Effect of chronic treatment of Carvedilol on oxidative stress in an intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced model of dementia in rats
Oxidative stress is emerging as an important issue in the pathogenesis of dementia. This study was conducted to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of carvedilol against streptozotocin induced behavioural alterations and oxidative damage in rats. An intracerbroventricular cannula was implanted in the lateral ventricles of male Wistar rats. Various behavioural (locomotor activity, Morris water maze task) and biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, nitrate concentration, catalase, acetylcholinesterase, reduced glutathione and protein) were assessed. Intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin caused a significant memory deficit as evaluated in the Morris water maze task paradigms, and caused marked oxidative damage as indicated by significant increases in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels, and depletion of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione levels. It also caused a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Chronic administration of carvedilol (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) for a period of 25 days starting 4 days before streptozotocin administration resulted in an improvement in memory retention, and attenuation of oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase activity. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of carvedilol in preventing cognitive deficits as well as the oxidative stress caused by intracerbroventicular administration of streptozotocin in rats. Carvedilol may have potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.