ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: A review

Authors:

Abstract

Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners, Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are more likely to benefit from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients, those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories and is over 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,
February 2010; 61(1): 110
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: a review
S. K. GOYAL
1
, SAMSHER
1
& R. K. GOYAL
2
1
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology, S.V.B.P. University of Agriculture
& Technology, Meerut, India, and
2
Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, RBS College,
Agra, India
Abstract
Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various
purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature
review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant
papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have
functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners,
Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food
market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are
more likely to benet from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients,
those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that
has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood
sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories
and is over 100300 times sweeter than table sugar.
Keywords: Stevia leaves, rebaudioside, stevioside, extract, powder, medicinal use
Introduction
Stevia rebaudiana is a small perennial growing up to 6580 cm tall, with sessile,
oppositely arranged leaves. Different species of Stevia contain several potential sweet-
ening compounds, with S. rebaudiana being the sweetest of all. Stevia is a semi-humid
subtropical plant that can be grown easily like any other vegetable crop even in the
kitchen garden. The soil should be in the pH range 6.57.5; well-drained red soil and
sandy loam soil. Saline soils should be avoided to cultivate this plant. Stevia has been
successfully cultivated in recent years in many areas of Indian states: Rajasthan,
Maharashtra, Kerela and Orissa. The increasing demands for natural sweeteners
have driven the farmers in India toward large-scale Stevia cultivation. Diterpene
glycosides are the group of natural sweeteners that have been extracted from Stevia.
The leaves of wild Stevia plants contain 0.3% dulcoside, 0.6% rebaudioside C, 3.8%
rebaudioside A and 9.1% stevioside.
Stevia (Asteraceae) is a woody shrub that can reach 80 cm in height when it is fully
matured. The Stevia genus comprises at least 110 species (Rajbhandari and Roberts
1983) but there may be as many as 300. Its habitat extends from the southwestern
United States to the Brazilian highlands (Soejarto et al. 1982). Different species of
Correspondence: S. K. Goyal, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology, S.V.B.P. University of
Agriculture & Technology, Meerut 250 110, India. E-mail: sunil_155@yahoo.com
ISSN 0963-7486 print/ISSN 1465-3478 online 2010 Informa UK Ltd
DOI: 10.3109/09637480903193049
Stevia contain several potential sweetening compounds, with S. rebaudiana Bertoni
being the sweetest of all (Soejarto et al. 1982; Kinghorn et al. 1984) The use of
S. rebaudiana as a sweetener can be found in many parts of Central and South America,
where this species is indigenous (Melis 1992), as well as in Japan (Kinghorn et al.
1984). People in Japan have been using Stevia as a sweetener in products such as
seafood, soft drinks, and candies (Soejarto et al. 1982). This plant has been used in
several areas of the world, such as in Brazil and Paraguay, as a natural control for
diabetes (Jeppesen et al. 2000). Stevia also has been used to help control weight in
obese persons (Suttajit et al. 1993).
Chemical constituents
The complete chemical composition of Stevia species is not yet available. However, a
variety of Stevia species has been tested for their chemical compositions. The useful
part of this shrub is the leaves. Out of 110 species tested for sweetness, only 18 were
found to possess this characteristic (Soejarto et al. 1982). Eight ent-kaurene glyco-
sidesnamely dulcoside A, rebaudiosides AE, steviolbioside, and stevioside
produce the sweet taste sensation (Kinghorn et al. 1984). These glycosides are mainly
compounds of the diterpene derivative steviol (Shibata et al. 1995). S. rebaudiana
Bertoni, the sweetest species, contains in its leaves all of the eight ent-kaurene glycosides
(Kinghorn et al. 1984), with stevioside being the major constituent (38% by weight of
the dried leaves) (Melis 1992). In addition, S. rebaudiana Bertoni contains stigmasterol,
b-sitosterol, and campesterol (DAgostino et al. 1984). The same species also contains
steviol, a product formed by enzymatic hydroxylation within the plant (Kim et al. 1996).
Other chemicals with no sweet taste are also found in Stevia species and some may even
be bitter in taste. Stevisalioside A (from the roots of Stevia salicifolia) (Mata et al. 1992),
longipinane derivatives in the roots of Stevia connata (Sanchez-Arreola et al. 2000),
epoxylabdane diterpenes and a clerodane derivative in the leaves of Stevia subpubescens
(Roman et al. 2000), avonoids from the leaves of S. rebaudiana (Soejarto et al. 1982),
Stevia nepetifolia (Rajbhandari and Roberts 1983), Stevia microchaeta,Stevia monardifolia,
Stevia origanoides (Rajbhandari and Roberts 1985) and Stevia procumbens (aerial parts)
(Sosa et al. 1985), and sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of S. procumbens and
the leaves of S. origanoides (Calderon et al. 1987) are in this group.
Proximate composition of Stevia
Six sweet-tasting compounds have been reported in the leaves of S. rebaudiana
Bertonistevioside, rebaudiosides A, D and E, dulcosides A and B (Kohda et al.
1976; Kobayashi et al. 1977). Stevioside is a glycoside with a glucosyl and sophorosyl
residue attached to the aglycon steviol; the latter has a cyclo-pentanoperhydrophenan-
threne skeleton. The C4 and C13 of steviol are connected to the b-glucosyl and b-
sophorosyl group, respectively. The structure of rebaudioside A is the same as that of
stevioside except that the sophorosyl residue is replaced by a glucosyl-(13)-sophorosyl
residue. The Stevia sweeteners are similar in structure, in that a steviol aglycon is
connected at C4 and C13 to trisaccharides consisting of glucose and/or rhamnose
residues (Kobayashi et al. 1977). Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves
of Stevia (Genus Jan 2003).
Soejarto et al. (1983) believed that the sesquiterpene lactones are responsible for the
bitter aftertaste. Phillips (1987) described a European patent held by the Stevia
2S. K. Goyal et al.
Company, which attributes the bitter aftertaste to the presence of essential oils, tannins,
and avonoids. Nevertheless, as pointed out, stevioside and rebaudioside A are partially
responsible for the aftertaste, even though the contribution of rebaudioside A is signif-
icantly less than that of stevioside. The S. rebaudiana Bertoni contains a complex mixture
of labdane diterpenes, triterpenes, stigmasterol, tannins, volatile oils, and eight diterpe-
nenic glycosides: stevioside, steviobioside, dulcoside, and rebaudiosides A, B, C, D,
and E. The most abundant substances are stevioside and rebaudioside A. Of the Stevia
glycosides, rebaudioside A is the sweetest and the most stable, and it is less bitter than
stevioside. Rebaudioside E is as sweet as stevioside, and rebaudioside D is as sweet as
rebaudioside A, while the other glycosides are less sweet than stevioside (Cramer and
Ikan 1987). According to Pederson (1987), stevioside is a white, crystalline powder
extracted from the leaves of the Stevia plant. Its chemical identication and quantitative
compositions are listed for those with a more scientic interest in the product. It is 100%
natural, having no (zero) calories, is 200300 times sweeter than sugar, heat stable to
198C, non-fermentable, a avour enhancer, and is anti-plaque and anti-caries. He
reported the proximate composition of S. rebaudiana Bertoni that is presented in Table I,
and compared Stevia leaf powder and Stevia white extract with granulated sugar
(Table II).
Ngowatana (1997) puried the Stevia extract and obtained stevioside and its
products that were a white ne powder and highly hygroscopic. It must be kept in
an air-tight package to prevent moisture absorption. In large-scale production the same
methods are used, except for the nal step that produced dry products by using a spray
dryer. Researchers reported that 3,000 g Stevia could produce 101.56 g light-yellow
ne powder of stevioside and its products (Table III). Product compositions were
stevioside. The amounts of iron and calcium were 0.97 and 1.47 mg/g product,
respectively. The moisture content of the product was 9.31%.
Table I. Proximate composition of S. rebaudiana Bertoni.
Sample number Constituent Value (%)
1 Aluminium 0.0072
2 Manganese 0.0147
3 Ash 6.3000
4 Phosphorus 0.3180
5b-Carotene 0.0075
6 Potassium 1.7800
7 Calcium 0.5440
8 Protein 11.200
9 Chromium 0.0039
10 Selenium 0.0025
11 Cobalt 0.0025
12 Silicon 0.0132
13 Fat 1.9000
14 Sodium 0.0892
15 Fibre 15.200
16 Tin 0.0015
17 Iron 0.0039
18 Vitamin 0.0110
19 Magnesium 0.3490
20 Water 82.300
Stevia a bio-sweetener 3
According to Sharma et al. (2006), the fresh Stevia leaves contain a large amount of
water between 80 and 85%. The main constituents present were glycosides such as
stevioside, steviol and rebaudioside A and B. The other constituents present in Stevia
were ascorbic acid, b-carotene, chromium, cobalt, magnesium, iron, potassium,
phosphorous, riboavin, thiamin, tin, zinc, and so forth. The other chemicals found
in Stevia include apigenin, austroinulin, avicularin, b-sitosterol, caffeic acid, compes-
terol, caryophyllene, centaureidin, chorogenic acid, chlorophyll, cynaroside, daucos-
terol, di-terpene glycoside, dulcosides A and B, foeniculin, formic acid, gibberellic
acid, gibberellin, indole-3-acetonitrile, isoquercitrin, isosteviol, kaempferol, kaurene,
lupeol, luteolin, polysatachoside, quercetin, quercitrin, scooletin, stigmasterol, umbel-
liferone and xanthophyllus.
Physiological and pharmacological actions
Stevia is used in many parts of the world as a non-caloric sweetener (Matsui et al.
1996). Along with sweetness, a bitter taste is also felt in humans (Jakinovich and Moon
1990). As an extract, this herb was found to have similar potency with regard to
sweetness as a 10% sucrose solution at either pH 3.0 or 7.0. The same study also
showed that the herbal extract had similar potency to that of aspartame and a
cyclamate/saccharin mixture (Cardello et al. 1999). The potency of Stevia extracts
was found to be higher than other herbal sweet extracts such as those of Thladiantha
grosvernorii (Cucurbitaceae) or Abrus precatorius (Fabaceae). The sweetness of stevio-
side, the major sweet component in Stevia species, was detected in a concentration as
low as 24 mg/ml (Jakinovich and Moon 1990).
Table II. Comparison of Stevia leaf powder and Stevia white extract with granulated sugar.
Granulated sugar Stevia leaf powder Stevia white extract
1 teaspoon 1/8 teaspoon Dust on spoon
1 tablespoon 3/8 teaspoon 1/2 pinch
1/4 cup 1/2 teaspoon Pinch
1/2 cup 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon
1 cup 2 tablespoons 1/4 teaspoon
3.75 pounds 7.2 ounces 0.3 ounces
10 pounds 19.2 ounces 0.8 ounces
Table III. Some commercial available Stevia products in the USA.
Product Manufacturer Type
Stevia At Stevia LLC (Valley Forge, PA, USA) Crystals
Stevia extract Life Extension Foundation (Fort Lauderdale,
FL, USA)
Powder
JAJ Stevioside JAJ Group, Inc. (Jacksonville, FL, USA) Powder
Stevia Liquid Extract Baar Products, Inc. (Downingtown, PA, USA) Liquid
Stevia Dark Liquid
Concentrate
Stevia NOW (Shrub Oak, NY, USA) Liquid concentrate
Stevia Pure Powder Extract Stevia NOW Powder extract
Stevia Tablet Stevia NOW Tablets (100400 mg)
4S. K. Goyal et al.
Human studies
Despite centuries of use, there is still a lack of comprehensive clinical studies on Stevia
as a supplement. In normal human volunteers, the effect of administering extracts of
S. rebaudiana on glucose tolerance tests was investigated. Subjects were given aqueous
extracts from 5 g leaves every 6 h for 3 days. A glucose tolerance test was performed
before and after administration of the extracts. The results showed that treatment with
Stevia resulted in an increase in glucose tolerance and a decrease in plasma glucose
concentrations (Curi et al. 1986). Moreover, it was shown recently that both steviol and
stevioside can produce a direct effect on beta cells in the pancreas to release insulin.
The authors concluded that this plant may have a potential use in the management of
type 2 diabetes (Jeppesen et al. 2000).
Cariogenic and mutagenic effects
Since Stevia products are used as sugar substitutes by many populations, a study was
conducted to test whether stevioside and rebaudioside A may have the potential of
causing dental caries from prolonged use. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.5%
stevioside or 0.5% rebaudioside A for 5 weeks. Neither compound showed a potential
of increasing the risk of developing dental caries (Das et al. 1992). Several researchers
investigated the risk of mutagenicity. In two studies (Matsui et al. 1986; Pezzuto et al.
1996), steviol produced a dose-related positive mutagenic effect in some tests. In the
same studies, stevioside was found to be devoid of this effect. Other reports indicated
lack of mutagenicity of both compounds (Suttajit et al. 1993; Klongpanichpak et al.
1997). Because of these contradictory reports, the Food and Drug Administration is
still cautious in introducing this herb as a sugar substitute until its safety is completely
established (FDA 1999).
Stevia products
Some examples of Stevia products available on the market in the USA are presented
in Table III. Products of Stevia can be purchased directly from various companies or
from local pharmacies. Many companies sell Stevia products via the Internet.
Medicinal values
Studies on food safety, including an extensive review of the literature, undertaken prior
to 1982 (Lee 1979; Kinghorn 1982) concluded that Stevia leaves and extracts are safe;
studies since then conrm this. Possible medicinal uses have been investigated often by
using Stevia extracts as intravenous infusions in rats; possible effects on glucose
metabolism, diuresis, organ weights, endocrine function, and so on, have been studied
in this way (Kinghorn 1987; Nunes and Pereira 1988; Oliveira Filho 1988; Suanar-
unsawat and Chaiyabut 1996, 1997). Stevia extract infusions have also shown some
anti-androgenic activity in rats (Sincholle and Marcorelles 1989). Likely benecial
effects of Stevia extracts, as antioxidants and to relieve blood pressure and hyperten-
sion, have also been shown (Chan et al. 1998; Xi 1998; Xi et al. 1998). Steviol (a
precursor in the biosynthesis of steviosides) can be produced from steviosides exper-
imentally using specic bacteria but not in situ in the human body. Steviol can exhibit
some toxic and mutagenic activity (Tateo 1990).
Stevia a bio-sweetener 5
Investigations of the effect of aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana leaves on glucose
tolerance have been carried out by Curi et al. (1986) on volunteers. Aqueous extract
of 5 g leaves were administered to volunteers at regular 6-hourly intervals for 3 days,
with glucose tolerance tests performed before and after extract administration.
The extract increased glucose tolerance; it signicantly decreased plasma glucose
levels during the test and after overnight fasting in all volunteers. In Japan, where
articial chemical sweeteners are not approved, many toxicology safety studies
have been conducted (Elton Johnson 1990). Among studies carried out are some
to investigate carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (if any) in animal testing (Oliveira
Filho 1988; Toruan-Mathius et al. 1995; Toyoda 1997), to show dental benets in
the form of plaque inhibition and cavity reduction (Elton-Johnson 1990), to conrm
the safety of Stevia for diabetic use (Polyanskii et al. 1997; Thamolwan and
Narongsak 1997). The safety of feeding to animals, chickens and humans has also
been conrmed by a wide range of studies (Sincholle and Marcorelles 1989; Smolyar
1993; White et al. 1994; Melis 1995, 1997; Suanarunsawat and Chaiyabut 1996,
1997; Wood 1996; Polyanskii et al. 1997).
The traditional method of use by the Paraguayan Guarani Indians was to dry
the leaves and to use them to sweeten tea and medicines or to chew the leaves as a
sweet treat. Stevia was regularly used in drinks many times a day, not just
occasionally, with no side effects. The use of dried leaves (pieces or powdered) is
unacceptable in domestic cooking and does leave a sediment in clear drinks, and so
forth, and can also leave a green colour. There may also be an unpleasant aroma
associated with the dried leaves. Appropriate processing of the dry herbage may
remove this aroma, which is due to specic leaf compounds (not steviosides)
(Tsanava et al. 1991). Although Stevia has been used without any problems for
many years in its native Paraguay and in other countries for lesser periods, health
and safety issues have been receiving considerable attention in the past 20 years.
There has been considerable media attention in the USA, including claims and
counterclaims before the US FDA. Many of these claims relate to its potential
competitive position in relation to aspartame. Stevia products have been approved
for use in the USA as nutrition supplements although many protagonists claim it
should be granted Generally Regarded As Safe status in the same manner as tea,
coffee, sugar and fruit and vegetables, and so on. The general safety of steviosides
could be largely due to the fact that they are not broken down nor are absorbed in the
digestive tract (Hutapea 1997). Bacteriological studies on hot water extract from
S. rebaudiana have been carried out by Tomita (1997). Lactobacilli were not killed on
exposure to the fermented extract; however, under acidic conditions, the extract was
found to be bactericidal.
In Japan, articial sweeteners were banned some 40 years ago so Stevia has been
their chosen alternative to sweeten their food and beverages. The Japanese have
performed over 40,000 clinical studies and found Stevia to be safe. Stevia in its raw
form, although incredibly sweet, has a very subtle liquorice essence to it. A sign of an
excellent Stevia product is one that is free of this liquorice essence and still not bitter
(Tateo et al. 1998). Genus Jan (2002) concluded that Stevia and stevioside are safe
when used as a sweetener. Stevia is suited for both diabetics and Phenylketonuria
(PKU) patients, as well as for basepersons intending to lose weight by avoiding sugar
supplements in the diet. No allergic reactions to it seem to exist. Midmore and Rank
(2002) found that the aqueous extracts of the leavesboiled in water, cooled, then
6S. K. Goyal et al.
strained (ltered)are preferred in many situations and are better suited for controlled
levels of sweetening. Crystalline powders and extracts are preferred in commercial
situations as they have a xed known sweetening value. Fixed concentration liquids are
also acceptable. Kumar et al. (2007) reported that the Stevia is sweetest plant in the
world because leaves contain diterpene glycoside that has a sweet taste but it is not
metabolized and contains no calories. It is native to a relatively small area of eastern
Paraguay (on the Brazilian border) where its leaves have been used by the local Guarani
Indians as a sweetener for many hundreds of years. They specially used it in the local
green tea (Mate tea-Hex sp.), as well as with other unpalatable medicinal and other
drinks. The leaves are 30 times sweeter than cane sugar and can be safely used by
diabetic patients. Sharma and Mogre (2007) observed the effect of consumption of
Stevia extract on 20 selected hypercholestronic women: 20 ml extract was used to
intervene in one subject in a glass of water (200 ml). They found the consumption of
Stevia extract reduces the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-
cholesterol signicantly while an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was
noted, which is desirable. They concluded that Stevia extract had a hypolipidaemic
effect used to reduce the resistance of cardiovascular disease. The documented
properties of Stevia are anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inammatory, anti-microbial,
anti-viral, anti-yeast, cardio-tonic, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive and as a
vasodilator. Stevia has an advantage over articial sweeteners because it is stable at
high temperatures and has a pH range 39. Stevia extract is used as a sweetener or
avour enhancer in many countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Israel, Brazil and
Paraguay. It is also used in soft drinks, ice creams, cookies, pickles, chewing gum, tea
and skincare products (Lee 1979; Kinghorn 1982, 1987; Elton Johnson 1990; Tateo
1990). Stevia plant and its extract both are used in weight-loss programmes because of
their ability to reduce the craving for sweet and fatty foods (Jain et al. 2007).
Uses of Stevia
.Stevia is safe for diabetics, as it does not affect blood sugar levels.
.Stevia does not have the neurological or renal side effects as other articial
sweeteners.
.Stevia possess anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties in addition to its other
versatile uses. It can be safely used in herbal medicines, tonics for diabetic patients
and also in daily usage products such as mouthwashes and toothpastes.
.Mild Stevia leaf tea offers excellent relief for an upset stomach.
Conclusion
Stevia is a herb that is used extensively in various areas of the world (without
documentation of long-term use and effects) as a non-caloric sugar substitute. Various
reports in animals and humans indicate that the safety of this herb is not yet completely
determined. The current status of using this herb in the USA is as a dietary
supplement. Until further information is available, pharmacists should be advised
to conform to the FDA recommendation when counselling patients about this herb.
Specically, mild to moderate use as a supplement should be safe, but increased use for
other pharmacological effects may not be warranted.
Stevia a bio-sweetener 7
References
Calderon JS, Quijano L, Gomez F. 1987. Heliangolides from Stevia origanoides. J Nat Prod 50(3):522525.
Cardello HM, DaSilva MA, Damasio MH. 1999. Measurement of the relative sweetness of stevia extract,
aspartame and cyclamate/saccharin blend as compared to sucrose at different concentrations. Plant Foods
Hum Nutr 54(2):119130.
Chan PX, Liu DY, Chen JC, Tomlinson B, Huang WP, Cheng JT. 1998. The effect of stevioside on blood
pressure and plasma catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Life Sci 63(19):16791684.
Cramer B, Ikan R. 1987. Progress in the chemistry and properties of rebaudiosides. In: Grenby T.H., editor.
Developments in sweeteners New York: Elsevier. pp 4548.
Curi R, Alvarez M, Bazotte RB. 1986. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult
humans. Braz J Med Biol Res 19(6):771774.
DAgostino M, DeSimone F, Pizza C. 1984. Steroli della Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper
60(12):22372240.
Das S, Das AK, Murphy RA. 1992. Evaluation of the cariogenic potential of the intense natural sweeteners
stevioside and rebaudioside A. Caries Res 26(5):363366.
Elton Johnson DR. 1990. SteviosideNaturallyTuscon, AZ: Calorie Control Council. 5pp.
FDA Consumer, National Technical Information Services, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springeld, VA 22161,
pp. 152157.
Genus Jan MC. 2003. Stevioside. Phytochemistry 64(5): 913921.
Genus Jan MC. 2002. Safety evaluation of stevia and Stevioside. J. Nat Prod Chem 27(8):299319.
Hutapea AM. 1997. Digestion of stevioside (a natural sweetener) by various digestive enzymes. J Clin
BiochemNutr 23(3):177186.
Jain JL, Jain S, Jain N. 2007. Fundamentals of biochemistry New Delhi: S. Chand & Co. Pub. Ltd.
pp 104107.
Jakinovich W, Moon C. 1990. Evaluation of plant extracts for sweetness using the mongolian gerbil. J Nat
Prod 53(1):190195.
Jeppesen PB, Gregersen S, Poulsen CR. 2000. Stevioside acts directly on pancreatic beta cells to secrete
insulin: Actions independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive
K
+
-channel activity. Metabolism 49(2):208214.
Kim KK, Sawa Y, Shibata H. 1996. Hydroxylation of ent-kaurenoic acid to steviol in Stevia rebaudiana
BertoniPurication and partial characterization of the enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys 332(2):223230.
Kinghorn AD. 1982. Purication of Stevia rebaudiana sweet constituents by droplet counter current
chromatography. J Chromatogr 237(3):478483.
Kinghorn AD. 1987. Biologically active compounds from plants with reputed medicinal and sweetening
properties. J Nat Prod 50(6):10091024.
Kinghorn AD, Soejarto NPD, Nanayakkara CM. 1984. A phytochemical screening procedure for sweet ent-
kaurene glycosides in the genus Stevia. J Nat Prod 47(3):439444.
Klongpanichpak S, Temcharoen P, Toskulkao C. 1997. Lack of mutagenicity of stevioside and steviol in
Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. J Med Assoc Thai 80(11):S121S128.
Kobayashi M, Horikawa S, Degrandi IH, Veno J, Nijisuhasi H. 1977. Fatcs of stevia Phytochemistry
16:14051407.
Kohda H, Kasai R, Yamasaki K, Murakami K, Tanaka P. 1976. Steviodsides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
Phytochemistry 15:981982.
Kumar S, Jha YK, Singh P. 2007. Stevia: A natural potential source of sugar replacer. Bev Food World
34(7):7071.
Lee SJ. 1979. A study on the safety of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana as a new sweetening source. Korean J
Food Sci Technol 11(4):224231.
Mata R, Rodriguez V, Pereda-Miranda R. 1992. Stevisalioside A, a novel bitter-tasting ent-atisene glycoside
from the roots of Stevia salicifolia. J Nat Prod 55(5):660666.
Matsui, M, Matsui, K, Kawasaki Y. 1996. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six
in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays. Mutagenesis 11(6):573579.
Melis MS. 1992. Renal excretion of stevioside in rats. J Nat Prod 55(5):688690.
Melis MS. 1995. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana in rats: Renal effects.
J Ethnopharmacol 47(3):129134.
Melis MS. 1997. Effects of steviol on renal function and mean arterial pressure in rats. Phytomedicine
3(4):349352.
8S. K. Goyal et al.
Midmore DJ, Rank AH. 2002. A new rural industrySteviato replace imported chemical sweeteners.
Report for the Rural Industries R & D Corporation, Boston, MA. 13pp.
Ngowatana, N. 1997. Improvement of extraction and purication of stevioside and its products from Stevia
rebaudiana [review] Bangkok: Graduate School, Kasetsart University (Thailand).
Nunes BDAP, Pereira NA. 1988. Inuence of the infusion of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) on the weight of sexual
organs isolated from young mice Acta Amazonica 18:12.
Oliveira Filho RM. 1988. Endocrine parameters in rats following chronic treatment with concentrated extract
of Stevia rebaudiana Acta Amazonica 18:2225.
Pederson P. 1987. Approximate composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Nutr Herbol 18:377380.
Pezzuto JM, Nanayakkara NP, Compadre CM. 1986. Characterization of bacterial mutagenicity mediated by
13-hydroxy-ent-kaurenoic acid (steviol) and several structurally-related derivatives and evaluation of
potential to induce glutathione S-transferase in mice. Mutat Res 169(3):93103.
Phillips KC. 1987. Stevia: Steps in developing a new sweetener. In: Grenby TH, editor. Developments in
sweeteners New York: Elsevier. pp 15.
Polyanskii K, Rodionova NS, Glagoleva LE. 1997. Stevia in cultured milk deserts for medical and
prophylactic purposes. Molochnaya Promyshlennost 5(35):511515.
Rajbhandari A, Roberts M. 1983. The avonoids of Stevia nepetifolia J Nat Prod 47:559560.
Rajbhandari A, Roberts M. 1985. The avonoids of Stevia microchaeta,Stevia monardifolia, and Stevia
origanoides. J Nat Prod 48(3):502503.
Roman LU, Cambron JI, del Rio RE. 2000. Grindelane diterpenoids from Stevia subpubescens. J Nat Prod
63(2):226229.
Sanchez-Arreola E, Cerda-Garcia-Rojas CM, Roman LU. 2000. Longipinane derivatives from Stevia
connata. J Nat Prod 63(1):1215.
Sharma N, Mogre R. 2007. Effect of stevia intervention on lipid prole. In: On serving farmers and saving
farmingIndia imperative and global perspective, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, 1012 January, 85pp.
Sharma N, Kaushal N, Chawla A, Mohan M, Sethi A, Sharma Y. 2006. Stevia rebaudianaA review.
Agrobios Newslett 5(7):4648.
Shibata H, Sawa Y, Oka T. 1995. Steviol and steviol-glycoside: Glucosyltransferase activities in Stevia
rebaudiana BertoniPurication and partial characterization. Arch Biochem Biophys 321(2):390396.
Sincholle D, Marcorelles P. 1989. Study of the anti-androgenic activity of extract of Stevia rebaudiana
Bertoni. Plantes Med Phytother 23(4):282287.
Smolyar VI. 1993. Effect of saccharol glycosides on energy metabolism in animals with abnormal carbohyrate
tolerance Voprosy Pitaniya 1:3840.
Soejarto DD, Douglas K, Farnsworth NR. 1982. Potential sweetening agents of plant originIII.
Organoleptic evaluation of Stevia leaf herbarium samples for sweetness. J Nat Prod 45(5):590599.
Soejarto DD, Compadre CM, Medon PJ, Kamath SK, Kinghorn AD. 1983. Potential sweetening agents of
plant originII: Field research for sweet-tasting of Stevia spp. Econ Bot 18:3741.
Sosa VE, Gil R, Oberti JC. 1985. Sesquiterpene lactones and avones from Stevia procumbens. J Nat Prod
48(2):340341.
Suanarunsawat T, Chaiyabut N. 1996. The effect of intravenous infusion of stevioside on the urinary sodium.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 76(4):141150.
Suanarunsawat T, Chaiyabut N. 1997. The effect of stevioside on glucose metabolism in rat. Can J Physiol
Pharmacol 75(8):976982.
Suttajit M, Vinitketkaumnuen U, Meevatee U. 1993. Mutagenicity and human chromosomal effect of
stevioside, a sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Environ Health Perspect 101(3):5356.
Tateo F. 1990. Mutagenic and fertility-modifying activity of extracts and constituents of Stevia rebaudiana
Bertoni Rev Soc Ital Sci Aliment 19:1920.
Tateo F, Mariotti M, Bononi M, Lubian E, Martello S, Cornara L. 1998. Stevioside content and
morphological variability in a population of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from Paraguay. Ital J Food Sci
10(3):261267.
Thamolwan S, Narongsak C. 1997. The effect of stevioside on glucose metabolism in rat. Can J Physiol
Pharmacol 75(8):976982.
Tomita A. 1997. Effects of stevia on microbiological quality of foods. Microbial Immunol 41(12):10051009.
Toruan-Mathius N, Pratiwi T, Hutabarat T. 1995. Somaclonal variations in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays. Menara Perkebunan 63(2):3342.
Toyoda K. 1997. Assessment of the carcinogenicity of stevioside in F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol
35(6):597603.
Stevia a bio-sweetener 9
Tsanava VP, Sardzhveladze GP, Kharebava LG. 1991. Effect of technological procedures on the composition
of volatile substances in Stevia rebaudiana Chem Abstr 116:8287.
White JRKJ, Campbell RK, Bernstein R. 1994. Oral use of a topical preparation containing an extract of
Stevia rebaudiana and the chrysanthemum ower in the management of hyperglycemia. Diabeties Care
17(8):940.
Wood DJ. 1996. The effect of stevia as a feed sweetener on weight gain and feed consumption of broiler
chickens. Can J Anim Sci 76(2):267269.
Xi Y. 1998. Antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana. Jpn J Food Sci Technol 45(5):310316.
Xi Y, Sato YM, Takeuchi M. 1998. Antioxidant mechanisim of Stevia rebaudiana extract and antioxidant
activity of inorganic salts. Jpn J Food Sci Technol 45(6):510513.
10 S. K. Goyal et al.
... It is native to northeast Paraguay and neighboring parts of Brazil and Argentina. This seasonal plant is now cultivated worldwide for its sweet glycosiderich leaves, that are claimed to be nearly 300 times sweeter than sucrose (Goyal et al., 2010), and thus used as a low-calorie natural sweetener (Savita et al., 2004). concludes its safe use as a food supplement. ...
... Stevia rebaudiana is a potent source of Steviol glycoside, which is also called a bio-sweetener (Goyal et al., 2010). Refined steviol glycosides are usually safe for consumption without any prescription (Samuel et al., 2018). ...
... It is native to northeast Paraguay and neighboring parts of Brazil and Argentina. This seasonal plant is now cultivated worldwide for its sweet glycosiderich leaves, that are claimed to be nearly 300 times sweeter than sucrose (Goyal et al., 2010), and thus used as a low-calorie natural sweetener (Savita et al., 2004). concludes its safe use as a food supplement. ...
... Stevia rebaudiana is a potent source of Steviol glycoside, which is also called a bio-sweetener (Goyal et al., 2010). Refined steviol glycosides are usually safe for consumption without any prescription (Samuel et al., 2018). ...
... Stevia(Stevia rebaudiana) is an herbaceous perennial shrub indigenous to Paraguay and Brazil. Stevioside, the main sweet component in the leaves of this plant, is approximately 300 times sweeter tasting than sucrose ) Geuns,2003).The Stevia leaves have sensory and functional properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners and is likely to become a major source of natural sweetener for the growing food market (Goyal and Goyal, 2010). It is commercially well known to exert beneficial effects on human health and has become an interesting area of research these days. ...
... Stevia is recently cultivated on a large scale by entrepreneurs in Ethiopia for herbal production due to its potential uses [15]. Stevia is also grown like other vegetables in the kitchen garden [15,16]. Stevia leaves are used in food products as calorie free intense natural sweetener [15,17]. ...
... Stevioside, which stimulates insulin secretion by acting directly on the β-cells of pancreatic islets, is a commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug for the treatment of T2D (Jeppesen et al. 2000). Stevia leaves, stems, and flowers contain a complex of sweet diterpene glycosides (Goyal et al. 2010) and other phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, fatty acids, proteins, and vitamins (Gupta et al. 2013). The antioxidant properties of Stevia rebaudiana have been linked to flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and polyphenol-rich Stevia leaves could be used as natural anti-diabetic drugs (Myint et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
A high-fructose diet causes metabolic abnormalities in rats, and the cluster of complications points to microvascular and neuronal disorders of the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate i) the involvement of microvascular disorders and neuronal plasticity in the deleterious effects of a high-fructose diet on the rat brain and ii) a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of Phytocollection therapy (with antidiabetic, antioxidant, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities) compared to Galantamine as first-line therapy for dementia and Diabeton as first-line therapy for hyperglycemia. The calcium adenosine triphosphate non-injection histoangiological method was used to assess capillary network diameter and density. A high-fructose diet resulted in a significant decrease in the diameter and density of the capillary bed, and pharmacological manipulations had a modulatory effect on microcirculatory adaptive mechanisms. In vivo single-unit extracellular recording was used to investigate short-term plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Differences in the parameters of spike background activity and expression of excitatory and inhibitory responses of cortical neurons have been discovered, allowing for flexibility and neuronal function stabilization in pathology and pharmacological prevention. Integration of the coupling mechanism between microvascular function and neuronal spike activity could delay the progressive decline in cognitive function in rats fed a high fructose diet.
... Hiện nay, xu hướng sử dụng các chất ngọt tự nhiên trong Dược phẩm ngày càng tăng do những ưu điểm nổi bật về tính an toàn với cơ thể và vai trò đa dạng của chúng (chất điều vị, chất mang thuốc,…) [1,2]. Một trong số đó là các steviol glycosid từ Cỏ ngọt (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.), trong đó steviosid và rebaudiosid A là những nguyên liệu giá trị nhất. ...
Article
Steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bert., notably stevioside and rebaudioside A, are ingredients with many pharmaceutical applications. In which rebaudioside A has a uniform sweetness with no bitter aftertaste. A simple method for the simultaneous extraction of stevioside and rebaudioside A has been studied with basic steps including extracting medicinal herbs with water, removing impurities using lime milk, neutralizing with citric acid, purifying with water-saturated n-butanol, and crystallizing fractional to obtain stevioside and rebaudioside A. The spectral data of IR, MS, and NMR have demonstrated the product structure as stevioside and rebaudioside A. This result is a premise for further studies. Keywords: Stevia rebaudiana, pharmaceutical, stevioside, rebaudioside A.
Article
Stevia rebaudiana is a sweetener herb belongs to Asteraceae family, native to Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Stevia has potential qualities of a sweetener and also constituting a source of many substances with a nutritional effect on the human beings. The leaves of stevia contain stevioside, rebaudioside, steviolbioside, and isosteviol and sweeter than sucrose with zero calories. These steviol glycosides considered for the sweet taste and have commercial value globally as a sugar substitute in foods, beverages and nutraceuticals. The present article provides an overview of different extraction methods, phytochemistry, commercial application of stevia in various products such as confectionary products, bakery, dairy and beverages. Various studies shows promising health benefits of stevia against diverse aliments such as anti-microbial, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic properties considered in the present paper. Clinical studies revealed that steviol glycosides, which are an essential phytochemicals of stevia is safe for human consumption with no acute and subacute toxicity. This study could provides a new direction of stevia for treatment of human diseases and contribute in innovative stevia-based products.
Chapter
Full-text available
Stevia rebaudiana, a native of South America, is a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family, also known as a natural sweetener due to the presence of steviol glycosides (SGs) in the leaves. China is the largest producer and exporter of stevia, while Japan is the primary consumer. The increasing demand for natural low-calorie sweeteners in the medicine and food industry has increased the pressure over stevia cultivation. Still, its cultivation and region-specific agrotechnologies need to be developed. The major bottleneck in stevia production are the lack of region specific cultivation technologies, non-availability of quality planting material, and uncharacterized and not properly conserved plant genetic resources. All these constraints have limited the stevia production to some specific regions of the world. Development of high-yielding cultivars with enhanced SGs content using modern breeding techniques is of prime importance to meet its increasing demand. Among the glycosides present in the leaves, rebaudioside-A is the most desirable glycosides having 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose, while, after bitter taste is due to the presence of stevioside and dulcoside. Therefore, the development of varieties with high rebaudioside-A and low stevioside content is highly desirable. This chapter focused on the improvement of propagation methods, characterization and conservation of genetic resource in stevia and its utilization in crop improvement programs.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with stevia residue extract (SRE) on growth performance, intestinal health, and antioxidant capacity of weaned piglets. A total of 144 weaned piglets (body weight 6.8 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly selected and allocated into four treatment groups with six replicates of six pigs/pen. The treatments consisted of a basal diet without SRE or basal diet supplemented with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg SRE. The results showed that the addition of 200 mg/kg SRE to the diet significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the diarrhea rate of piglets compared with the control group. The supplementation of 400 mg/kg SRE in the diet significantly reduced the piglets’ serum MDA content and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the T-AOC, T-SOD, and GSH-PX activity in the serum. The dietary supplementation with 400 mg/kg SRE significantly increased (p < 0.05) the CAT and GSH-PX activity in the liver. Moreover, the supplementation of 400 mg/kg SRE in the diet significantly increased (p < 0.05) the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae (genus) and Roseburia (genus) beneficial bacteria compared to the control group. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed that Prevotella (genus) abundance was positively correlated with liver GSH-PX activity and acetic acid content of colon contents. In conclusion, the supplementation of 400 mg/kg SRE to the diet can improve piglet health by regulating antioxidant reduction homeostasis, which may also be associated with an increase in the relative numbers of potentially beneficial bacteria.
Article
Full-text available
The leaf content of the sweetener stevioside was investigated with regard to the morphological characteristics of plants of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni grown in one of the most productive areas of Paraguay. The HPLC quantitative determination of stevioside was carried out on dried leaves of 13 morphologically different types of plants. The average levels of stevioside in the dried leaves varied from 102.3 to 134.6 g kg(-1). This variability (about 30% in respect to the minimum value), related to the ratio of the weight of the leaf to that of the whole aerial part, has furnished the first useful information for purposes of associating the types of growth habits with stevioside output.
Article
Stevia rebaudiana is a natural herbal low calorie sweetener of the asteraceae family. The study was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of stevia extract on selected 20 hypercholesterolemic women. The preparation of stevia extract was standardized in the laboratory, 20 ml of extract was used to intervene one subject in a glass of water (200ml). The results revealed that the consumption of stevia extract reduced the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C significantly while an increased in HDL-C was noted which is desirable. Thus it is concluded that stevia extract have hypolipidaemic effect and can be used to reduce the risk of CVD in future.
Article
Stevia rebaudiana hot water extracts were shown to have highly antioxidant activity against sardine oil and linoleic acid. The most active fraction which was reported in the previous paper contained large amounts of potassium. The activity was decreased by the removal of cations from the fraction by ion exchange chromatography. The activity was recovered by the addition of potassium carbonate to the fraction from which cations were removed. It was suggested that the potassium ion participated in the antioxidant activity of S. rebaudiana. When antioxidant activities of inorganic salts were investigated, it was ascertained that potassium carbonate (K2CO3), potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) functioned as antioxidant compounds against linoleic acid. The most active inorganic salt was potassium carbonate. It was suggested that the function of the antioxidant activities of S. rebaudiana was mainly due to the scavenging of free radicals and next to the scavenging of superoxides. The activity of potassium carbonate was also mainly due to the scavenging activity of free radicals.
Article
In vitro digestibility of stevioside, a natural sweetener, by various digestive enzymes was investigated. Stevioside was incubated with salivary α-amylase, pancreatic α-amylase, saliva, pepsin, gastric secretion, pancreatin and intestinal brush border membrane enzymes of mice, rats, and hamsters as well as with intestinal microflora of mice, rats, hamsters and humans. None of these enzymes digested stevioside except the microflora of the rat and hamster cecal contents, which hydrolyzed it to steviol, and the microflora of mouse cecal content and human feces, which hydrolyzed it to both steviol and steviol-16, 17α-epoxide. Steviol-16, 17α-epoxide was then completely converted back into steviol. These results suggest that steviol might be the only metabolite produced by the intestinal microflora from various animal species and humans.
Article
The antioxidant activity against sardine oil and linoleic acid of hot water extract from Stevia rebaudiana was compared to DL-alpha-tocopherol (DL-alpha-Toc), butyl hydroxy anisol and green tea extract. The sardine oil oxidation was assessed from the formation of peroxides. The concentration of odor components was measured by a portable type odor concentration meter equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor. Linoleic acid oxidation was assessed by the ferric thiocyanate method. Stebia rebaudiana extract effectively inhibited hydroperoxide and volatile component formations in sardine oil. The oxidation was more effectively inhibited by the hot water extract from S, rebaudiana than DL-alpha-Toc or green tea extract at the same concentration in sardine oil. Additive effects were observed when the extract was mixed DL-alpha-Toc or citric acid. Some effective fractions were separated from the extract by dialysis, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Some of the antioxidant fractions were polyphenolic compounds. The component which showed the highest antioxidant activity contained large amounts of potassium.