Suh I, Filetti S, Vriens MR, Guerrero MA, Tumino S, Wong M et al.. Distinct loci on chromosome 1q21 and 6q22 predispose to familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer: a SNP array-based linkage analysis of 38 families. Surgery 146: 1073-1080

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.38). 12/2009; 146(6):1073-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.surg.2009.09.012
Source: PubMed


Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is associated with earlier onset and more aggressive behavior than its sporadic counterpart. Although candidate chromosomal loci have been proposed for isolated families with variants of FNMTC, the etiology of most cases is unknown. We aimed to identify loci linked to FNMTC susceptibility using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based linkage analysis in a broad sampling of affected families.
We enrolled and pedigreed 38 FNMTC families. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 110 relatives, and hybridized to Affymetrix SNP arrays. We performed genotyping and linkage analysis, calculating exponential logarithm-of-the-odds (LOD) scores to identify chromosomal loci with a significant likelihood of linkage.
Forty-nine affected and 61 unaffected members of FNMTC families were genotyped. In pooled linkage analysis of all families, 2 distinct loci with significant linkage were detected at 6q22 and 1q21 (LOD=3.3 and 3.04, respectively).
We have identified 2 loci on chromosomes 1 and 6 that demonstrate linkage in a broad sampling of FNMTC families. Our findings suggest the presence of germline mutations in heretofore-undiscovered genes at these loci, which may potentially lead to accurate genetic tests. Future studies will consist of technical validation and subset analyses of higher-risk pedigrees.

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    • "Usually the familial NMTC pedigrees are small with 3 or fewer affected individuals; autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance is usually suggested in these families. In the past these findings provided the rationale for linkage studies in NMTC families, which identified at least 7 different genomic regions on chromosomes 1q21 [13], 2q21 [14], 6q22 [15], 8p23 [16], 8q24 [17], 14q31 [18], and 19p32 [19] showing linkage peaks presumably harboring predisposing genes. In most cases no predisposing gene mutation has been described. "
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C) in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC). This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA) is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In linkage studies, several groups have identified chromosomal loci associated with FNMTC: 1q21, 2q21, 6q22, 8p23.1-p22, and 19p13.2 [7],[8], [9],[10], [11], [12],[13]. Mutation analysis has shown that kindreds with FNMTC do not have germ line mutations in BRAF, RAS, and RET/PTC genes that are commonly mutated somatically in thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin [2]. Furthermore, analysis of somatic mutations (BRAF, RAS, and RET/PTC) in sporadic and familial papillary thyroid cancer tumor samples showed no difference in the rate and type of mutations in these histologies [2], [6], [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular basis and characteristics of familial non-medullary thyroid cancer are poorly understood. In this study, we performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of familial and sporadic papillary thyroid cancer tumor samples. Genome wide miRNA profiling of sporadic and familial papillary thyroid cancer was performed. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Ectopic expression of miR-886-3p in thyroid cancer lines was performed to identify pathways targeted by the miRNA, as well as, to determine its effect on tumor cell biology. We found four differentially expressed miRNAs between familial and sporadic papillary thyroid cancer tumor samples. MiR-886-3p and miR-20a were validated to be differentially expressed by 3- and 4-fold, respectively. Pathway analysis of genome-wide expression data on cells overexpressing miR-886-3p and target prediction analysis showed genes involved in DNA replication and focal adhesion pathways were regulated by miR-886-3p. Overexpression of miR-886-3p in thyroid cancer cell lines significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, the number and size of spheroids and cellular migration. Additionally, overexpression of miR-886-3p increased the number of cells in S phase. Our findings for the first time suggest that miR-886-3p plays an important role in thyroid cancer tumor cell biology and regulates genes involved in DNA replication and focal adhesion. Thus, miR-886-3p may play a role in the initiation and or progression of papillary thyroid cancer.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as 'TRKA'), RET ('Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene', OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3'- end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners.We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabasepair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC's). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding techniques for fine mapping of breakpoints in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · The Open Cell Signaling Journal
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