Improving Propensity Score Weighting Using Machine Learning

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA 19102, U.S.A.
Statistics in Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.83). 11/2009; 29(3):337-46. DOI: 10.1002/sim.3782
Source: PubMed


Machine learning techniques such as classification and regression trees (CART) have been suggested as promising alternatives to logistic regression for the estimation of propensity scores. The authors examined the performance of various CART-based propensity score models using simulated data. Hypothetical studies of varying sample sizes (n=500, 1000, 2000) with a binary exposure, continuous outcome, and 10 covariates were simulated under seven scenarios differing by degree of non-linear and non-additive associations between covariates and the exposure. Propensity score weights were estimated using logistic regression (all main effects), CART, pruned CART, and the ensemble methods of bagged CART, random forests, and boosted CART. Performance metrics included covariate balance, standard error, per cent absolute bias, and 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) coverage. All methods displayed generally acceptable performance under conditions of either non-linearity or non-additivity alone. However, under conditions of both moderate non-additivity and moderate non-linearity, logistic regression had subpar performance, whereas ensemble methods provided substantially better bias reduction and more consistent 95 per cent CI coverage. The results suggest that ensemble methods, especially boosted CART, may be useful for propensity score weighting.

    • "Cependant cette approche semble peu réalisable dans la pratique notamment en raison des données manquantes. Concernant la méthode à utiliser pour la création du score, des approches alternatives à la régression logistique comme les arbres de régression, ou le machine learning peuvent être utilisés [9]. Si davantage de modalités thérapeutiques ( > 2) sont étudiées, les analyses discriminantes ou en cluster (calcul de distances) peuvent être envisagées [10]. "

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    • "how many iterations), and a shrinkage parameter (i.e., the " learning rate " or how much change to make for each new regression tree) (Karwa et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2010; McCaffrey et al., 2004; Westreich et al., 2010; Wyss et al., 2014 "
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    • "However , weighting approaches may yield biased and inefficient estimates when the propensity score model is misspecified (Kang and Schafer, 2007). This problem can be overcome using a boosted classification and regression trees approach (boosted CART; McCaffrey et al., 2004), which can produce very accurate estimated propensity scores (Lee et al., 2010). However, no propensity score techniques can account for the possible presence of unobserved confounders. "
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