Insufficient sleep impairs driving performance and cognitive function
Nagoya University, School of Health Sciences, 1-1-20 Daiko-minami Higashi-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 461-8673, Japan. Neuroscience Letters
(Impact Factor: 2.03).
12/2009; 469(2):229-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.12.001
Cumulative sleep deprivation may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders, other disorders, and accidents. We examined the effect of insufficient sleep on cognitive function, driving performance, and cerebral blood flow in 19 healthy adults (mean age 29.2 years). All participants were in bed for 8h (sufficient sleep), and for <4h (insufficient sleep). The oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb) level by a word fluency task was measured with a near-infrared spectroscopy recorder on the morning following sufficient and insufficient sleep periods. Wisconsin card sorting test, continuous performance test, N-back test, and driving performance were evaluated on the same days. The peak oxyHb level was significantly lower, in the left and right frontal lobes after insufficient sleep than after sufficient sleep (left: 0.25+/-0.13 vs. 0.74+/-0.33 mmol, P<0.001; right: 0.25+/-0.09 vs. 0.69+/-0.44 mmol, P<0.01). The percentage of correct responses on CPT after insufficient sleep was significantly lower than that after sufficient sleep (96.1+/-4.5 vs. 86.6+/-9.8%, P<0.05). The brake reaction time in a harsh-braking test was significantly longer after insufficient sleep than after sufficient sleep (546.2+/-23.0 vs. 478.0+/-51.2 ms, P<0.05). Whereas there were no significant correlations between decrease in oxyHb and the changes of cognitive function or driving performance between insufficient sleep and sufficient sleep. One night of insufficient sleep affects daytime cognitive function and driving performance and this was accompanied by the changes of cortical oxygenation response.
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- "It has been shown to negatively affect multiple distinct brain processes, particularly by disrupting the integrative functioning of the prefrontal cortex, leading to overall impairments in different cognitive functions (Durmer & Dinges, 2005; Harrison & Horne, 2000). Also on a societal level, sleep deprivation has increasingly been linked to not only losses in productivity (Rosekind et al., 2010) but also work injuries (Barnes & Wagner, 2009), airline (Price & Holley, 1990) and motor vehicle accidents, as well as industrial disasters (Dinges, 1995; Miyata et al., 2010; Philip et al., 2014). The prevalence of sleep deprivation seems to be very high with 28% of U.S.-American survey respondents reporting that they sleep 6 hr or less per night, and an additional 7% indicating that they sleep 7 hr or less (Schoenborn & Adams, 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: What effects do factors that impair or enhance performance in individuals have when these individuals act in groups? We provide a framework, called the GIE framework, for investigating this question. As prominent examples for individual-level impairments and enhancements, we discuss sleep deprivation and caffeine. Based on previous research, we derive hypotheses on how they influence performance in groups, specifically process gains and losses in motivation, individual capability, and coordination. We conclude that the effect an impairment or enhancement has on individual-level performance is not necessarily mirrored in group performance: grouping can help or hurt. We provide recommendations on how to estimate empirically the effects individual-level performance impairments and enhancements have in groups. By comparing sleep deprivation to stress and caffeine to pharmacological cognitive enhancement, we illustrate that we cannot readily generalize from group results on one impairment or enhancement to another, even if they have similar effects on individual-level performance.
Available from: Markus Muehlhan
- "Nevertheless, performance and RTs did not differ between postures in general but only after considering subjective sleep quality in the analysis. Evidence from prior studies has clearly shown that poor sleep quality can impair the level of alertness (e.g., Miyata et al., 2010). Our study shows that lack of sleep may be compensated by arousal in an upright posture but not in the supine posture and can result in posture-specific slowed central information processing as indicated by slower RTs in the supine posture compared to the sitting posture and "
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ABSTRACT: Nearly all functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are conducted in the supine body posture, which has been discussed as a potential confounder of such examinations. The literature suggests that cognitive functions, such as problem solving or perception, differ between supine and upright postures. However, the effect of posture on many cognitive functions is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of body posture (supine vs. sitting) on one of the most frequently used paradigms in the cognitive sciences: the N-back working memory paradigm. Twenty-two subjects were investigated in a randomized within-subject design. Subjects performed the N-back task on two consecutive days in either the supine or the upright posture. Subjective sleep quality and chronic stress were recorded as covariates. Furthermore, changes in mood dimensions and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed during the experiment. Results indicate that the quality of sleep strongly affects reaction times when subjects performed a working memory task in a supine posture. These effects, however, could not be observed in the sitting position. The findings can be explained by HRV parameters that indicated differences in autonomic regulation in the upright vs. the supine posture. The finding is of particular relevance for fMRI group comparisons when group differences in sleep quality cannot be ruled out.
Available from: Jim Rosneck
- "The cross-sectional design does not permit causal inferences and prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. For instance, it is possible that insufficient sleep in HF may lead to reduced cerebral perfusion , though this is unlikely in this population in light of the negative effects of cerebral hypoperfusion on the brain . In addition, self-report of sleep quality is limited by biases  and future work should use objective assessments of sleep quality (e.g., polysomnography). "
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ABSTRACT: Poor sleep is common in heart failure (HF), though mechanisms of sleep difficulties are not well understood. Adverse brain changes among regions important for sleep have been demonstrated in patients with HF. Cerebral hypoperfusion, a correlate of sleep quality, is also prevalent in HF and a likely contributor to white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, no study to date has examined the effects of cerebral blood flow, WMH, and brain volume on sleep quality in HF.
Fifty-three HF patients completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to quantify brain and WMH volume. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography assessed cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (CBF-V of the MCA).
75.5% of HF patients reported impaired sleep. Regression analyses adjusting for medical and demographic factors showed decreased CBF-V of the MCA and greater WMH volume were associated with poor sleep quality. No such pattern emerged on total brain or regional volume indices.
Decreased cerebral perfusion and greater WMH may contribute to sleep difficulties in HF. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and clarify the effects of cerebral blood flow and WMH on sleep in healthy and patient samples.
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