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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: A review



Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners, Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are more likely to benefit from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients, those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories and is over 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,
February 2010; 61(1): 110
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: a review
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology, S.V.B.P. University of Agriculture
& Technology, Meerut, India, and
Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, RBS College,
Agra, India
Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various
purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature
review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant
papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have
functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners,
Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food
market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are
more likely to benet from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients,
those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that
has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood
sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories
and is over 100300 times sweeter than table sugar.
Keywords: Stevia leaves, rebaudioside, stevioside, extract, powder, medicinal use
Stevia rebaudiana is a small perennial growing up to 6580 cm tall, with sessile,
oppositely arranged leaves. Different species of Stevia contain several potential sweet-
ening compounds, with S. rebaudiana being the sweetest of all. Stevia is a semi-humid
subtropical plant that can be grown easily like any other vegetable crop even in the
kitchen garden. The soil should be in the pH range 6.57.5; well-drained red soil and
sandy loam soil. Saline soils should be avoided to cultivate this plant. Stevia has been
successfully cultivated in recent years in many areas of Indian states: Rajasthan,
Maharashtra, Kerela and Orissa. The increasing demands for natural sweeteners
have driven the farmers in India toward large-scale Stevia cultivation. Diterpene
glycosides are the group of natural sweeteners that have been extracted from Stevia.
The leaves of wild Stevia plants contain 0.3% dulcoside, 0.6% rebaudioside C, 3.8%
rebaudioside A and 9.1% stevioside.
Stevia (Asteraceae) is a woody shrub that can reach 80 cm in height when it is fully
matured. The Stevia genus comprises at least 110 species (Rajbhandari and Roberts
1983) but there may be as many as 300. Its habitat extends from the southwestern
United States to the Brazilian highlands (Soejarto et al. 1982). Different species of
Correspondence: S. K. Goyal, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology, S.V.B.P. University of
Agriculture & Technology, Meerut 250 110, India. E-mail:
ISSN 0963-7486 print/ISSN 1465-3478 online 2010 Informa UK Ltd
DOI: 10.3109/09637480903193049
Stevia contain several potential sweetening compounds, with S. rebaudiana Bertoni
being the sweetest of all (Soejarto et al. 1982; Kinghorn et al. 1984) The use of
S. rebaudiana as a sweetener can be found in many parts of Central and South America,
where this species is indigenous (Melis 1992), as well as in Japan (Kinghorn et al.
1984). People in Japan have been using Stevia as a sweetener in products such as
seafood, soft drinks, and candies (Soejarto et al. 1982). This plant has been used in
several areas of the world, such as in Brazil and Paraguay, as a natural control for
diabetes (Jeppesen et al. 2000). Stevia also has been used to help control weight in
obese persons (Suttajit et al. 1993).
Chemical constituents
The complete chemical composition of Stevia species is not yet available. However, a
variety of Stevia species has been tested for their chemical compositions. The useful
part of this shrub is the leaves. Out of 110 species tested for sweetness, only 18 were
found to possess this characteristic (Soejarto et al. 1982). Eight ent-kaurene glyco-
sidesnamely dulcoside A, rebaudiosides AE, steviolbioside, and stevioside
produce the sweet taste sensation (Kinghorn et al. 1984). These glycosides are mainly
compounds of the diterpene derivative steviol (Shibata et al. 1995). S. rebaudiana
Bertoni, the sweetest species, contains in its leaves all of the eight ent-kaurene glycosides
(Kinghorn et al. 1984), with stevioside being the major constituent (38% by weight of
the dried leaves) (Melis 1992). In addition, S. rebaudiana Bertoni contains stigmasterol,
b-sitosterol, and campesterol (DAgostino et al. 1984). The same species also contains
steviol, a product formed by enzymatic hydroxylation within the plant (Kim et al. 1996).
Other chemicals with no sweet taste are also found in Stevia species and some may even
be bitter in taste. Stevisalioside A (from the roots of Stevia salicifolia) (Mata et al. 1992),
longipinane derivatives in the roots of Stevia connata (Sanchez-Arreola et al. 2000),
epoxylabdane diterpenes and a clerodane derivative in the leaves of Stevia subpubescens
(Roman et al. 2000), avonoids from the leaves of S. rebaudiana (Soejarto et al. 1982),
Stevia nepetifolia (Rajbhandari and Roberts 1983), Stevia microchaeta,Stevia monardifolia,
Stevia origanoides (Rajbhandari and Roberts 1985) and Stevia procumbens (aerial parts)
(Sosa et al. 1985), and sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of S. procumbens and
the leaves of S. origanoides (Calderon et al. 1987) are in this group.
Proximate composition of Stevia
Six sweet-tasting compounds have been reported in the leaves of S. rebaudiana
Bertonistevioside, rebaudiosides A, D and E, dulcosides A and B (Kohda et al.
1976; Kobayashi et al. 1977). Stevioside is a glycoside with a glucosyl and sophorosyl
residue attached to the aglycon steviol; the latter has a cyclo-pentanoperhydrophenan-
threne skeleton. The C4 and C13 of steviol are connected to the b-glucosyl and b-
sophorosyl group, respectively. The structure of rebaudioside A is the same as that of
stevioside except that the sophorosyl residue is replaced by a glucosyl-(13)-sophorosyl
residue. The Stevia sweeteners are similar in structure, in that a steviol aglycon is
connected at C4 and C13 to trisaccharides consisting of glucose and/or rhamnose
residues (Kobayashi et al. 1977). Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves
of Stevia (Genus Jan 2003).
Soejarto et al. (1983) believed that the sesquiterpene lactones are responsible for the
bitter aftertaste. Phillips (1987) described a European patent held by the Stevia
2S. K. Goyal et al.
Company, which attributes the bitter aftertaste to the presence of essential oils, tannins,
and avonoids. Nevertheless, as pointed out, stevioside and rebaudioside A are partially
responsible for the aftertaste, even though the contribution of rebaudioside A is signif-
icantly less than that of stevioside. The S. rebaudiana Bertoni contains a complex mixture
of labdane diterpenes, triterpenes, stigmasterol, tannins, volatile oils, and eight diterpe-
nenic glycosides: stevioside, steviobioside, dulcoside, and rebaudiosides A, B, C, D,
and E. The most abundant substances are stevioside and rebaudioside A. Of the Stevia
glycosides, rebaudioside A is the sweetest and the most stable, and it is less bitter than
stevioside. Rebaudioside E is as sweet as stevioside, and rebaudioside D is as sweet as
rebaudioside A, while the other glycosides are less sweet than stevioside (Cramer and
Ikan 1987). According to Pederson (1987), stevioside is a white, crystalline powder
extracted from the leaves of the Stevia plant. Its chemical identication and quantitative
compositions are listed for those with a more scientic interest in the product. It is 100%
natural, having no (zero) calories, is 200300 times sweeter than sugar, heat stable to
198C, non-fermentable, a avour enhancer, and is anti-plaque and anti-caries. He
reported the proximate composition of S. rebaudiana Bertoni that is presented in Table I,
and compared Stevia leaf powder and Stevia white extract with granulated sugar
(Table II).
Ngowatana (1997) puried the Stevia extract and obtained stevioside and its
products that were a white ne powder and highly hygroscopic. It must be kept in
an air-tight package to prevent moisture absorption. In large-scale production the same
methods are used, except for the nal step that produced dry products by using a spray
dryer. Researchers reported that 3,000 g Stevia could produce 101.56 g light-yellow
ne powder of stevioside and its products (Table III). Product compositions were
stevioside. The amounts of iron and calcium were 0.97 and 1.47 mg/g product,
respectively. The moisture content of the product was 9.31%.
Table I. Proximate composition of S. rebaudiana Bertoni.
Sample number Constituent Value (%)
1 Aluminium 0.0072
2 Manganese 0.0147
3 Ash 6.3000
4 Phosphorus 0.3180
5b-Carotene 0.0075
6 Potassium 1.7800
7 Calcium 0.5440
8 Protein 11.200
9 Chromium 0.0039
10 Selenium 0.0025
11 Cobalt 0.0025
12 Silicon 0.0132
13 Fat 1.9000
14 Sodium 0.0892
15 Fibre 15.200
16 Tin 0.0015
17 Iron 0.0039
18 Vitamin 0.0110
19 Magnesium 0.3490
20 Water 82.300
Stevia a bio-sweetener 3
According to Sharma et al. (2006), the fresh Stevia leaves contain a large amount of
water between 80 and 85%. The main constituents present were glycosides such as
stevioside, steviol and rebaudioside A and B. The other constituents present in Stevia
were ascorbic acid, b-carotene, chromium, cobalt, magnesium, iron, potassium,
phosphorous, riboavin, thiamin, tin, zinc, and so forth. The other chemicals found
in Stevia include apigenin, austroinulin, avicularin, b-sitosterol, caffeic acid, compes-
terol, caryophyllene, centaureidin, chorogenic acid, chlorophyll, cynaroside, daucos-
terol, di-terpene glycoside, dulcosides A and B, foeniculin, formic acid, gibberellic
acid, gibberellin, indole-3-acetonitrile, isoquercitrin, isosteviol, kaempferol, kaurene,
lupeol, luteolin, polysatachoside, quercetin, quercitrin, scooletin, stigmasterol, umbel-
liferone and xanthophyllus.
Physiological and pharmacological actions
Stevia is used in many parts of the world as a non-caloric sweetener (Matsui et al.
1996). Along with sweetness, a bitter taste is also felt in humans (Jakinovich and Moon
1990). As an extract, this herb was found to have similar potency with regard to
sweetness as a 10% sucrose solution at either pH 3.0 or 7.0. The same study also
showed that the herbal extract had similar potency to that of aspartame and a
cyclamate/saccharin mixture (Cardello et al. 1999). The potency of Stevia extracts
was found to be higher than other herbal sweet extracts such as those of Thladiantha
grosvernorii (Cucurbitaceae) or Abrus precatorius (Fabaceae). The sweetness of stevio-
side, the major sweet component in Stevia species, was detected in a concentration as
low as 24 mg/ml (Jakinovich and Moon 1990).
Table II. Comparison of Stevia leaf powder and Stevia white extract with granulated sugar.
Granulated sugar Stevia leaf powder Stevia white extract
1 teaspoon 1/8 teaspoon Dust on spoon
1 tablespoon 3/8 teaspoon 1/2 pinch
1/4 cup 1/2 teaspoon Pinch
1/2 cup 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon
1 cup 2 tablespoons 1/4 teaspoon
3.75 pounds 7.2 ounces 0.3 ounces
10 pounds 19.2 ounces 0.8 ounces
Table III. Some commercial available Stevia products in the USA.
Product Manufacturer Type
Stevia At Stevia LLC (Valley Forge, PA, USA) Crystals
Stevia extract Life Extension Foundation (Fort Lauderdale,
JAJ Stevioside JAJ Group, Inc. (Jacksonville, FL, USA) Powder
Stevia Liquid Extract Baar Products, Inc. (Downingtown, PA, USA) Liquid
Stevia Dark Liquid
Stevia NOW (Shrub Oak, NY, USA) Liquid concentrate
Stevia Pure Powder Extract Stevia NOW Powder extract
Stevia Tablet Stevia NOW Tablets (100400 mg)
4S. K. Goyal et al.
Human studies
Despite centuries of use, there is still a lack of comprehensive clinical studies on Stevia
as a supplement. In normal human volunteers, the effect of administering extracts of
S. rebaudiana on glucose tolerance tests was investigated. Subjects were given aqueous
extracts from 5 g leaves every 6 h for 3 days. A glucose tolerance test was performed
before and after administration of the extracts. The results showed that treatment with
Stevia resulted in an increase in glucose tolerance and a decrease in plasma glucose
concentrations (Curi et al. 1986). Moreover, it was shown recently that both steviol and
stevioside can produce a direct effect on beta cells in the pancreas to release insulin.
The authors concluded that this plant may have a potential use in the management of
type 2 diabetes (Jeppesen et al. 2000).
Cariogenic and mutagenic effects
Since Stevia products are used as sugar substitutes by many populations, a study was
conducted to test whether stevioside and rebaudioside A may have the potential of
causing dental caries from prolonged use. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.5%
stevioside or 0.5% rebaudioside A for 5 weeks. Neither compound showed a potential
of increasing the risk of developing dental caries (Das et al. 1992). Several researchers
investigated the risk of mutagenicity. In two studies (Matsui et al. 1986; Pezzuto et al.
1996), steviol produced a dose-related positive mutagenic effect in some tests. In the
same studies, stevioside was found to be devoid of this effect. Other reports indicated
lack of mutagenicity of both compounds (Suttajit et al. 1993; Klongpanichpak et al.
1997). Because of these contradictory reports, the Food and Drug Administration is
still cautious in introducing this herb as a sugar substitute until its safety is completely
established (FDA 1999).
Stevia products
Some examples of Stevia products available on the market in the USA are presented
in Table III. Products of Stevia can be purchased directly from various companies or
from local pharmacies. Many companies sell Stevia products via the Internet.
Medicinal values
Studies on food safety, including an extensive review of the literature, undertaken prior
to 1982 (Lee 1979; Kinghorn 1982) concluded that Stevia leaves and extracts are safe;
studies since then conrm this. Possible medicinal uses have been investigated often by
using Stevia extracts as intravenous infusions in rats; possible effects on glucose
metabolism, diuresis, organ weights, endocrine function, and so on, have been studied
in this way (Kinghorn 1987; Nunes and Pereira 1988; Oliveira Filho 1988; Suanar-
unsawat and Chaiyabut 1996, 1997). Stevia extract infusions have also shown some
anti-androgenic activity in rats (Sincholle and Marcorelles 1989). Likely benecial
effects of Stevia extracts, as antioxidants and to relieve blood pressure and hyperten-
sion, have also been shown (Chan et al. 1998; Xi 1998; Xi et al. 1998). Steviol (a
precursor in the biosynthesis of steviosides) can be produced from steviosides exper-
imentally using specic bacteria but not in situ in the human body. Steviol can exhibit
some toxic and mutagenic activity (Tateo 1990).
Stevia a bio-sweetener 5
Investigations of the effect of aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana leaves on glucose
tolerance have been carried out by Curi et al. (1986) on volunteers. Aqueous extract
of 5 g leaves were administered to volunteers at regular 6-hourly intervals for 3 days,
with glucose tolerance tests performed before and after extract administration.
The extract increased glucose tolerance; it signicantly decreased plasma glucose
levels during the test and after overnight fasting in all volunteers. In Japan, where
articial chemical sweeteners are not approved, many toxicology safety studies
have been conducted (Elton Johnson 1990). Among studies carried out are some
to investigate carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (if any) in animal testing (Oliveira
Filho 1988; Toruan-Mathius et al. 1995; Toyoda 1997), to show dental benets in
the form of plaque inhibition and cavity reduction (Elton-Johnson 1990), to conrm
the safety of Stevia for diabetic use (Polyanskii et al. 1997; Thamolwan and
Narongsak 1997). The safety of feeding to animals, chickens and humans has also
been conrmed by a wide range of studies (Sincholle and Marcorelles 1989; Smolyar
1993; White et al. 1994; Melis 1995, 1997; Suanarunsawat and Chaiyabut 1996,
1997; Wood 1996; Polyanskii et al. 1997).
The traditional method of use by the Paraguayan Guarani Indians was to dry
the leaves and to use them to sweeten tea and medicines or to chew the leaves as a
sweet treat. Stevia was regularly used in drinks many times a day, not just
occasionally, with no side effects. The use of dried leaves (pieces or powdered) is
unacceptable in domestic cooking and does leave a sediment in clear drinks, and so
forth, and can also leave a green colour. There may also be an unpleasant aroma
associated with the dried leaves. Appropriate processing of the dry herbage may
remove this aroma, which is due to specic leaf compounds (not steviosides)
(Tsanava et al. 1991). Although Stevia has been used without any problems for
many years in its native Paraguay and in other countries for lesser periods, health
and safety issues have been receiving considerable attention in the past 20 years.
There has been considerable media attention in the USA, including claims and
counterclaims before the US FDA. Many of these claims relate to its potential
competitive position in relation to aspartame. Stevia products have been approved
for use in the USA as nutrition supplements although many protagonists claim it
should be granted Generally Regarded As Safe status in the same manner as tea,
coffee, sugar and fruit and vegetables, and so on. The general safety of steviosides
could be largely due to the fact that they are not broken down nor are absorbed in the
digestive tract (Hutapea 1997). Bacteriological studies on hot water extract from
S. rebaudiana have been carried out by Tomita (1997). Lactobacilli were not killed on
exposure to the fermented extract; however, under acidic conditions, the extract was
found to be bactericidal.
In Japan, articial sweeteners were banned some 40 years ago so Stevia has been
their chosen alternative to sweeten their food and beverages. The Japanese have
performed over 40,000 clinical studies and found Stevia to be safe. Stevia in its raw
form, although incredibly sweet, has a very subtle liquorice essence to it. A sign of an
excellent Stevia product is one that is free of this liquorice essence and still not bitter
(Tateo et al. 1998). Genus Jan (2002) concluded that Stevia and stevioside are safe
when used as a sweetener. Stevia is suited for both diabetics and Phenylketonuria
(PKU) patients, as well as for basepersons intending to lose weight by avoiding sugar
supplements in the diet. No allergic reactions to it seem to exist. Midmore and Rank
(2002) found that the aqueous extracts of the leavesboiled in water, cooled, then
6S. K. Goyal et al.
strained (ltered)are preferred in many situations and are better suited for controlled
levels of sweetening. Crystalline powders and extracts are preferred in commercial
situations as they have a xed known sweetening value. Fixed concentration liquids are
also acceptable. Kumar et al. (2007) reported that the Stevia is sweetest plant in the
world because leaves contain diterpene glycoside that has a sweet taste but it is not
metabolized and contains no calories. It is native to a relatively small area of eastern
Paraguay (on the Brazilian border) where its leaves have been used by the local Guarani
Indians as a sweetener for many hundreds of years. They specially used it in the local
green tea (Mate tea-Hex sp.), as well as with other unpalatable medicinal and other
drinks. The leaves are 30 times sweeter than cane sugar and can be safely used by
diabetic patients. Sharma and Mogre (2007) observed the effect of consumption of
Stevia extract on 20 selected hypercholestronic women: 20 ml extract was used to
intervene in one subject in a glass of water (200 ml). They found the consumption of
Stevia extract reduces the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-
cholesterol signicantly while an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was
noted, which is desirable. They concluded that Stevia extract had a hypolipidaemic
effect used to reduce the resistance of cardiovascular disease. The documented
properties of Stevia are anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inammatory, anti-microbial,
anti-viral, anti-yeast, cardio-tonic, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive and as a
vasodilator. Stevia has an advantage over articial sweeteners because it is stable at
high temperatures and has a pH range 39. Stevia extract is used as a sweetener or
avour enhancer in many countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Israel, Brazil and
Paraguay. It is also used in soft drinks, ice creams, cookies, pickles, chewing gum, tea
and skincare products (Lee 1979; Kinghorn 1982, 1987; Elton Johnson 1990; Tateo
1990). Stevia plant and its extract both are used in weight-loss programmes because of
their ability to reduce the craving for sweet and fatty foods (Jain et al. 2007).
Uses of Stevia
.Stevia is safe for diabetics, as it does not affect blood sugar levels.
.Stevia does not have the neurological or renal side effects as other articial
.Stevia possess anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties in addition to its other
versatile uses. It can be safely used in herbal medicines, tonics for diabetic patients
and also in daily usage products such as mouthwashes and toothpastes.
.Mild Stevia leaf tea offers excellent relief for an upset stomach.
Stevia is a herb that is used extensively in various areas of the world (without
documentation of long-term use and effects) as a non-caloric sugar substitute. Various
reports in animals and humans indicate that the safety of this herb is not yet completely
determined. The current status of using this herb in the USA is as a dietary
supplement. Until further information is available, pharmacists should be advised
to conform to the FDA recommendation when counselling patients about this herb.
Specically, mild to moderate use as a supplement should be safe, but increased use for
other pharmacological effects may not be warranted.
Stevia a bio-sweetener 7
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10 S. K. Goyal et al.
... Stevia leaves contain a complicated blend of eight tasty diterpene glycosides with no calories. These include dulcoside a, isosteviol, rebaudiosides, steviolbioside, and stevioside (Rajasekaran et al., 2008;Goyal et al., 2010). The beverage sector is interested in steviol glycosides (SGs), especially stevioside and rebaudioside A. This has led to more people growing stevia. ...
... Stevia is antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-yeast, cardiotonic, diuretic, hypoglycemic, lowers arterial pressure, and is a vasodilator (Goyal et al., 2010). The antioxidant, antiparasitic, and antiproliferative effects of stevia extracts and isolated chemicals are mentioned (Borgo et al., 2021). ...
... The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ), the concentration required to cause toxic effects in 50% of intact cells, was estimated from graphic plots of the dose response curve for each conc. using the Prism program from Graphpad (San Diego, CA, USA) [24][25][26]. ...
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This trial had been carried out in Maryout region, Alexandria Governorate. The study explored the impact of utilizing nanoparticles of magnetite (NPs) and calcium pyruvate as a source of pyruvate alone or in association with magnetic NPs at various concentrations on stevia plants. The investigation's treatments were control, pyruvate 100 mg/L, pyruvate 200 mg/L, magnetic NPs 0.5 mg/L, magnetic NPs 1.0 mg/L, pyruvate 100 mg/L@ magnetic NPs 0.5 mg/L, pyruvate 100 mg/L@ magnetic NPs 1.0 mg/L, pyruvate 200 mg/L@ magnetic NPs 0.5 mg/L, and pyruvate 200 mg/L@ magnetic NPs 1.0 mg/L. The results proved that all treatments, including the application of nanoparticles of magnetite and pyruvate alone or in combination, were superior to the control treatment regarding different quantitative and qualitative parameters. Spraying with pyruvate at 100 mg/L gave the significantly maximum weights of fresh and dry herbs, the highest concentrations of stevioside and rebaudioside A, and the highest anti-diabetic effects. It was noticed that spraying with magnetic nanoparticles improved the product's antimicrobial and antitumor activities. In this concern, pyruvate 200 mg/L@ magnetic NPs 1.0 mg/L recorded the best traits.
... Because its leaves contain those compounds which are the sources of sweetness. Only 18 species have these compounds out of 110 (Goyal et al., 2010). ...
... In 2006, it is reported that its fresh leaves contain 80-85% water. In addition to these glycosides, its leaves contain other substances such as ascorbic acid, bcarotene, chromium, cobalt, magnesium, iron, potassium, phosphorous, riboflavin, thiamine, tin and zinc (Goyal et al., 2010). ...
... Nature and Science 2018;16(11) ...
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Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is an ancient South American plant with great potential as an agricultural crop for the production of a high-potency natural sweetener. It produces diterpene glycosides that are low calorie sweeteners, about 300 times sweeter than saccharose. Stevia extracts, besides having therapeutic properties, contain a high level of sweetening compounds, known as steviol glycosides, which are thought to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal activity. S. rebaudiana leaves contain non-cariogenic and non-caloric sweeteners (steviol glycosides) whose consumption could exert beneficial effects on human health. Regular consumption of these compounds decreases the content of sugar, radionuclides, and cholesterol in the blood improves cell regeneration and blood coagulation, suppresses neoplastic growth and strengthens blood vessels. It is also a suitable raw material for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. It is a good source of carbohydrates, protein, crude fibre, minerals, as well as dispensable and indispensable amino acids which are valuable for human nutrition. The sweetening compounds, found mainly in the leaves of the plant, are steviol glycosides, with stevioside being the most abundant, followed by rebaudioside A. Stevioside has a sweetening power comparable to that of artificial sweeteners presently marketed and consumed in several foods and beverages. Adverse effects of stevia have not really been observed. However, it is thought that stevia could provoke allergic reactions in people sensitive to plants of the Asteraceae family and it is also recommended that pregnant women should avoid consuming stevia.
... The sweet compounds contained in S. rebaudiana do not chemically break down as they pass through the human digestive system. Therefore, stevia is considered safe for those whose blood sugar level must be controlled (14,36). Moreover, stevia can be grown very easily like any other vegetable crop, which makes it simple to obtain (14) and it is also known not to be subject to insect predation. ...
... Therefore, stevia is considered safe for those whose blood sugar level must be controlled (14,36). Moreover, stevia can be grown very easily like any other vegetable crop, which makes it simple to obtain (14) and it is also known not to be subject to insect predation. Therefore, insecticides are not required in its cultivation, which is of great benefit in producing an organic version of stevia (44). ...
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Introduction In the light of the problem of antibiotic resistance, the use of combined alternative therapies in combatting bacteria-related disorders has gained popularity. Bacteriophages are one element implemented in new combination therapy. Stevia rebaudiana is known to have antimicrobial activity and regarded as potentially having a synergistic effect with bacteriophages. Therefore, possible interactions of lytic bacteriophages (MS2, T4 and Phi6) with acetone and methanol S. rebaudiana extracts (SRa and SRm) in the bacterial environment were examined. Material and Methods The interactions were tested using a microdilution method, phage-extract co-incubation assay, static interaction (synography) and dynamic growth profile experiments in a bioreactor. Results The interactions of the tested factors in a static environment differed from those in a dynamic environment. Dynamic conditions altered the effect of the extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. How different the effect of the SRa extract was to that of the SRm extract on bacterial growth in a dynamic environment depended on the species of the phage and bacterial host. The greatest differences were observed for E. coli strains and their phages, whereas Pseudomonas syringae and the Phi6 phage reacted very similarly to both extracts. Differences also emerged for the same extract in different E. coli strains and their phages. Conclusion Every extract type should be tested on a case-by-case basis and experiment outcomes should not be generalised before gathering data. Moreover, many varied experiments should be performed, especially when examining such multifactorial mixtures. The tested mixtures could potentially be used in multidrug-resistant bacterial infection treatments.
... 6 Stevia extracts act as antioxidants and beneficially affect blood pressure and hypertension. 7,8 Stevia leaves contain a diterpenoid called stevioside (ST) and benefi-cial effects of ST consumption were reported in a diet induced obesity model on parameters related with oxidant-antioxidant balance, inflammation, and insulin resistance and its epigenetic modulation. 8 Zebrafish are used as model organisms to test pharmacological and toxicological features of novel substances. ...
... Glycosides like ST, rebaudioside A, and B are the major ingredients of stevia. 7 Stevia exhibits strong antioxidant potential as a sugar substitute in addition to providing sweetness because of various compounds with therapeutic value, including phenolic compounds, flavonoids, stevioside, tannins, and anthocyanins. 27 In this study, ST improved the oxidant-antioxidant status in the brain, which was disturbed due to overnutrition, by lowering the LPO and NO and increasing the SOD and GST activities. ...
... It can safely be used in herbal medicines, tonics for diabetic patients, and also in daily usage products such as mouthwashes and toothpastes. Mild stevia leaf tea also offers excellent relief for an upset stomach (Goyal et al., 2010). Stevia rebaudiana sweeteners are used sparingly and there seems to be no threat to public health, although caution should be exercised at higher daily intake levels (Schardt, 2000). ...
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Sugar is one of the most important beloving ingredients in food products in today’s life and almost everyone enjoys it every day. It’s an essential structural component of living cells and a source of energy in many organisms. Although consumption of sugar activates the “feel-good hormone” of the brain on the other side it can even make you addicted to it. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century worldwide, different researchers from many countries examined the excessive use of sugar in our daily diet, especially refined sugar, as damaging to human health. This review thought could be concluded that we are in a sugar crisis, therefore, the alternative use of sweetens like stevia, making small dietary changes, and eliminating sugar from our diets as much as possible.
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni or stevia represents a branched small perennial shrub from the Asteraceae family. Stevia derivates are available on the market in the form of tablets, powder and liquid. It is used in herbal medicines (diabetic tonics), food industry (confectionery, desserts, ice cream, sauces, ketchup, drinks, soft drinks, formulas for athletes) as well as cosmetics (toothpastes and mouthwashes). The feeling of sweetness in stevia is caused by steviol glycosides. The four primary steviol glycosides: stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, dulcoside A. Stevia is a natural non-nutritive intensive sweetener that has a significant advantage over other sweeteners (sucrose and artificial sweeteners) as a food industry ingredient. It can be used as a sucrose replacement in beverages and food products. Stevia enhances the taste of food, helps digestion, weight loss, has antioxidant and antimicrobial action, prevents tooth decay among diabetics and healthy people who care about their health. In the future, stevia is probably going to play a significant role in the supply of high strength sweeteners for the expanding natural food market.
Recently, the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) using plant constituents and extracts has attracted much attention. Biologically active substances with antioxidant/reducing, nontoxic, low-cost properties and stabilizing agents are highly sought after. Among these substances, Stevia is a potentially interesting raw material for the preparation of biologically active extracts and the green synthesis of colloidal NPs. In our work, the synthesis of Ag NP colloids using Stevia plant leaf extracts was optimized. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, HR-TEM, DLS, UV−vis, and XPS, and their performance as a cheap, biological, and available catalyst was evaluated for the selective synthesis of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furan carboxylic acid (HMFCA) from the platform molecule 5- hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). In order to have a more sustainable process, this catalytic oxidation was carried out in various deep eutectic mixtures as a cool, green, and environmentally friendly reaction medium. The target molecule was obtained in an impressive 98% yield of HMFCA (45 min, 50 °C) and the Stevia-derived catalyst is easily removed from the reaction mixture and recycled up to six times without loss of activity.
Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTE-BC) is either extruded product from flour (or) flaked corn, wheat (or) rice commonly used as breakfast in western countries. Cereal fortification helps to eliminate many nutritional deficiencies in various developed nations including United States. Recent techniques used to make bio-available vitamins and minerals in breakfast cereals to overcome the nutritional deficiencies such as iron, calcium etc. The main objective of this study was development of readt to eat foods from cereals for breakfast using extrusion. Trial no.6 because of its Good consistency and sensory properties. Among all other trials the red rice and quinoa 42% is found to be effective in nutritional facts and consistency. Typically, breakfast cereals include flaked, puffed, shredded, granula, extrude and baked product Oryzapunctata (red rice) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa seed), two gluten free food grains help to replace the wheat which contains gluten and used for the production of breakfast cereals. Quinoa is good example for the functional food that aims to lower the risk of various debilitating diseases and identify the presence of phyto-hormones of as several advantages for human nutrition over other plant foods. The Orzyapunctata (red rice) with high antioxidant content can be supplemented in the form of breakfast cereal so as to reduce the usage of artificial antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxyl toluene).
Stevia is an emerging natural high‐intensity sweetener. There are negative perceptions of zero‐calorie sweeteners, but studies that provide knowledge of these sweeteners improve their perception. This study evaluated consumer acceptability of a zero‐sugar bakery product under blind and informed conditions ( n = 96) along with physicochemical analysis of the products. Rebaudioside A (Reb A) and the new types of stevia (Rebs D and M) with sugar as a control were used to formulate pound cakes. Panelists evaluated the overall hedonic impressions (aroma, texture, flavor, and aftertaste) and intensity (sweetness and bitterness) of the cakes under blind and informed conditions with an enforced 2‐week break between evaluations. During the informed session, a document was provided prior to evaluating samples that included stevia's health benefits and the nutritional facts panels for the cakes. The cakes underwent volatile profile (electronic nose [e‐nose]) and water activity ( a w ) analysis. Overall, stevia cakes showed an increase in flavor and texture liking during the informed session when compared to the blind session, but only Reb A showed a significant difference ( p < 0.05). The increase in liking scores indicated that information positively affected the consumer's perception of the stevia‐sweetened cakes attributes. The e‐nose confirmed differences in aroma. There was a significant difference in a w of the samples Rebs A, D, M versus sucrose ( p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed among the Rebs ( p > 0.05). This study illustrates that stevia, despite non‐browning or fermenting, can be used in a practical baking application, and product‐related information impacts consumer acceptability. Practical Application This study demonstrates that product‐related information may have an impact on the consumer acceptability of the product. Through potential labeling improvements, overall consumer perception and acceptability of zero‐sugar added or low‐sugar products could be improved. This study also illustrates that stevia, despite being a non‐browning or fermenting sugar alternative, can be used in a practical baking application.
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a natural sweetener plant that is progressively used not only for its sweetening properties but also for its medicinal properties. The plant contains steviol glycoside (SG) which is reported to be up to 300 times sweeter than sucrose. The plant is said to have no side effects on human health and has been approved by FDA. On the basis of previous studies and available databases, this review discusses the extensive understanding of the different approaches for enhancements of SG in S. rebaudiana. To improve the SG biosynthesis, application of different stress, elicitors, induction of polyploidy, cell culture, genetic engineering, genomics and transcriptomic approaches have been addressed. A brief discussion about the cloning and characterization of important genes of the metabolic pathway of SG biosynthesis is also discussed along with various metabolic engineering pathways viz. methylerythritol 4- phosphate (MEP) and mevalonate (MVA) pathways. This review paper also discusses the different aspects as well as the effects of various nanoparticles on S. rebaudiana growth and development, as well as SG biosynthesis.
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The leaf content of the sweetener stevioside was investigated with regard to the morphological characteristics of plants of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni grown in one of the most productive areas of Paraguay. The HPLC quantitative determination of stevioside was carried out on dried leaves of 13 morphologically different types of plants. The average levels of stevioside in the dried leaves varied from 102.3 to 134.6 g kg(-1). This variability (about 30% in respect to the minimum value), related to the ratio of the weight of the leaf to that of the whole aerial part, has furnished the first useful information for purposes of associating the types of growth habits with stevioside output.
Stevia rebaudiana is a natural herbal low calorie sweetener of the asteraceae family. The study was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of stevia extract on selected 20 hypercholesterolemic women. The preparation of stevia extract was standardized in the laboratory, 20 ml of extract was used to intervene one subject in a glass of water (200ml). The results revealed that the consumption of stevia extract reduced the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C significantly while an increased in HDL-C was noted which is desirable. Thus it is concluded that stevia extract have hypolipidaemic effect and can be used to reduce the risk of CVD in future.
Stevia rebaudiana hot water extracts were shown to have highly antioxidant activity against sardine oil and linoleic acid. The most active fraction which was reported in the previous paper contained large amounts of potassium. The activity was decreased by the removal of cations from the fraction by ion exchange chromatography. The activity was recovered by the addition of potassium carbonate to the fraction from which cations were removed. It was suggested that the potassium ion participated in the antioxidant activity of S. rebaudiana. When antioxidant activities of inorganic salts were investigated, it was ascertained that potassium carbonate (K2CO3), potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) functioned as antioxidant compounds against linoleic acid. The most active inorganic salt was potassium carbonate. It was suggested that the function of the antioxidant activities of S. rebaudiana was mainly due to the scavenging of free radicals and next to the scavenging of superoxides. The activity of potassium carbonate was also mainly due to the scavenging activity of free radicals.
In vitro digestibility of stevioside, a natural sweetener, by various digestive enzymes was investigated. Stevioside was incubated with salivary α-amylase, pancreatic α-amylase, saliva, pepsin, gastric secretion, pancreatin and intestinal brush border membrane enzymes of mice, rats, and hamsters as well as with intestinal microflora of mice, rats, hamsters and humans. None of these enzymes digested stevioside except the microflora of the rat and hamster cecal contents, which hydrolyzed it to steviol, and the microflora of mouse cecal content and human feces, which hydrolyzed it to both steviol and steviol-16, 17α-epoxide. Steviol-16, 17α-epoxide was then completely converted back into steviol. These results suggest that steviol might be the only metabolite produced by the intestinal microflora from various animal species and humans.
The antioxidant activity against sardine oil and linoleic acid of hot water extract from Stevia rebaudiana was compared to DL-alpha-tocopherol (DL-alpha-Toc), butyl hydroxy anisol and green tea extract. The sardine oil oxidation was assessed from the formation of peroxides. The concentration of odor components was measured by a portable type odor concentration meter equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor. Linoleic acid oxidation was assessed by the ferric thiocyanate method. Stebia rebaudiana extract effectively inhibited hydroperoxide and volatile component formations in sardine oil. The oxidation was more effectively inhibited by the hot water extract from S, rebaudiana than DL-alpha-Toc or green tea extract at the same concentration in sardine oil. Additive effects were observed when the extract was mixed DL-alpha-Toc or citric acid. Some effective fractions were separated from the extract by dialysis, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Some of the antioxidant fractions were polyphenolic compounds. The component which showed the highest antioxidant activity contained large amounts of potassium.