim belli sistematiği olan bir süreç olarak görülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmanın da konusu olan değişim mühendisliği, değişimi sistemik bir sürece dönüştürmektedir. Örgütsel yönetim penceresinden bakıldığında değişim ve bu doğrultuda meydana getirilmeye çalışılan hedefler şüphesiz bir oluşum etkinliğidir. Kuruluş ve örgütlerin içinde bulunduğu çevreyle uyumunu devam ettirebilmek doğrultusunda, gereksinim bulunduğu durum ve zamanlarda, alakalı piyasa politikalarını ürün yelpazesini, üretim şekil ve yöntemlerini ve örgütsel yapısını değiştirebilmesi gerekmektedir. Örgüt ve kuruluşlar değişim kavramını bir yaşam biçimi olarak benimsedikleri takdirde başarıya ulaşabilmektedirler. Sporun , kendisine duyulan ilgi ve sevgiden dolayı bir endüstri haline gelmesi, spor örgütlerini ağır rekabet şartları içinde ayakta kalabilmeleri ve belirledikleri hedeflere ulaşabilmeleri doğrultusunda büyük kuruluşlar gibi yönetilmesi gereksinimi doğurmuştur. Günümüz şartlarının yönetim yaklaşımını benimseyemeyen spor örgütleri bugünün dünyasında kendilerine yer bulamamakta ve varlıklarını büyük bir tehlikeye atmaktadırlar. Bu çalışma kapsamında değişim mühendisliğinin Türk spor yönetimi açısından uygulanabilirliği üzerinde durulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda; başlangıçta değişim felsefesi üzerinde durularak değişim mühendisliğinin gerekliliğine bir ön değerlendirme yapılmaya çalışılmış ve ardından değişim mühendisliğinin kavramsal çerçevesi, amacı, özellikleri ve süreci ele alınarak konu ile ilgili bir bütünsel bir bakış açısı ortaya konulmaya çalışılacaktır. Son olarak yukarıda bahsi geçen durumlardan dolayı değişimin spor örgütlerinde de kaçınılmaz bir gereksinim olduğuna değinilerek Türk spor örgüt yönetimlerinde değişim mühendisliğinin uygulanabilirliğinin üzerinde durulmaya çalışılacaktır.
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SPOR BİLİMLERİNDE GÜNCEL KONULAR VE ARAŞTIRMALAR-3 EDİTÖRLER Doç. Dr. Elif KARAGÜN Uzm. Ozan YILMAZ BÖLÜM 1: Doç. Dr. Elif KARAGÜN - Psikotarih Kavramına Bir Bakış; Spor Ortamlarında Psiko Tarihsel Uygulamalar İçin Öneriler – 7-23 BÖLÜM 2: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Ezgi SAMAR & Arş. Gör. Cihan AYHAN & Prof. Dr. Fikret SOYER - Öğretmenlerde Zaman Yönetimi ve Yaşam Kalitesi Algısının İncelenmesi (Kocaeli İli Örneği) - 25-33 BÖLÜM 3: Arş. Gör. Ayşegül Funda ALP - Elit Sporcular İçin Destek Programları ve Uygulamaları: Bazı Avrupa Ülkeleri İle Türkiye Karşılaştırması - 35-45 BÖLÜM 4: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Gamze ÜNALDI - Türk Spor Yönetiminde Değişim Mühendisliğinin Uygulanabilirliği - 47-57 BÖLÜM 5: Arş. Gör. Gökhan ÇAKMAK - Dünyada ve Türkiye’de E-Spor Ekonomisi - 59-73 BÖLÜM 6: Arş. Gör. Ayşegül Funda ALP - E-Spor Alanında Toplumsal Cinsiyet - 75-90 BÖLÜM 7: Arş. Gör. Müge SARPER KAHVECİ - E-Spor’un Fiziksel Etkileri - 92-105 BÖLÜM 8: Arş. Gör. Dr. Sabriye KARADENİZLİ TAŞKIN & Arş. Gör. Müge SARPER KAHVECİ - Kanser ve Egzersiz; Korumadan Tedaviye İmmünoterapi - 107-119 BÖLÜM 9: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Ezgi SAMAR - Covid 19, Goji Berry Meyvesi ve Egzersiz - 121-130 BÖLÜM 10: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Merve UCA - Sporda İnsan Faktörleri ve Ergonomiye Genel Bir Bakış- 132-154 BÖLÜM 11: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Merve UCA & Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Ülkü ÇOBAN - Spor ve Rekreasyonda Ergonomi Yönetimi - 156-161
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Female subjects (N = 12) aged 19-36 performed prior exercise (PE) consisting of bench stepping designed to raise heart rate (HR) to 140 bpm, which was maintained for 1 min. After the PE, the subjects rested for 0, 30, or 60 sec before starting a 10 min bench stepping criterion task (CT). They also performed the CT once without any PE. It was found that performance following PE +30 sec rest and PE +60 sec rest was significantly better than following no PE, while PE +0 did not differ significantly from no PE. The improved performance following PE +30 and PE +60 was attributed to the mobilization of the O2 transport system during PE which reduced the O2 deficit at the beginning of the CT, leaving more of the anaerobic capacity available for use later in the CT.
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Eighty girls aged 16 were divided into four subgroups and given 1, 2, 4 or 6 min. of stool stepping as a warm-up exercise preceding a six-trial vertical jump test. A test-retest balanced order design was used to exclude the practice effect. It was found that 1 or 2 min. of warm-up improved performance approximately 20 percent, while 4 min. had no effect, and 6 min. impaired performance 27 percent. The results agreed with the predictions of an a priori mathematical model that postulated a slow but large exponential fatigue effect, and a faster but smaller exponential warm-up effect that improved performance. The difference between these two factors was the net improvement from warm-up.
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Stretching exercises are either performed alone or with other exercises as part of the athlete's warm-up. The warm-up is designed to increased muscle/tendon suppleness, stimulate blood flow to the periphery, increase body temperature, and enhance free, coordinated movement. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding stretching, with the aim of defining its role during the warm-up. Implications of stretching on muscle/tendon flexibility, minimizing injury, enhancing athletic performance, and generally preparing the athlete for exercise are discussed. Physiology applied to stretching is also discussed together with different related techniques and practical aspects. A proposed model stretching regime is presented based on the literature reviewed.
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Although there is a paucity of scientific support for the benefits of warm-up, athletes commonly warm up prior to activity with the intention of improving performance and reducing the incidence of injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of warm-up intensity on both range of motion (ROM) and anaerobic performance. Nine males (age = 21.7 +/- 1.6 years, height = 1.77 +/- 0.04 m, weight = 80.2 +/- 6.8 kg, and VO2max = 60.4 +/- 5.4 ml/kg/min) completed four trials. Each trial consisted of hip, knee, and ankle ROM evaluation using an electronic inclinometer and an anaerobic capacity test on the treadmill (time to fatigue at 13 km/hr and 20% grade). Subjects underwent no warm-up or a warm-up of 15 minutes running at 60, 70 or 80% VO2max followed by a series of lower limb stretches. Intensity of warm-up had little effect on ROM, since ankle dorsiflexion and hip extension significantly increased in all warm-up conditions, hip flexion significantly increased only after the 80% VO2max warm-up, and knee flexion did not change after any warm-up. Heart rate and body temperature were significantly increased (p < 0.05) prior to anaerobic performance for each of the warm-up conditions, but anaerobic performance improved significantly only after warm-up at 60% VO2max (10%) and 70% VO2max (13%). A 15-minute warm-up at an intensity of 60-70% VO2max is therefore recommended to improve ROM and enhance subsequent anaerobic performance.
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Although it is widely recommended that golfers warm up before play or practice to enhance their physical performance and reduce their injury risk, it is not known to what extent they actually undertake such warm up procedures. To collect information about the proportion of golfers who actively warm up and to determine the types of warm up behaviours. This study was conducted over three weeks at three different golfing venues: a private golf course, a public golf course, and a golf driving range. Golfers' warm up behaviours, defined as any form of preparative exercise, were recorded by direct observation by two independent observers. The sample consisted of 1040 amateur golfers (852 men and 188 women) aged at least 18 years. Only 54.3% (95% confidence interval 49.8 to 58.8) performed some form of warm up activity. Air swings on the tee were the most commonly observed warm up activity, with 88.7% (95% confidence interval 85.9 to 91.5) of golfers who warmed up performing these. Only a small proportion of amateur golfers perform appropriate warm up exercises. To improve on this, golfers should be educated about the possible benefits of warming up and be shown how to perform an appropriate warm up routine.
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Although different warm-up and flexibility routines are often prescribed before physical activity, little research has been conducted to determine what effects these routines have on athletic performance in activities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what degree different warm-up routines affect performance in the vertical jump test. The 40 female participants were asked to perform a general warm-up only, a general warm-up and static stretching, and a general warm-up and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on 3 nonconsecutive days. Each of the treatments was followed by a vertical jump test. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in vertical jump performance. A post hoc analysis revealed decreased vertical jump performances for the PNF treatment group. Based on the results of this study, performing PNF before a vertical jump test would be detrimental to performance.
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Although it is widely recommended that golfers warm-up before play/practice to enhance their physical performance and to prevent injuries, few actually undertake this activity. The reasons why golfers do/do not warm-up are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the self-reported behaviours and attitudes of adult golfers towards warming-up. A survey of 1040 randomly selected golfers was conducted over a 3-week period in July 1999. Information about golf participation, usual warm-up habits and reasons for these warm-up behaviours was obtained by a verbally administered self-report survey. Over 70% of the surveyed golfers stated that they never or seldom warm-up, with only 3.8% reporting warming-up on every occasion. The most common reasons why golfers warmed-up included to play better (74.5%), to prevent injury (27.0%), and because everyone else does (13.2%). Common reasons for not warming-up were the perception that they don't need to (38.7%), don't have enough time (36.4%) and can't be bothered (33.7%). These findings suggest that in order to increase the proportion of golfers who warm-up, education programs focussing on the benefits of warming-up, including injury prevention, need to be developed and implemented. Different strategies may need to be adopted to accommodate golfers' differing attitudes and baseline behaviours.
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The effect of 3 warm-up routines on standing broad jump (SBJ) performance was investigated. Thirty-two men and women participated as subjects. Following the determination of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, subjects completed warm-up routines and broad jumps on 4 occasions in a randomized order. Subjects performed SBJ immediately (POST) and 15 min following (POST15) the given warm-up routine. The routines were high force, consisting of high % 1RM, low repetition squats; high power, consisting of low % 1RM, low repetition speed squats; stretching, consisting of static stretches; and no activity, a control condition. Repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed no differences among broad jump performance following any of the warm-up routines (p = 0.157). A strong correlation (R = 0.805) was found between 1RM squat and SBJ. These data indicate that warm-up of any type has little effect on jump performance and that maximum strength is strongly related to jumping ability.
Article
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of static stretching in a warm-up on hip flexor and quadriceps flexibility as measured by a modified Thomas test and on range of motion (ROM) of the leg and foot speed at impact in kicking a football with maximum effort. Sixteen Australian Rules (AR) footballers performed two different warm-ups on different days. One warm-up involved five minutes of sub-maximum running followed by seven practice kicks, while the other also included 4.5 minutes static stretching of the hip flexors and quadriceps after the running. A modified Thomas test was conduced before and after each warm-up. Players performed maximum effort drop punt kicks into a net while being videotaped to determine the ROM of the kicking leg and foot speed at impact with the ball. There were no significant changes in flexibility (p > 0.05) as a result of either warm-up and there were no significant differences between the warm-ups in the kicking variables (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Thomas test may not have been sensitive to possible acute changes in flexibility from the warm-ups, and that stretching had no influence on kicking ROM or foot speed, possibly because of the complexity of the kicking skill.
Article
To determine whether a golf specific warm up programme (both immediately prior to play and after performing it five times a week for 5 weeks) improved performance in 10 male golfers compared with 10 controls matched for age, sex, and handicap. Twenty male golfers were matched for age (+/-2 years) and handicap (+/-1 stroke). Club head speed was assessed by two dimensional video analysis in a laboratory setting. In week 1, all golfers performed 10 strokes. In weeks 2 and 7, the controls underwent the same procedure as in week 1. The exercise group performed the golf specific warm up followed by their 10 strokes. Between weeks 2 and 7, the exercise group performed the specially designed warm up five times a week for 5 weeks. The mean club head speeds of the exercise group improved at each testing week. Between weeks 1 and 2, golfers in the exercise group improved their club head speed on average by 3-6 m/s (12.8%), and between weeks 1 and 7, they increased their club head speeds by 7-10 m/s (24.0%). With the exception of one golfer whose club head speed varied by 1.7 m/s, the mean club head speeds of the golfers in the control group hardly varied over the testing period (range: 0.3-0.8 m/s). A significant difference (p = 0.029) was found between the mean club head speeds of the exercise and control groups over the duration of the study, and a significant interaction over time (p<0.001) was also found. This study has shown that golfers' performances will be significantly improved by undertaking a golf specific warm up programme compared with not performing the warm up.
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The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of three different warm-up regimes on cycling work output during a 7-min performance trial. After habituation to the experimental methods, 12 well-trained cyclists completed a series of 7-min performance trials, involving 2 min of constant-work rate exercise at approximately 90% VO2max and a further 5 min during which subjects attempted to maximize power output. This trial was performed without prior intervention and 10 min after bouts of moderate, heavy, or sprint exercise in a random order. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath by breath during all performance trials. At the onset of the performance trial, baseline blood [lactate] was significantly elevated after heavy and sprint but not moderate exercise (mean +/- SD: control, 1.0 +/- 0.3 mM; moderate, 1.0 +/- 0.2 mM; heavy, 3.0 +/- 1.1 mM; sprint, 5.9 +/- 1.5 mM). All three interventions significantly increased the amplitude of the primary VO2 response (control, 2.59 +/- 0.28 L x min(-1); moderate, 2.69 +/- 0.27 L x min(-1); heavy, 2.78 +/- 0.26 L x min(-1); sprint, 2.78 +/- 0.30 L x min(-1)). Mean power output was significantly increased by prior moderate and heavy exercise but not significantly reduced after sprint exercise (control, 330 +/- 42 W; moderate, 338 +/- 39 W; heavy, 339 +/- 42 W; sprint, 324 +/- 45 W).Conclusions: These data indicate that priming exercise performed in the moderate- and heavy-intensity domains can improve severe-intensity cycling performance by ~2-3%, the latter condition doing so despite a mild lactacidosis being present at exercise onset.
Article
This study was designed to determine the effect of warm-up on 3-km cycling time trial (TT) performance, and the influence of accelerated VO(2) kinetics on such effect. Eight well-trained road cyclists, habituated to 3-km time trials, performed randomly ordered 3-km TT after a) no warm-up (NWU), b) easy warm-up (EWU) (15 min comprised of 5-min segments at 70, 80, and 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT) followed by 2 min of rest), or c) hard warm-up (HWU) (15 min comprised of 5-min segments at 70, 80, and 90% VT, plus 3 min at the respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) followed by 6 min of rest). VO(2) and power output (SRM), aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions, and VO(2) kinetics (mean response time to 63% of the VO(2) observed at 2 km) were determined throughout each TT. Three-kilometer TT performance was (P < 0.05) improved for both EWU (266.8 +/- 12.0 s) (-2.8%) and HWU (267.3 +/- 10.4 s) (-2.6%) versus NWU (274.4 +/- 12.1 s). The gain in performance was predominantly during the first 1000 m in both EWU (48% of gain) and HWU (53% of gain). This reflected a higher power output during the first 1000 m in both EWU (384 W) and HWU warm-up (386 W) versus NWU (344 W) trials. The mean response time was faster in both EWU (45 +/- 10 s) and HWU (41 +/- 12 s) versus NWU (52 +/- 13 s) trials. There were no differences in anaerobic power output during the trials, but aerobic power output during the first 1000 m was larger during both EWU (203 W) and HWU (208 W) versus NWU (163 W) trials. During endurance events of intermediate duration (4-5 min), performance is enhanced by warm-up irrespective of warm-up intensity. The improved performance is related to an acceleration of VO(2) kinetics.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether performing high force or explosive force movements prior to sprinting would improve running speed. Fifteen NCAA Division III football players performed a heavy-load squat (HS), loaded countermovement jump (LCMJ), or control (C) warm-up condition in a counterbalanced randomized order over the course of 3 weeks. The HS protocol consisted of 1 set of 3 repetitions at 90% of the subject's 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The LCMJ protocol was 1 set of 3 repetitions at 30% of the subject's 1RM. At 4 minutes post-warm-up, subjects completed a timed 40-m dash with time measured at 10, 30, and 40 m. The results of the study indicated that when preceded by a set of HS, subjects ran 0.87% faster (p < or = 0.05) in the 40-m dash (5.35 +/- 0.32 vs. 5.30 +/- 0.34 seconds) in comparison to C. No significant differences were observed in the 10-m or 30-m split times between the 3 conditions. The data from this study suggest that an acute bout of low-volume heavy lifting with the lower body may improve 40-m sprint times, but that loaded countermovement jumps appear to have no significant effect.
Article
Golfing injuries have been shown to occur frequently, and injury countermeasures have been suggested to help reduce injury risk. Performing an appropriate warm-up is thought to reduce injury risk, however there is a lack of evidence to support this notion. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the relationships between warm-up participation and injury in a cohort of female golfers. A total of 522 golfers participating in the Victorian Women's Pennant Competition completed the study. Over one-third (35.2%) of the golfers reported having sustained a golfing injury within the previous 12 months, with the lower back the most commonly injured region. Most golfers reported not warming-up prior to play or practice. Golfers who reported not warming-up on a regular basis were more likely to have reported a golfing injury in the previous 12 months than those reporting frequent warm-up participation (OR=45.2; 95% CI: 13.5, 151.7). Less skilled golfers were also less likely to report sustaining a golfing injury than more skilled golfers (OR=0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5). This study is one of the few to establish an association between warm-up participation and injury. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine whether warm-up reduces injury risk for golf participation.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a dynamic warm up (DWU) with a static-stretching warm up (SWU) on selected measures of power and agility. Thirty cadets at the United States Military Academy completed the study (14 women and 16 men, ages 18-24 years). On 3 consecutive days, subjects performed 1 of the 2 warm up routines (DWU or SWU) or performed no warm up (NWU). The 3 warm up protocols lasted 10 minutes each and were counterbalanced to avoid carryover effects. After 1-2 minutes of recovery, subjects performed 3 tests of power or agility. The order of the performance tests (T-shuttle run, underhand medicine ball throw for distance, and 5-step jump) also was counterbalanced. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed better performance scores after the DWU for all 3 performance tests (p < 0.01), relative to the SWU and NWU. There were no significant differences between the SWU and NWU for the medicine ball throw and the T-shuttle run, but the SWU was associated with better scores on the 5-step jump (p < 0.01). Because the results of this study indicate a relative performance enhancement with the DWU, the utility of warm up routines that use static stretching as a stand-alone activity should be reassessed.
Article
Research into the effects of ice on neuromuscular performance is limited, and the results sometimes conflict. To examine the effects of ice bag application to the anterior thigh and active warm-up on 3 maximal functional performance tests. A 2 x 2 repeated-measures design with 4 randomly assigned treatment conditions: (1) no ice/no warm-up, (2) ice/ no warm-up, (3) no ice/warm-up, and (4) ice/warm-up. Gymnasium with a wooden floor. Twenty-four active, uninjured men, 18 to 24 years of age. For the ice application, we applied an ice bag with compression to the anterior thigh for 20 minutes. Warm-up (6.5 minutes) consisted of 3 minutes of jogging, 3 minutes of stretching, and ten 2-legged vertical jumps. Maximal performance of 3 functional fitness tests: single-leg vertical jump height, shuttle run time, and 40-yd (36.58-m) sprint time. Significant main effects were noted for both ice and warm-up for all functional tests, with a significant interaction (ice x warm-up) for the 40-yd sprint test. Ice bag application negatively affected performance on all 3 functional tests; warm-up significantly improved posticing performance. High-intensity maximal performance after ice bag application almost returned to the no ice/no warm-up pretreatment levels with the addition of active warm-up and time. Ice bag application negatively affected performance of maximal high-intensity functional tests. Active warm-up and time for muscle warming after ice bag application decreased the detrimental effects of icing on functional performance.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of different modes of stretching on vertical jump performance. Eighteen male university students (age, 24.3 +/- 3.2 years; height, 181.5 +/- 11.4 cm; body mass, 78.1 +/- 6.4 kg; mean +/- SD) completed 4 different conditions in a randomized order, on different days, interspersed by a minimum of 72 hours of rest. Each session consisted of a standard 5-minute cycle warm-up, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions: (a) control, (b) 10-minute static stretching, (c) 10-minute ballistic stretching, or (d) 10-minute proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. The subjects performed 3 trials of static and countermovement jumps prior to stretching and poststretching at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Vertical jump height decreased after static and PNF stretching (4.0% and 5.1%, p < 0.05) and there was a smaller decrease after ballistic stretching (2.7%, p > 0.05). However, jumping performance had fully recovered 15 minutes after all stretching conditions. In conclusion, vertical jump performance is diminished for 15 minutes if performed after static or PNF stretching, whereas ballistic stretching has little effect on jumping performance. Consequently, PNF or static stretching should not be performed immediately prior to an explosive athletic movement.
Bradley, PS, Olsen, PD, and Portas, MD. The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance.
Fradkin, AJ, Finch, CF, and Sherman, CA. Warm-up practices of golfers: Are they adequate.
Hajoglou, A, Foster, C, De Koning, JJ, Lucia, A, Kernozek, TW, and Porcari, JP. Effect of warm-up on cycle time trial performance.
Thompsen, AG, Kackley, T, Palumbo, MA, and Faigenbaum, AD. Acute effects of different warm-up protocols with and without a weighted vest on jumping performance in athletic women.
Improvement in jumping performance due to preliminary exercise.
  • Pacheco
Safran, MR, Seaber, AV, and Garrett, WE. Warm-up and muscular injury prevention-an update.
The effect of selected types of warm-up on swimming performance.
  • Bobo