Ancient landscape, settlement dynamics and non-destructive archaeology : Czech research project 1997-2002 = Dávnověká krajina a sídla ve světle nedestruktivní archeologie : český výzkumný projekt 1997-2002 /

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... Bagge Nielsen & Dam 1999, Gojda et al. 2004, Bøe Sollund et al. 2006. Det er derimot vanskelig å finne tilsvarende eksempler innenfor en norsk geografisk kontekst (se for øvrig Kleppe 2000 om arkeologi og GIS). ...
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Guttormsen, T. S. 2007. Landscape and historical GIS. Historical landscape analysis in Vestre Slidre, Oppland county. – NIKU Rapport 12. 43. p. In Norwegian. The aim of this report is to focus on the advantages of using historical maps and historical aerial photos in landscape studies for the purpose of monitoring cultural heritage. The case used in the study is the traditional mountain pastures and the agricultural landscape which constitutes the municipality of Vestre Slidre in Oppland County, Eastern Norway. Based on an analysis of historical change, the deep historical phenomena and structures are documented and discussed as a knowledge base for cultural heritage monitoring. The analysis was carried out as a part of the monitoring research project DEMOTEC-N. While working with the project we discovered that there are abundant and diverse sources of historical maps and photos available in Norway. However, in this field of research only few Norwegian projects have been taking advantages of these sources compared to similar projects in Sweden and Denmark. In general, these historical sources have been used to reconstruct past landscapes or to retrieve past traces in present landscapes. The advantage of using these sources in studying historical change and as part of GIS-applications, are rarely investigated. In the report the use of historical maps and historical aerial photos are highlighted in the effort of defining time series in the landscape.
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The long-term and extensive rescue excavation in the sand quarry in Vliněves documented, among other things, occupation from the Proto-Eneolithic period dating to approximately 4100 BC. A total of four settlement features, numerous intrusions and, above all, an interrupted ditch, 130 m of which was investigated, were recorded. The four settlement features contained Late Jordanów culture pottery, accompanied by sporadic Michelsberg culture vessel forms. The same pottery was recorded in the ditch. The accuracy of the dating of the primary function of the ditch within the given interval is enhanced by important finds from its bottom, including nearly complete vessels, and the radiocarbon dating of human burials. However, the finds indicate that the definitive filling of the ditch occurred only at the very end of the Bohemian Eneolithic, i.e. during the course of the third millennium BC.
During an aerial archeological survey performed in spring 2009, we detected positive cropmarks (increased biomass production) indicating waste pits in the subsoil in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stand. Based on pottery samples, the waste pits were dated to the end of the twelfth century or to the first half of the thirteenth century. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences in the soil chemical properties in arable and subsoil layers between cropmarks and the surrounding stands (controls) with normal crop growth. We also investigated how plant performance and biomass chemical properties differed between the cropmarks and controls. There were no differences in pH between cropmarks and controls in the 0–20cm arable layer, but a substantially higher pH was recorded in the subsoil layer (30–40cm) in cropmarks compared to controls, indicating deposited wood ash. Similar results were recorded for plant available (Mehlich III) P, Ca, Mg, As and Zn concentrations. Plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, tiller density, spike density and standing dry matter biomass were substantially higher in cropmarks than in controls on both sampling dates (25 May and 18 July 2009). Plant nutrition (N, K, Ca and Zn) was substantially improved in cropmarks compared to controls. A substantially higher density of roots was recorded in the subsoil of cropmarks compared to controls. In Central European lowlands, ancient wood ash in the subsoil can irreversibly increase stand productivity. The presence of subsoil archeological features within the agricultural landscape can substantially increase the spatial variability of crop production on arable fields. KeywordsAerial archeological survey–Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrition–Positive cropmarks–Soil chemical properties–Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)
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