Een sieraad voor de Stad. De Amsterdamse Hortus Botanicus 1638-1993.

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... In 1682 the decision was taken to establish a new botanical garden in Amsterdam, with equal emphasis on horticultural display and medical use. This was to have a profound effect on the study of botany in the Netherlands, owing to the close links that existed between high-ranking VOC officials, academics, politicians and influential citizens of the day (Wijnands et al., 1994). One of the founders of the new Amsterdam Hortus was Joan Huydecoper van Marseveen, Burgomaster of Amsterdam and a Director of the VOC (Fig. 4). ...
... Huydecoper was instrumental in the appointment of his two nephews, Joan Bacx van Herentals and Simon van der Stel, as successive Governors at the Cape (1676-1678 and 1679-1699, respectively). Part of their (unofficial) brief was to see to the dispatch of live plants, propagules, herbarium material and botanical illustrations to the Amsterdam garden (Wijnands et al., 1994). A total of 227 plant species originating from the Western Cape were introduced into the Amsterdam Hortus during the period 1682-1710 (Wijnands, 1983). ...
The earliest inhabitants of South Africa are believed to be the Khoi-Khoi and San peoples, whose knowledge of economic botany is extensive. Their ethnomedical practice, based on the plant species indigenous to the region, is an oral tradition and particularly susceptible to disruption. The culture of both peoples has during the past 350 years come under increasing threat of extinction, resulting in the likely loss to science of important ethnomedical knowledge. While written records of Khoi-San traditional medical practice are preserved in English, they mainly cover the period from 1800 onward. Earlier written records do exist, but do not appear to have been adequately screened. The present study was undertaken in order to complete the historical written record by critically examining all potential sources of Khoi and San ethnomedical information, for the years 1650-1800. These sources comprised journals of exploratory expeditions, herbarium specimens, published academic works and archival records associated with the activities of the former Dutch East India Company (VOC) at the Cape. The results of the search show that the VOC had a great interest in Khoi and San traditional medicines and attempted to record this knowledge. The VOC archives in particular represent a largely untapped source of ethnomedical information with potential application in health care, new drug development and intellectual property protection.
... However, there is no record of a herbarium created with plants growing in the hortus of Amsterdam in the early 18 th century. The Hortus Botanicus in Amsterdam was established by Jan Commelin (1629Commelin ( -1692 (Wijnands et al., 1994). ...
... Some parts of the collection went to Institut de France but the majority was brought to the botanical garden in Geneva. It seems that the private collections originating from Amsterdam were perhaps all acquired by Burman and are now present in Paris and Geneva (Wijnands et al., 1994). Therefore it is unlikely that the Zierikzee herbarium was once part of these herbaria coming from Amsterdam. ...
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In 2017, the Stadhuismuseum in Zierikzee contacted Naturalis Biodiversity Center to identify the dried specimens and determine the origins of an historic herbarium in their collection. The herbarium consists of 371 sheets of which 348 sheets contain specimens and 23 sheets act as book jackets. Various ornaments such as vases are present on the sheets, as well as labels with identifications of the specimens. Two previous studies focused on the conservation of the paper, updating the names of the specimens as well as an initial guess at the origins of the herbarium. However, much information remained unknown. The aim of this MSc project was to identify the plant specimens and trace the origin of the Zierikzee herbarium. To identify the plants, various sources of botanical literature were used and the digital collection of Naturalis. was used to update the historic names on the labels. Various websites were used to determine the distribution of the identified species. The names on the labels were compared with Herman Boerhaave's catalogue of the species growing in the Hortus Botanicus (Boerhaave, 1727). Names not listed in Boerhaave's catalogue were found in other books such as Caspar Bauhin's Pinax theatri botanici (1623) and Jan Commelin's catalogue of plant species growing in the Hortus Botanicus in Amsterdam (Commelin, 1697-1701). Paper experts were consulted to determine the age and the origin of the paper. Of the 348 sheets with specimens, 310 taxa have been identified to species level. We identified a total of 292 unique species in the Zierikzee herbarium, several species were collected more than once. Compositae and Lamiaceae were the most represented families in the herbarium with over 30 species. Most of the species (194) are native to the Netherlands, while 116 species are of exotic origin, of which half are members of the Mediterranean flora. The origin of the herbarium lies most probably in a botanical garden, given the high percentage of exotic species that were not common ornamental species. The names on the old labels, present and readable on 158 sheets, indicate that Boerhaave's catalogue was used as a source to name 141 of the 158 (89,2%) specimens. The type of paper, the vases and other ornaments were also found in the 18 th century D'Oignies herbarium, originating from Leiden and kept in the historic collection of Naturalis. A gardener by the name of Jacob Ligtvoet was in charge of the living collection of the Hortus Botanicus in Leiden during the early 18 th century. He had access to the plants and owned an extensive botanical library. Ligtvoet may have created the herbarium to keep track of all plant species growing in the garden over the years. After his death in 1752, his inheritance was auctioned. In the auction catalogue a 13-volume herbarium was listed. It is likely that this collection is the Zierikzee herbarium. We therefore conclude that the Zierikzee herbarium must have been compiled between 1727 and 1752. 2
... The greenhouse was invented, which made it possible to grow exotic plants in the Dutch Botanic Gardens. 39 It was in 1735, when the young Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus started to work in the greenhouse of VOC director George Clifford in Heemstede. The wealth of exotic plants from Ceylon stimulated Linnaeus to describe and catalogue Clifford's collections, some of which ended up in the Wageningen herbarium 40 , now also part of Naturalis. ...
From the first arrival of Europeans at Indonesia’s shores, they created and circulated knowledge. The Portuguese, trading with Java and the Moluccas from the early sixteenth century, were the first to publish their travel accounts, and much of our knowledge of the region around that time is based on their reports. After 1600, they no longer played an important role in the Indonesian Archipelago, and their days of knowledge creation concerning the region were over.1
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The life of the German chemist-apothecary Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt (1773-1854) offers a fascinating window on Dutch culture and society in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. By providing an in-depth analysis of his multi-faceted career in the Netherlands and the Malay Archipelago, this study sheds light on the co-evolutionary character of science, governance, and empire. It argues that the seeds of Reinwardt's professional flexibility lay in his practical training in one of Amsterdam's chemical workshops and his socialization in a broader cultural context where the improvement of society and economy played a crucial role. The book can be downloaded here:
Now available in English, Styles of Knowing explores the development of various scientific reasoning processes in cultural-historical context. Influenced by historian Alistair Crombie's Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition, Chunglin Kwa organizes his book according to six distinct styles: deductive, experimental, analytical-hypothetical, taxonomic, statistical, and evolutionary. Instead of featuring individual scientific disciplines in different chapters, each chapter explains the historical applications of each style's unique criterion for good science. Kwa shows also how styles have influenced each other and transformed over time. In a chapter written especially for American audiences, Kwa examines how changes in engineering and technology during the twentieth century affected the balance among the various styles of science. Based on extensive research in Greek and Latin primary sources and numerous modern secondary sources, Kwa demonstrates the heterogeneous nature of scientific discovery. This accessible and innovative introduction to scientific change provides a foundational history for the classroom, historians, and nonspecialists.
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