Article

The non-extractive economic value of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in the Turks and Caicos Islands

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Abstract

Increases in spiny lobster size and abundance have been observed within some marine protected areas (MPAs). To date, the potential economic benefits of these changes have been assumed to derive from the effects of emigration of adult lobster to adjacent fishing grounds and/or increased larval export to downstream nurseries that sustain fisheries. According to economic theory, these effects may provide consumptive (extractive) economic value to the fishery but are only part of the total economic value. Non-extractive economic value resulting from viewing wildlife may also have an important impact on the overall economic viability of some MPAs. This research examined scuba diver preferences in the Turks and Caicos Islands using a paired comparison conjoint survey and assessed the influence that spiny lobster (Panulirusargus) presence had on market share for dive charter packages of varying environmental quality and price. Market simulations showed significant increases in market share for dives where spiny lobsters were present, implying, for the first time, that spiny lobsters have non-extractive economic value. This non-extractive value of spiny lobster may have an important impact on the economic viability of some MPAs, especially those in regions like the Turks and Caicos Islands that are highly dependent on marine-oriented nature tourism.

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... It is known that snorkelers and divers often prefer viewing`big stu¡ ' andìcon ' species ( Williams and Polunin 2000 ) . Research has demonstrated that divers signi¢cantly prefer viewing larger and / or more abundant spiny lobster ( Rudd 2001a ) and Nassau grouper ( Rudd and Tupper 2002 ) , species that might bene¢t from marine reserves . Similarly , economists have found that`£ag - ship ' or icon species such as elephants and rhinoceros have value in attracting tourists ( see van Kooten and Bulte 2000 ) . ...
... too porous , there may be no advantage to protecting an area ; conversely , when boundaries are impermeable , spillover to adjacent ¢sheries will not be possible . Contiguous habitat is most conducive for spillover ( Roberts 2000 ) , but in practice marine reserve design has often been based on geographical features that limit spillover ( e . g . Rudd et al . 2001 ) . Alternatively , spillover may occur via random movements , independent of resident ¢sh density if the home range size of the ¢sh is larger than the area of the marine reserve ( Kramer and Chapman 1999 ; Tupper and Juanes 1999 ) . In general , larger ¢shes have larger home range sizes ( Zeller 1997 ) and are more likely to cross rese ...
... eaking rules under governance regimes that are perceived as illegitimate ( Crawford and Ostrom 1995 ) . When social norms do not reward constraint or when monitoring and credible threats of sanctions are ine¡ective , we seè paper parks ' where users vio - late marine reserve access rules with impunity ( Alder 1996 ; McClanahan 1999 ; Mascia 2000 ; Rudd et al . 2001 ) . Compliance with rules is most probable , and hence the transaction costs of management reduced , when there is congruence between norms and formal rules ( Ostrom 1990 ; Mascia 2000 ) . For example , the Samoan Fisheries Act ( 1988 ) recognizes local village ¢shery management by laws ( Zann 1999 ) , and enhances the capacity of local ...
Article
"Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost saving advantages relating to reserve monitoring and enforcement. Marine reserves are, however, only one of a suite of possible policy options that might be used to achieve conservation and fisheries management objectives and have rarely been the focus of rigorous policy analyses that consider a full range of economic costs and benefits, including the transaction costs of management. If credible analyses are not undertaken, there is a danger that current enthusiasm for marine reserves may wane as economic performance fails to meet presumed potential. Fully accounting for the value of ecological services flowing from marine reserves requires consideration of increased size and abundance of focal species within reserve boundaries, emigration of target species from reserves to adjacent fishing grounds, changes in ecological resilience, and behavioral responses of fishers to spatially explicit closures. Expanding policy assessments beyond standard cost-benefit analysis also requires considering the impact of social capital on the costs of managing fisheries. In the short term, the amount of social capital that communities possess and the capacity of the State to support the rights of individuals and communities will affect the relative efficiency of marine reserves. Reserves may be the most efficient policy option when both Community and State capacity is high, but may not be when one and/or the other is weak. In the longer term, the level of social capital that a society possesses and the level of uncertainty in ecological and social systems will also impact the appropriate level of devolution or decentralization of fisheries governance. Determining the proper balance of the 'State' and the 'Community' in tropical fisheries governance will require broad comparative studies of marine reserves and alternative policy tools."
... Other research carried out by SFS students included attempts to collect LK from marine fishery harvesters however these efforts have been met with little success to date (Rudd, 2001). In one case, harvesters were criticised because they were reporting to the students on fish caught under the required size limits. ...
... In one case, harvesters were criticised because they were reporting to the students on fish caught under the required size limits. Since that time harvesters have been hesitant to talk to researchers for fear of reprimand or other repercussions (Rudd, 2001). Other fishery research conducted in the TCI includes the modelling of Conch and Bonefish movement and breeding patterns (Rudd, 2001;Rudd et al, in press, Danylchuk & Clark, 2001). ...
... Since that time harvesters have been hesitant to talk to researchers for fear of reprimand or other repercussions (Rudd, 2001). Other fishery research conducted in the TCI includes the modelling of Conch and Bonefish movement and breeding patterns (Rudd, 2001;Rudd et al, in press, Danylchuk & Clark, 2001). ...
... In the tropics, the tourism industry is an important part of many economies and there has been rapid growth in nature-based tourism (Gössling, 1999). Viewing marine wildlife is recognized as one of the important services flowing from healthy ecosystems and providing economic value to nature-based tourists (e.g., Shafer & Inglis, 2000;Williams & Polunin, 2000;Rudd, 2001). Large Nassau groupers are often featured prominently in dive industry advertising and promotional materials; it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that divers derive well being from viewing Nassau grouper and that Nassau grouper, consequently, provide nonextractive economic value for dive tourists. ...
... In the baseline profile, a single small (2.27 kg) Nassau grouper was observed per 20-minute dive. The macrofauna variables in the experiment were held constant across all simulations: no spiny lobster, sea turtles, or reef sharks were observed (see Rudd, 2001, for results of macrofauna simulations). ...
... Market shares were not significantly different from baseline for older divers when Nassau grouper varied in size, but they were when there were increases in abundance to 6 or 12 fish per dive. In simulations of macrofauna abundance, market shares for older divers were not significantly different in the presence or absence of spiny lobster but did exhibit significant differences from baseline in the presence of both sea turtles and reef sharks (Rudd, 2001). The differences in market shares for simulations with different animals suggest that the results are likely due to diver preferences rather than congestion effects. ...
Article
Since many fisheries are size-selective, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is expected to increase both the average size and abundance of exploited species, such as the valuable but vulnerable Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). Increases in mean size and/or abundance of protected species within MPAs may also provide nonextractive economic value to recreationalists. In this research, we assessed scuba diver preferences for viewing Nassau grouper and the marginal tradeoffs that divers exhibited between fish size and abundance and between dive group size and price in the Turks and Caicos Islands. We used results from a paired comparison conjoint survey to develop market share simulations of dive site choice. Market shares increased significantly for sites with increased Nassau grouper abundance and mean size. This implies that Nassau groupers provide nonextractive economic value to divers. Our results suggest that accounting for the nonextractive value of increased fish abundance and size may influence the economic viability of MPAs.
... In the tropics, the tourism industry is an important part of many economies and there has been rapid growth in nature-based tourism (Gössling, 1999). Viewing marine wildlife is recognized as one of the important services flowing from healthy ecosystems and providing economic value to nature-based tourists (e.g., Shafer & Inglis, 2000;Williams & Polunin, 2000;Rudd, 2001). Large Nassau groupers are often featured prominently in dive industry advertising and promotional materials; it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that divers derive well being from viewing Nassau grouper and that Nassau grouper, consequently, provide nonextractive economic value for dive tourists. ...
... In the baseline profile, a single small (2.27 kg) Nassau grouper was observed per 20-minute dive. The macrofauna variables in the experiment were held constant across all simulations: no spiny lobster, sea turtles, or reef sharks were observed (see Rudd, 2001, for results of macrofauna simulations). ...
... Market shares were not significantly different from baseline for older divers when Nassau grouper varied in size, but they were when there were increases in abundance to 6 or 12 fish per dive. In simulations of macrofauna abundance, market shares for older divers were not significantly different in the presence or absence of spiny lobster but did exhibit significant differences from baseline in the presence of both sea turtles and reef sharks (Rudd, 2001). The differences in market shares for simulations with different animals suggest that the results are likely due to diver preferences rather than congestion effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since many fisheries are size-selective, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is expected to increase both the average size and abundance of exploited species, such as the valuable but vulnerable Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus ). Increases in mean size and/or abundance of protected species within MPAs may also provide nonextractive economic value to recreationalists. In this research, we assessed scuba diver preferences for viewing Nassau grouper and the marginal tradeoffs that divers exhibited between fish size and abundance and between dive group size and price in the Turks and Caicos Islands. We used results from a paired comparison conjoint survey to develop market share simulations of dive site choice. Market shares increased significantly for sites with increased Nassau grouper abundance and mean size. This implies that Nassau groupers provide nonextractive economic value to divers. Our results suggest that accounting for the nonextractive value of increased fish abundance and size may influence the economic viability of MPAs.
... No formal price determination research has been conducted for TCI lobster to date. Recent research (Rudd, 2001) has shown that spiny lobster has non-extractive economic value, increasing divers' willingness to pay for dive charters in which lobster are observed. ...
... TCI landings converted to meat equivalent using 40% meat yield. USA conch imports by origin(TCI, bottom; Jamaica, middle; other, top), 1989-2001 (calendar year) 1982 1985 1988 19911997 2000 USA Conch Import Price (US $ per kg) USA mean annual conch import prices byorigin, 1976-2001. ...
Article
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The Turks and Caicos Islands is a sparsely populated island country located at the southern end of the Bahamian Archipelago. The Caicos Bank has supported an export- oriented queen conch fishery for over 100 years. More recently, an export-oriented spiny lobster fishery developed and a burgeoning domestic market for reef fishes is currently developing as local tourism grows. This paper provides an overview of fisheries landings and trade in the Turks and Caicos over the past century.
... However, these value components encompass a significant portion of the TEV of the Asian elephant (Santiapillai and Wijesundara 2002), perhaps because the elephant is an integral part of many Asian cultures (De Silva, 1998). Additionally, as Rudd (2001) points out, a large body of literature on non-market economic valuation widely acknowledges that the non-consumptive use value of scenic amenity, including wildlife, contributes to human wellbeing and hence provides economic benefit to the community at large. The purpose of this study is to assess the relative importance of the use and non-use value of the Asian elephant from user and non-user perspectives by analysing results from a contingent valuation survey of a sample of urban residents in three selected housing schemes in Colombo. ...
... One of marine organisms that have a significant economic value as a popular consumer product is a spiny lobster [ 5 ]. This crustacean has become one of favorite seafoods and have a high price in the restaurant [ 6 ]. ...
Conference Paper
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Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.
... Thurstone 1927 ) , its fi elds of application have more recently been expanded to include, among others, acoustics, animal ecology, economics, epidemiology, food science and sports. Furthermore, its use in eliciting public preferences and judgments in an environmental study setting has been justi fi ed by a number of studies that employed this method with a similar intention (Peterson and Brown 1998 ;Rutherford et al. 1998 ;Chuenpagdee et al. 2001 ;Rudd 2001 ;Wattage and Mardle 2005 ;Quah et al. 2006 ) . The method begins by establishing a set of objects under the theme of a particular study, whether it is resource losses, damaging activities or community programs. ...
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Illegal fishing is a problem widely observed in fisheries around the world and Lake Malawi is no exception. The long alleviation attempts of the central government of Malawi based on the strategy of enforcement and sanctions have proved largely ineffective leading to the persistence of this governability challenge. An alternate perspective is sought in this chapter by emphasizing people’s fundamental notions such as values, images and principles. In order to better understand what they look like and how they may differ amongst stakeholders, the damage schedule was employed. The results display a significant disparity in what governors and resource users regard as a value priority, with the former group judging conservation to be a top concern, while the latter strongly favors the advancement of economic wellbeing. This finding demonstrates socio-economic diversity in people’s underlying views about the fishery, which provides partial but important insights towards the alleviation of illegal fishing in Lake Malawi. Such diversity poses a certain limit to the governability of this fisheries system, and must be made aware and genuinely acted upon by all those involved in governance.
... An efficient means for synthesising the wealth of phylogenetic inferences for arthropods would therefore be valuable. We have chosen Achelata as an initial study clade since they are relatively small and well-documented, and contain representatives that have both consumptive (food source) and non-consumptive economic value (e.g., Palinuridae) [28]. ...
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While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs), invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters) as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK) and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.
... For example, Dixon et al. (2000) suggest that gross revenues associated with dive tourism in Bonaire were over US$23 million in 1991, while annual operating Components of total economic value Cesar et al. (2003), Ruitenbeek and Cartier (1999), Gustavson (1998Gustavson ( , 2002 Schuhmann et al., 2013;Parsons and Thur, 2008;Casey et al., 2010;Hargreaves-Allen, 2011;Beharry-Borg and Scarpa, 2010. Estimations of species-specific values associated with reef-based recreation Rudd (2001), Rudd and Tupper (2002), Rudd et al. (2001), Schuhmann et al. (2013), Hargreaves-Allen (2011) Estimations of coral reef ecosystem service values Cesar et al. (2003), [ETI] EstudiosTécnicos Inc. (2007), Burke and Maidens (2004), Cartier and Ruitenbeek (1999), Cesar et al. (2000), van Beukering et al. (2009), van Beukering et al. (2009, Hargreaves-Allen (2010b), (2011), Burke et al. (2008aBurke et al. ( , 2008b, Cooper et al. (2008Cooper et al. ( , 2009 (2000); Spash et al. (2000), Hargreaves-Allen (2010a), Blommestein Associates (2011) Financial analysis of MPAs Geoghegan (1998), Woodfield (1997), Buchan et al. (1997) Estimations of WTP and recreation in marine protected areas Terk and Knowlton (2008), Thur (2010), Da Costa (2010), Woodfield (1997), van't Hof (1998, Wielgus et al. (2010), Edwards (2008), Planter and Piña (2006), Dharmaratne et al. (2000), Walling (1996), Bunce and Gustavson (1998), Bunce et al. (1999), Ruitenbeek and Cartier (1999), Gustavson (1998Gustavson ( , 2002, Spash (2000), Spash et al. (2000), Reid- Grant andBhat (2009), Huber (2005), Dixon et al. (1993Dixon et al. ( , 1995Dixon et al. ( , 2000, Pendleton (1995), Uyarra (2002), Uyarra et al. (2005) ...
... lingness-to-pay for a number of tropical forest ecosystem services amounted to 30% of household income but after group discussions, key ecosystem services became priceless because participants were unwilling to trade them in the choice experiment scenarios, regardless of financial gain. Wild Earth, XminY and Aberystwyth University funded the study.Rudd (2002) examined the non-extractive services provided by the increased size and abundance of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in MPAs in the Turks and Caicos Islands, in the British West Indies. The average willingness-to-pay for better wildlife viewing was estimated at US$5.64 per person per trip. The potential revenues associated ...
Technical Report
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Valuation and accounting of island ecosystem services is fundamental to our ability to achieve sustainable green growth in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), also known as large ocean states. SIDS are characterized inter alia by (a) a well-defined set of in situ socio-economic-cultural and governance conditions; (b) a population’s clear perception and use of island ecosystem services; (c) high richness in natural capital; and (d) the delicate nature of the many ecosystems that support livelihoods and local economies. In this context, the Guidance Manual on Valuation and Accounting of Ecosystem Services for SIDS provides a methodological approach to “read” these conditions, and their respective implications, in terms of the selection, design and implementation of island ecosystem services valuation and accounting exercises. The process of ecosystem service valuation and accounting specifically for SIDS is fundamental to correct and tailor the use of the various techniques in this context. From a technical and methodological point of view, this guidance manual also informs policymakers that there is no simple solution with respect to the valuation and accounting of ecosystem services for SIDS. The choice of the economic valuation and accounting technique is ultimately anchored in the type of economic-policy and the category of island ecosystem services that it targets, i.e. provisioning, regulating or cultural service. This manual gives policymakers a ranking of the most suitable valuation techniques for application in the context of SIDS – including monetary valuation techniques such as market prices, production function, travel costs, hedonic pricing, cost-based, stated preferences and value transfer as well as ecological production function (non-monetary valuation technique). A survey of the ecosystem service valuation literature in SIDS revealed that less than a quarter of the studies reviewed were commissioned by governments or governmental agencies. Among these, market demand and supply approaches, including the production function technique, are shown to be the most frequently used.
... Fisheries of fi cers are closely tied to the Protected Areas Division within the same ministry, and a series of marine fi sheries reserves aim to protect key coral reef species from over-exploitation. These marine fi sheries reserves serve as important regional research sites dedicated to maintaining healthy reefs and fi sh populations (Rudd 2001 ;Rudd and Tupper 2002 ;Tupper and Rudd 2002 ;Watson and Munro 2004 ) . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we give a general description of the carbonate bank geology, reef geomorphology and zonation, known biotic communities, coral reef fi sh and fi sheries, marine parks, and assessments of reefs as related to anthropogenic and other threats. TCI is the least prosperous territory, and has the smallest population compared to other western Atlantic British Overseas Territories (Anguilla,Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, and British Virgin Islands), but has the largest shallow water marine resources, including reefs. The chapter concludes with a short overview of the governance and regulatory structure that impact reef management within this island microstate.
... For example, Dixon et al. (2000) suggest that gross revenues associated with dive tourism in Bonaire were over US$23 million in 1991, while annual operating Components of total economic value Cesar et al. (2003), Ruitenbeek and Cartier (1999), Gustavson (1998Gustavson ( , 2002 Schuhmann et al., 2013;Parsons and Thur, 2008;Casey et al., 2010;Hargreaves-Allen, 2011;Beharry-Borg and Scarpa, 2010. Estimations of species-specific values associated with reef-based recreation Rudd (2001), Rudd and Tupper (2002), Rudd et al. (2001), Schuhmann et al. (2013), Hargreaves-Allen (2011) Estimations of coral reef ecosystem service values Cesar et al. (2003), [ETI] EstudiosTécnicos Inc. (2007), Burke and Maidens (2004), Cartier and Ruitenbeek (1999), Cesar et al. (2000), van Beukering et al. (2009), van Beukering et al. (2009, Hargreaves-Allen (2010b), (2011), Burke et al. (2008aBurke et al. ( , 2008b, Cooper et al. (2008Cooper et al. ( , 2009 (2000); Spash et al. (2000), Hargreaves-Allen (2010a), Blommestein Associates (2011) Financial analysis of MPAs Geoghegan (1998), Woodfield (1997), Buchan et al. (1997) Estimations of WTP and recreation in marine protected areas Terk and Knowlton (2008), Thur (2010), Da Costa (2010), Woodfield (1997), van't Hof (1998, Wielgus et al. (2010), Edwards (2008), Planter and Piña (2006), Dharmaratne et al. (2000), Walling (1996), Bunce and Gustavson (1998), Bunce et al. (1999), Ruitenbeek and Cartier (1999), Gustavson (1998Gustavson ( , 2002, Spash (2000), Spash et al. (2000), Reid- Grant andBhat (2009), Huber (2005), Dixon et al. (1993Dixon et al. ( , 1995Dixon et al. ( , 2000, Pendleton (1995), Uyarra (2002), Uyarra et al. (2005) ...
... Improvements in fish populations in reserves can attract more tourists and improve the ability of local communities to capture tourism revenue. Rudd (2001) and Rudd and Tupper (2002), for example, show how tourists in the Turks and Caicos would be willing to pay more for their dives in places with large Nassau groupers and spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus). Sala et al. (2001) suggest that Nassau groupers are worth more in the water in Belize than as meat, based on possibilities of tourism centred on the spawning aggregations of these fish. ...
... measurement of diver preferences and WTP for aspects of underwater quality can, therefore, aid both public and private sector interests in understanding optimal levels of use and support the management of marine recreation and tourism sites. Although the economic value of marine quality characteristics such as coral cover, visibility, and species diversity and encounters have received attention from researchers (e.g., beharry-borg & Scarpa, 2010; hargreaves-Allen, 2011; Parsons & Thur, 2008;rudd, 2001;rudd & Tupper, 2002), measures of WTP to avoid high rates of encounters and crowding in marine settings are notably sparse in the literature. The objective of this article, therefore, is to add to the body of knowledge regarding preferences for site quality by estimating diver WTP to avoid underwater crowding and encounters with other divers. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research estimates willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid high numbers of encounters with other divers at dive sites in barbados and Tobago. A survey of scuba divers from 2007 to 2010 examined demographics, experience, satisfaction with conditions (e.g., coral cover, visibility, diversity of fish and marine life, crowding), dive characteristics (e.g., divers encountered), and maximum WTP for the dive. WTP was a function of dive location, diver income, encounters, and amount paid for the dive. On average, divers may be willing to pay up to US$4.51 per additional diver to avoid encoun-ters with others. results can inform management regarding pricing and spatial planning of reef use and can aid in policies for maximizing economic returns from diving while reducing impacts of div-ing on reefs and diver experiences.
... Marine animals have non-extractive value, which has been measured in Norway by the value that the community placed on the recovery of collapsed lobster stocks (Ojea & Loureiro, 2010). A direct, non-extractive benefit that exists from lobsters is the benefit or enjoyment that recreational user groups (e.g., recreational SCUBA divers and snorkelers) gain from viewing lobsters, which has been quantified for dive charter tourists viewing Panulirus argus in the Turks and Caicos Islands (Rudd, 2001). ...
Book
Management plans and policy for lobster fisheries usually specify the objective of creating economic benefit from harvests, which is best supported by collection of economic data to evaluate management decisions. The economic benefit from several lobster harvests worldwide is measured as “sustainable economic yield”, which is the long-run, sustainable revenue from harvests minus the costs of harvesting. Maximum economic yield (MEY) is increasingly being considered as a formal target for lobster fisheries including in Australian and New Zealand fisheries for Panulirus cygnus, P. ornatus and Jasus edwardsii. Bioeconomic models that combine stock, cost and price information are now being used in lobster fisheries including P. interruptus, P. argus, P. cygnus, J. edwardsii and Homarus americanus to evaluate regulations such as catch limits, season length, gear limits, and gear type. Economics theory has also been influential in the evolution of management systems used to constrain catch, in particular through the increased use of market-based and rights-based systems (ITE, ITQ and TURFs). These aim to provide incentives and mechanisms for transfer of catch to more efficient operators and reward for conservative stock management that protects future harvests. Economic methods can be used to resolve resource sharing issues in lobster fisheries with most research dealing with recreational and commercial interactions.
... Additional studies of reef tourism suggest that attributes beyond reef health are also important to reef tourists. These other attributes include clear water, warm temperatures, and low health risks (Uyarra et al., 2005), the size of the dive group and the price of the dive (Rudd, 2001;Rudd & Tupper, 2002), sharing the experience with others and the variety of experiences on offer (Fitszimmons, 2007). Indeed, weather, staff and infrastructure have been shown to be important in the GBR (Coghlan & Prideaux, in press;Shafer & Inglis, 2000). ...
Article
This study presents a quantitative analysis of visitor satisfaction and its relation to tourism attributes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. It applies a modified version of the importance-performance analysis to determine various attributes’ range of impact on, and asymmetrical contribution to, visitor satisfaction. The analysis of 369 visitor surveys identified a complex relationship between satisfaction and environmental, operational and customer service attributes. It also identified those attributes which have a strong satisfaction-generating potential when they perform well, such as the diversity of the marine life, interactions with other passengers, comfort of the boat, quality of the entertainment, knowledgeable crew, quality of the information provided and the destination of the trip, and attributes with a high dissatisfaction-generating potential when they perform poorly, e.g. customer service, comfort of the trip, weather, quality of the coral, and cost of the trip. The study also considers the use of attribute-based studies of satisfaction within protected-area tourism and the management of visitor experiences.
... Whether or not such results hold in other parts of the GBR or the world in general, remains to be tested in other studies, but anecdotal evidence suggests that they may. Miller [23] found that sharks and rays were listed as the 'best' experience by visitors across a range of GBR sites-a finding confirmed by other researchers [86,87] and a survey conducted in England by the BBC called the '50 most important things to do before you die' found that the general public voted diving with sharks as number two (cited in Miller [23]). Evidently, some species of sharks have significant non-consumptive values and should be protected in some areas of the world. ...
Article
This paper uses the Kristrom (logit) spike model to analyse contingent valuation (payment card) data from a study of 2180 domestic and international visitors taking reef trips to the Northern section of the Great Barrier Reef. It investigates: (a) their willingness to pay for a “100% guaranteed sighting” of several different marine species; and (b) the sensitivity of final estimates to various methodological issues. It finds that final estimates are particularly sensitive to questionnaire design, but that the ranking of species (from most to least ‘valued’) is robust across a range of methodological specifications. The most valued groups of species were (in order): whales and dolphins; sharks and rays; ‘variety’; marine turtles; and finally large fish. Evidently, whale watching is not the only potentially lucrative source of tourism revenue; other marine species may be similarly appealing. These potential revenues need to be considered when making decisions about whether or not to conserve marine species
... The characteristics of the test case that are of interest to this study are highlighted to show points where protected area goals and tourism goals overlap, either intuitively or through evidence from prior studies (e.g. Harriot, 2002;Rudd, 2001;Uyarra et al., 2005;Williams & Polunin, 2000), as they are believed to affect visitor satisfaction. ...
Article
This paper challenges the accepted tenet that conservation creates attractive tourist experiences and high satisfaction rates, and explores the nature and value of partnerships between protected area managers and tourism operators. It develops a model to examine the linkages between natural resource management and nature-based tourism industry performance. The model uses input measures (such as the expertise and financial resources put into maintaining a healthy ecosystem), output measures (visitor perceptions of the environment and their experience of it) and outcome measures (satisfaction scores), to examine these linkages. Whilst the links between input, outputs and outcomes appear relatively weak, results suggest that operators can strengthen those links through high service quality, effective interpretation, in order to produce higher visitor satisfaction. The relationship between the natural environment itself and satisfaction was less clear, perhaps symptomatic of the “messiness” of protected area tourism systems where cause and effects are not always clear. The study suggests that perceptions of the natural environment and the nature-based tourist experience are best mediated through the tour operators’ input into creating and maintaining quality staff, to complement and demonstrate inputs by protected area managers, within the context of long-term partnerships between natural resource management and nature-based tourism.
... Sustainability of the lobster fishery is important not only from the perspective of livelihoods, but also because lobsters serve as important trophic links within littoral habitats (Tewfik, Guzman & Jacome 1998). They also have a non-extractive economic value within dive charter packages (Rudd 2001). In this study, we could not determine whether the spotted spiny lobster fishery in Anguilla is occurring at sustainable rates. ...
Article
Summary • Overfishing has had detrimental impacts on many marine populations. However, measurements of the effect of exploitation are often confounded by intersite differences in habitat quality. • To assess the effects of fishing and habitat quality on spotted spiny lobster Panulirus guttatus, the target of a luxury fishery in the Caribbean, lobster populations were assessed on 12 reefs around Anguilla, British West Indies. Habitat quality was measured by the availability of foraging habitat. Fishing intensity was estimated through interviews with fishers. • Spotted spiny lobster densities were significantly higher on reefs with good-quality habitat than on poorer-quality reefs. However, mean lobster size remained constant regardless of habitat quality. • In contrast, lobsters were on average smaller in heavily fished than in unfished areas because of the removal of the largest size classes by fishers. Changes in densities as a result of fishing could not be detected, and there was no interaction between fishing pressure and habitat quality. • The lack of an observable effect of fishing on lobster population densities may be because fishers more intensively target high-quality habitats. Fishing has probably reduced lobster densities on high-quality reefs to a greater extent than on low-quality reefs, but the high productivity of good-quality sites is still sustaining more intense fishing. • Synthesis and applications. The importance of habitat quality in sustaining P. guttatus populations in the face of intense exploitation suggests that management efforts should be aimed at enhancing reef health. The latter may be achieved through the establishment of no-take areas on good-quality reefs. Such actions should, however, be expected to generate conflicts with stakeholders because these reefs are currently those most heavily exploited. Journal of Applied Ecology (2007) 44, 488–494 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01312.x
... The regression coefficients, known in the marketing literature as part-worth's (the marginal valuations of choice variables), were then available for use in market simulations. See Rudd (2001) for a more detailed explanation of the CVA paired comparison analysis and simulation. ...
Article
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"This study examines the market demand for reef fishes from the artisanal inshore fishery in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). The rapid growth of tourism in the TCI has dramatically increased the demand for seafood but, as yet, the reef fish fishery is relatively undeveloped. Large carnivorous reef fish such as Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus, are particularly vulnerable to overfishing because of their biology and their popularity in restaurants. The local fishing sector is protected by tariffs up to 40% on imported seafood products: theoretically, this should increase demand for local fishes as it makes imported products comparatively more expensive. This study uses a paired comparison conjoint survey of TCI restaurants to assess the effects of changes in the import tariff rate on market demand for fresh domestic and frozen imported grouper, and potential substitute products. I find that the import tariff significantly increases demand for local Nassau grouper and, hence, could place increasing fishing pressure on these vulnerable reef fish. The policy implications and alternatives for Nassau grouper conservation are briefly examined."
... Once considered food for the poor or bait for other fisheries, the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is now one of the most high-priced luxury seafood items in the United States, Europe, and Japan. This species is valued by humans, not only as a food source but also as a source of revenue and as a source of recreational and aesthetic value (Lipcius & Cobb, 1994;Rudd, 2001). Spiny lobsters support some of the largest commercial fisheries world-wide, while concurrently sustaining small-scale artisanal and recreational fisheries (Butler IV, 2001;Seijo, 2007). ...
Article
The Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is the most valuable fishery resource in Cuba. Intensive fishing efforts and deterioration of essential habitats have led to overexploitation of this resource over much of its distributional range. In Cuba, the spiny lobster fishery collapsed in 1990, and since then landings have consistently declined. In response to this crisis and with the aim of obtaining the maximum economic benefits from this highly-prized resource, the Cuban Ministry of Fishery attempted to improve the management of this fishery. The purpose of this study is to identify the biophysical, human and institutional components of the spiny lobster fishery in Cuba and map their interactions to better understand the current management of this fishery and promote its long term sustainability. An exhaustive literature review and an analysis of the current management regulations show that Cuba has met some of the most important criteria that could lead to the long term sustainability of the fishery. The limited access to the fishery, allocation of exclusive territorial rights and quotas, as well as the strict enforcement of the minimum legal size and a lengthening of the closed season have led many researchers to consider the Cuban fishery as one of the best managed spiny lobster fisheries in the world. Despite these regulations, landings have not increased. This indicates that the lobster population has not recovered from the previous overexploitation. The management could be improved by providing protection to the lobsters with the highest reproductive capacity through an increase in the minimum legal size to 81 mm carapace length and establishment of a maximum legal size (142 mm CL). More complete socio-economic impact analysis is necessary to better understand the human components of the fishery. This could help illuminate the reasons for illegal lobster fishing, a common problem in the Cuban waters. Additionally, fishermen integration into the fisheries policy-making process is crucial to achieve effective management regulations. A sustainable spiny lobster fishery in Cuba is essential for the recovery of this transboundary resource both in the local waters and in the Wider Caribbean Region.
... However, these value components encompass a significant portion of the TEV of the Asian elephant (Santiapillai and Wijesundara 2002), perhaps because the elephant an integral part of many Asian cultures (De Silva, 1998). Additionally, as Rudd (2001) points out, a large body of literature in economics on non-market valuation widely acknowledges that the non-consumptive use value of scenic amenity, including wildlife, contributes to human wellbeing and hence provides economic benefit to the community at large. ...
Technical Report
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The aim of the Darwin Plus funded project DPLUS119 ‘Technical assistance programme for effective coastal-marine management in the Turks and Caicos Islands’ is to provide foundations for strategic, sustainable management of the marine and coastal environment of the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) through provision of practical tools and enhanced capabilities to consider biodiversity, conservation, and understand natural capital approaches by decision makers and local communities. Natural Capital approaches are investigated in this study of the shallow marine coastal areas of the Turks and Caicos Islands to create a Natural Capital Asset Register for the first time. The work builds on the marine evidence base of the Turks and Caicos Islands, using key scientific literature and mapping products to develop the Asset Register for twelve benthic habitat classes. This resource may not be fully accessible for all users. If you need a copy in a different or more accessible format, please contact Communications@jncc.gov.uk.
Thesis
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Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of habitat upon which they depend. The complexity of reef fisheries and lack of management resources in southern nations limit the potential effectiveness of policies that focus on single species. As a result, ecosystem-based fisheries management is increasingly viewed as the only real alternative for managing these tropical reef fisheries. There is a widely held view that the devolution of management power from central government managers to local communities is central to the ecosystem-based fisheries management process and that marine reserves are the primary tool by which to implement ecosystem-based fisheries management. Marine reserves can protect or enhance multiple ecosystem services simultaneously and arguments are often made that they are more cost-effective than other management options because they are easy to monitor and enforce. The first theoretically-oriented part of this research emphasizes the role that social capital - the norms, networks and governance infrastructure that facilitates mutually advantageous collective action - plays in ecosystem-based fisheries management. In the second part of the research, I illustrate the utility of taking an institutional analysis approach to ecosystem-based fisheries management policy by examining the case of Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus ) conservation and fisheries management in the Turks and Caicos Islands. While the focus of this case study is a single, small island nation, I believe that the results - that there are substantial incentives for private sector and government actors to oppose implementation of marine reserves - have broader relevance in the debate over the use of marine reserves for tropical fisheries management and conservation. Marine reserves are widely viewed as cost-effective, all-purpose tools for fisheries enhancement and conservation, yet my results suggest that there are policy alternatives - in this case, a commercial trade ban on Nassau grouper in tourist-oriented restaurants - that are much more likely to be effectively implemented and that should be substantially more cost-effective than marine reserves. Market-oriented policy tools should not be under-emphasized in ecosystem-based fisheries management. In instances where local social capital is lacking, they may actually have a higher likelihood of achieving conservation objectives and be more cost-effective than poorly supported marine reserves or 'paper parks'.
Article
A considerable challenge to coastal managers in tourism settings is to provide visitor opportunities to observe pristine coral reef systems, while simultaneously protecting them from tourist impacts. Most dive area management strategies are designed around the concept of restricting numbers of visitors, in a variety of ways, or diverting their attention from pristine areas, to "sacrificial" sites, such as artificial reefs. For this to be economically and socially effective, as well as ecologically successful, further information is required, indicating to what level such policies are acceptable to divers. Insight into the relative importance of a variety of attributes preferred by dive tourists, and trade-offs acceptable to divers, are required. Established interviewing and attitude assessment techniques were used to identify which pristine coral reef area attributes and associated resort facilities most greatly contributed to ecotourist enjoyment at a Fijian dive resort. No significant increases in diver enjoyment were detected at sites representing "pristine reef," compared to more degraded inner lagoon sites. Additionally, managerial and social factors were found to contribute significantly more to tourists' overall trip enjoyment than ecological and environmental factors, and quality of the diving experience. Initial indications are that diver satisfaction can be achieved with less than pristine reefs, and site substitution policies should be accepted by divers. Management strategies attempting to offset degraded dive attributes by enhancing alternative aspects of the holiday environment are also likely to succeed. Effective implementation of policies based on these results has the potential to result in more efficient economic exploitation of reef resources, minimal economic loss, and increased dive industry sustainability.
Article
This paper uses a recent protocol for the collection of local knowledge of harvesters within a small-scale fishery and applies it to the spiny lobster and queen conch fisheries in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The protocol is used to identify marine harvest locations using hard copy mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) as reference media. Fishing areas are transferred from hard copy to digital form and input into a multi-harvester, multi-layer GIS database, which is used to produce a fishing likelihood surface. This surface is then used to identify high-pressure harvest zones for the spiny lobster. The paper considers the implications of this approach for species co-management, where scientific knowledge derived from traditional fisheries data collection and analysis and local knowledge, as reflected by harvester activities and other harvester-derived data on the fisheries, are combined. Collaboration between government officers, fisheries scientists and local resource harvesters is considered to be potentially the most fruitful avenue for species management through the construction and implementation of a management plan that all parties have contributed to and understand.
Article
The role of economic analysis in guiding the sustainable development of estuarine and coastal ecosystems is investigated based on a comprehensive review of the literature on the valuation of the recreation, cultural and aesthetic services. The implications of the findings for the sustainable management of coral reefs, Marine Protected Areas, and Small Island Developing States are discussed. Finally, the potential of meta-analytical benefit transfer and scaling up of values at various aggregation levels is demonstrated in the context of coastal tourism and recreation in Europe. The results of the study support the conclusion that the non-material values provided by coastal and estuarine ecosystems in terms of recreational, cultural and aesthetic services represent a substantial component of human well-being.
Chapter
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Recreational fisheries around the world provide humans with important economic benefits because people derive well being from participating in the act of fishing. Many of these benefits are difficult to value, however, because they are nonmarket in nature and depend on ‘free’ ecological services. Other sectors of society may also depend on these public goods. It is difficult to exclude people from using public goods and there is, therefore, a tendency for them to be under-produced by the private sector. Thus, there is often a need for government policy intervention to ensure the adequate production of public ecological services and resolve conflicts over their use. Policies that affect recreational fisheries have costs and benefits, both for anglers and people in other sectors of society, that must be accounted for if social well being is to be maximized. Economics can be used to quantify the costs and benefits of various policy options available to society, and make recommendations that improve overall economic efficiency. Overall well being (welfare) consists of the sum of ‘surpluses’accruing to producers and consumers. In this chapter, we outline the principles of economic cost-benefit analysis of market and nonmarket values for recreational fisheries using examples from various jurisdictions. We also consider how economic analysis can be used to account for the transaction costs of fisheries management – costs often borne by society as a whole – for different forms of governance.
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Tropical marine protected areas (MPAs) may promote conditions that are attractive to dive tourists, but a systematic basis for assessing their effectiveness in this regard is currently lacking. We therefore interviewed 195 dive tourists in Jamaica to determine which reef attributes they most preferred to see on dives. Attributes relating to fishes and other large animals ('big fishes','other large animals','variety of fishes','abundance of fishes', and 'unusual fishes') were more appreciated than those relating to reef structure and benthos ('reef structure e.g., drop-offs', 'variety of corals','large corals','coral cover','unusual corals', 'sponges', 'unusual algae', 'lobsters, crabs etc.'). We then surveyed reef condition with regard to those aspects (abundance and variety of fishes, number of 'unusual', and number of 'large' fish) at four Caribbean MPAs and reference areas. In two cases, Hol Chan Marine Reserve in Belize and Parque Nacional Punta Frances in Cuba, these fish attributes were more pronounced in the MPAs than in the reference areas. Differences between the Montego Bay Marine Park in Jamaica (MBMP) and adjacent reference areas were mainly restricted to shallow sites (<6m), while at Grand Cayman no differences between fully protected and partially protected areas were detected. Management had not been fully effective in the MBMP in the preceding months, while fishing pressure in the partially protected areas on Grand Cayman was very light. We conclude that, if fishing restrictions are well enforced, western Caribbean MPAs can be expected to be effective in ways appreciated by dive tourists.
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Marine species possess dispersive stages that interconnect subpopulations, which may inhabit ‘source’ and ‘sink’ habitats, where reproduction and emigration either exceed or fall short of mortality and immigration, respectively. Postlarval supply, juvenile density and adult abundance of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, were measured at four widely separated sites spanning >100 km in Exuma Sound, Bahamas. Adult abundance was lowest at a site with the highest postlarval supply and little nursery habitat; hence, it was tentatively classified as a sink. Circulation in Exuma Sound is dominated by large-scale gyres which apparently concentrate and advect postlarvae toward the nominal sink. The remaining three sites, including one marine reserve, had higher adult abundances despite lower postlarval supply, and are therefore tentatively classified as sources. Postlarval supply is probably decoupled from adult abundance by physical transport. Adult abundance is likely decoupled from postlarval supply by the effects of varying habitat quality upon postlarval and juvenile survival, as indicated by non-significant differences among sites in juvenile density. It appears that some sites with suitable settlement and nursery habitat are sources of spawning stock for Panulirus argus, whereas others with poor habitat are sinks despite sufficient postlarval influx.
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Increasing use of marine protected areas for pursuits such as recreational scuba diving may lead to biological damage and reduced amenity values in popular locations. The relationships between biological and amenity values are discussed and the work of Dixonet al. (1993, Meeting ecological and economic goals: marine parks in the Caribbean.Ambio22, 117–125) on allocating divers between sites is extended. It is concluded that the carrying capacity concept and the critical thresholds approach are constrained by a number of limitations on their effectiveness as resource management tools. The optimal allocation of users between recreational dive sites is, subsequently, examined and the potential application of economic instruments to achieve such an allocation is assessed. It is concluded that a judicious blend of regulation and the use of economic instruments will be required to overcome open access and boundary problems, and will provide for better overall management of popular marine recreational sites than is presently the case. Education will also have a significant role to play by increasing environmental awareness and reducing the damaging impacts caused by users of those popular sites.
Article
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Improved management approaches are needed to reduce the rate at which humans are depleting exploited marine populations and degrading marine ecosystems. Networks of no-take marine reserves are promising management tools because of their potential to (1) protect coastal ecosystem structure and functioning, (2) benefit exploited populations and fisheries, (3) improve scientific understanding of marine ecosystems, and (4) provide enriched opportunities for non-extractive human activities. By protecting marine ecosystems and their populations, no-take reserve networks can reduce risk by providing important insurance for fishery managers against overexploitation of individual populations. Replicated reserves also foster strong scientific testing of fishery and conservation management strategies. Reserve networks will require social acceptance, adequate enforcement, and effective scientific evaluation to be successful. Processes for reserve establishment should accommodate adaptive management so boundaries and regulations can be modified to enhance performance. However, even well-designed reserve networks will require continued conservation efforts outside reserve boundaries to be effective. Establishing networks of no-take reserves is a process-oriented, precautionary management strategy that protects functional attributes of marine ecosystems. As an addition to fishery management practices and other conservation efforts, no-take reserve networks may improve the status of exploited populations while conserving marine resources for future generations.
Article
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Coastal zones are usually managed with two main objectives: (1) conservation/maintenance of biodiversity and intrinsic ecosystem services and (2) maintenance of sustainable fisheries. The management needs that can be met with marine protected areas fall into corresponding categories. First, fully protected (that is, no-take) reserves—parks—offer benchmarks and protect ecosystem integrity while encouraging research, education, and aesthetic appreciation of nature. Second, by allowing focused local control of human impacts, marine protected areas can be used to focus more intense local management designed to increase yield and allow research to help define sustainability and protect against uncertainty by using carefully managed fisheries as a research tool. We have been gambling with the future by establishing a poor balance between short-term profit and long-term risks. The absence of meaningful, fully protected reserves has produced a situation in which there are virtually no areas north of the Antarctic in the world's oceans that have exploitable resources where scientists can study natural marine systems. In most areas the higher-order predators and many other important species have been virtually eliminated; many benthic habitats have been much changed by fishing activities. Without solid data documenting changes through time, the relative merits of various causes and effects that operate in complex ecological systems can always be argued. Without natural systems important questions cannot be studied—for example, how the ecosystem roles of various species can be assessed, how they can be managed in a sustainable manner, and how we can evaluate resilience or relative rates of recovery. Networks of fully-protected reserves could facilitate research into such questions, contribute to the recovery of many coastal systems, and enable society to enrich its existence by observing species that should be part of its heritage (Murray et al., 1999). The use of marine protected areas as fishing refugia has met strong resistance by fishers and many managers, and it is misunderstood by many conservation biologists because different proponents have different, usually simplistic, visions. It is important to spell out the objectives of each proposed example. Our essential habitat perspective emphasizes that each situation depends on specific life-history parameters and emphasizes critical thresholds in population dynamics, including density and behavior for fertilization, transport processes, settlement, survivorship, and growth to maturity. These are extremely difficult problems, and we cannot expect simplistic solutions to be effective. The only basis for optimism is that most of the seriously affected species are not yet extinct, and we still have a little time to establish permanent fully protected reserves to allow mankind to appreciate its rich but much depleted biological heritage. At least in some systems recovery can be measured over short time scales (<10 yrs), whereas others are much slower. Society as a whole is the ultimate stakeholder, not only the commercial and sports fishing industries that so dominate the public arena. Society will have to play a more active role if these species and habitats are to be saved.
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A spatially explicit population-dynamics model for the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in Exuma Sound, Bahamas, was used to investigate the joint effects of marine reserve design and larval dispersal via hydrodynamic currents on an exploited benthic invertebrate. The effects of three hydrodynamic scenarios (one diffusion-only and two advection-diffusion cases), one exploitation level, and 28 reserve configurations (7 sizes × 4 locations) on catch and larval production were simulated. The diffusion-only scenario represented the condition in which settlement did not vary substantially over broad spatial scales; in contrast, the advection-diffusion scenarios represented realistic hydrodynamic patterns and introduced broad spatial variation. Both advection-diffusion scenarios were based on empirical measurements of near-surface flow in Exuma Sound. Catches were sensitive to interactions between reserve configuration and pattern of larval dispersal. A given reserve configuration led to enhancement or decline in catch, depending on the hydrodynamic scenario, reserve size, and reserve location. Larval production increased linearly with reserve size, when size was expressed as the population fraction initially protected by the reserve, but when reserve size was expressed as the fraction of coastline protected, larval production decreased for some reserve configurations under the two advection-diffusion hydrodynamic scenarios. Use of a simple reserve-design rule (e.g., protect 20% of a coast) would, in the latter cases, lead to a false sense of security, thereby endangering—not protecting—exploited stocks. The optimal design of marine reserves therefore requires attention to the joint effects of larval dispersal, reserve location, and reserve size on fishery yield and recruitment.
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Mediterranean marine protected areas (MPAs) are very diverse in their intrinsic, jurisdictional, management and enforcement features (e.g. Ramos Esplá & McNeill 1994; Batisse & Jeudy de Grissac 1995). They offer a wide array of situations, ranging from relatively large multiple-use marine areas (sensu Agardy 1997), with active management and strong social interactions, to small sanctuaries that are theoretically totally closed to any human activity. This variety may illustrate a good adaptation to local needs, but often results from economic and political compromises which put the ecological considerations in the background.
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This paper illustrates how conjoint analysis can be used to model preference for food products, and applies the technique to the study of fresh and frozen salmon preference among buyers from two intermediary wholesale levels in New England. The degree of preference for specific attributes and levels of the products is compared. The paper also evaluates the performance and predictive validity of a traditional additive conjoint model, a hybrid model estimated using both ordinary least squares, and a maximum likelihood hybrid two-limit Tobit model.
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Experimental choice analysis continues to attract academic and applied attention. We review what is known about the design, conduct, analysis, and use of data from choice experiments, and indicate gaps in current knowledge that should be addressed in future research. Design strategies consistent with probabilistic models of choice process and the parallels between choice experiments and real markets are considered. Additionally, we address the issues of reliability and validity. Progress has been made in accounting for differences in reliability, but more research is needed to determine which experiments and response procedures will consistently produce more reliable data for various problems.
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Fisheries science was the precursor of population ecology and continues to contribute important theoretical advances. Despite this, fishery scientists have a poor record for applying their insights to real-world fisheries management. Is there a gulf between theory and application or does the high variability inherent in fish populations and complexity of multispecies fisheries demand a different approach to management? Perhaps the solution to the world fisheries crisis is obvious after all?
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Surface current patterns were used to map dispersal routes of pelagic larvae from 18 coral reef sites in the Caribbean. The sites varied, both as sources and recipients of larvae, by an order of magnitude. It is likely that sites supplied copiously from “upstream” reef areas will be more resilient to recruitment overfishing, less susceptible to species loss, and less reliant on local management than places with little upstream reef. The mapping of connectivity patterns will enable the identification of beneficial management partnerships among nations and the design of networks of interdependent reserves.
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Pressures being exerted on the ocean ecosystems through overfishing, pollution, and environmental and climate change are increasing. Six core principles are proposed to guide governance and use of ocean resources and to promote sustainability. Examples of governance structures that embody these principles are given.
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We assessed the impacts of anthropogenic threats on 93 protected areas in 22 tropical countries to test the hypothesis that parks are an effective means to protect tropical biodiversity. We found that the majority of parks are successful at stopping land clearing, and to a lesser degree effective at mitigating logging, hunting, fire, and grazing. Park effectiveness correlates with basic management activities such as enforcement, boundary demarcation, and direct compensation to local communities, suggesting that even modest increases in funding would directly increase the ability of parks to protect tropical biodiversity.
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This paper we outline the “choice experiment” approach to environmental valuation. This approach has its roots in Lancaster's characteristics theory of value, in random utility theory and in experimental design. We show how marginal values for the attributes of environmental assets, such as forests and rivers, can be estimated from pair-wise choices, as well as the value of the environmental asset as a whole. These choice pairs are designed so as to allow efficient statistical estimation of the underlying utility function, and to minimise required sample size. Choice experiments have important advantages over other environmental valuation methods, such as contingent valuation and travel cost-type models, although many design issues remain unresolved. Applications to environmental issues have so far been relatively limited. We illustrate the use of choice experiments with reference to a recent UK study on public preferences for alternative forest landscapes. This study allows us to perform a convergent validity test on the choice experiment estimates of willingness to pay. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998
Book
Often described as a public policy “bible,” Weimer and Vining remains the essential primer it ever was. Now in its sixth edition, Policy Analysis provides a strong conceptual foundation of the rationales for and the limitations to public policy. It offers practical advice about how to do policy analysis, but goes a bit deeper to demonstrate the application of advanced analytical techniques through the use of case studies. Updates to this edition include: A chapter dedicated to distinguishing between policy analysis, policy research, stakeholder analysis, and research about the policy process. An extensively updated chapter on policy problems as market and governmental failure that explores the popularity of Uber and its consequences. The presentation of a property rights perspective in the chapter on government supply to help show the goal tensions that arise from mixed ownership. An entirely new chapter on performing analysis from the perspective of a public agency and a particular program within the agency’s portfolio: public agency strategic analysis (PASA). A substantially rewritten chapter on cost-benefit analysis, to better prepare students to become producers and consumers of the types of cost-benefit analyses they will encounter in regulatory analysis and social policy careers. A new introductory case with a debriefing that provides advice to help students immediately begin work on their own projects. Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practices remains a comprehensive, serious, and rich introduction to policy analysis for students in public policy, public administration, and business programs.
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The authors suggest the use of D-efficient experimental designs for conjoint and discrete-choice studies, discussing orthogonal arrays, nonorthogonal designs, relative efficiency, and nonorthogonal design algorithms. They construct designs for a choice study with asymmetry and interactions and for a conjoint study with blocks and aggregate interactions.
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Fisheries on coral reefs are highly complex, can be very productive, but typically have little or no management. Use of marine reserves has been suggested as an approach. Protective management potentially has several important benefits including protection of spawning stocks; provision of recruits to replenish fishing grounds; enhancement of catches in adjacent unprotected areas through emigration; minimal requirement for information on biology of stocks; and ease of enforcement. We evaluate the evidence available to test whether reserves function as predicted on theoretical grounds. In general, field studies from widespread sites around the globe support predictions of increases in abundance and average size of fishes in protected areas. However, evidence for enhanced catches in adjacent areas is more limited. Protective management appears to hold much promise for low-cost management of reef fisheries. -from Authors
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Fishermen from Caye Caulker, Belize use a local management system based on traditional "areas," or territories, which limits access to the fishing areas around the caye. Data from Northern Fishermen Cooperative Society annual reports suggest that fishermen members of the cooperative have produced lobster tails at a stable rate for over thirty years. Other data from observations and interviews suggest that this seemingly effective local management system may be beginning to teeter. Many factors are shifting the nature of tenure and access to fishing areas in the lobster fishery around Caye Caulker. Other factors are increasing pressure on the lobster population. Here I will discuss changing tenure patterns, fishermen's children's emigration from the caye, and tourism development at the caye. Though these factors are defining characteristics of success among villagers at Caye Caulker, they are in other ways threatening the resilience of this folk management system.
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The abundance, size, biomass and reproductive output of spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, from replicated sites nested within four marine reserves and similar non-reserve locations in north-eastern New Zealand were compared. No time–series data were available from three of the reserves so the ages of the reserves (3–21 years) were used to infer temporal patterns of lobster population recovery. Linear models indicated that the mean density of the total lobster population increased 3.9 and 9.5% in shallow (<10 m depth) and deep sites (>10 m depth), respectively, for each year in which the reserves were established, while the mean size of lobsters was estimated to increase by 1.14 mm per year of protection. As a consequence lobster biomass (kg/500 m−2) was conservatively estimated to increase by 5.4% per year of protection in shallow sites and 10.9% per year of protection in the deep sites and egg production (eggs/500 m−2) by 4.8 and 9.1% per year of protection for shallow and deep sites respectively.
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There is now a global and regional awareness that marine fisheries have been significantly mismanaged in all parts of the world, including the South Atlantic and South Pacific oceans. This paper attempts to provide the background information necessary for the development of a new coastal and marine resources managment strategy for the IDB and offers some suggestions for its formulation and implementation. The paper emphasizes the critical need for improved management, in order to obtain the potentially large economic rewards of the fisheries, and to provide a basis for dealing with conflicts over competing uses of the marine resources.
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Preface Acknowledgments List of Figures List of Tables Part 1: Introduction to Public Policy Analysis 1. Preview: The Canadian Salmon Fishery 2. What is Policy Analysis? 3. Toward Professional Ethics Part 2: Conceptual Foundations for Problem Analysis 4. Efficiency and the Idealized Competitive Model 5. Rationales for Public Policy: Market Failures 6. Rationales for Public Policy: Other Limitations of the Competitive Framework 7. Rationales for Public Policy: Distributional and Other Goals 8. Limits to Public Intervention: Government Failures 9. Policy Problems as Market and Government Failure Part 3: Conceptual Foundations for Solution Analysis 10. Correcting Market and Government Failures: Generic Policy Instruments 11. Adoption 12. Landing on Your Feet: Organizing Your Policy Analysis 13. Implementation Part 4: Doing Policy Analysis 14. Government Supply: Drawing Organizational Boundaries 15. Gathering Information for Policy Analysis 16: Goals/Alternatives Matrices: Some Examples from CBO Studies 17: Benefit-Cost Analysis 18: When Statistics Count: Revising the Lead Standard for Gasoline Part 5: Conclusion 19: Doing Well and Doing Good
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Coral reefs in a marine reserve at Sodwana Bay (27°30'S) make it a premier dive resort. Corals are at the southern limits of their African distribution on these reefs which are dominated by soft corals. The coastline is exposed and turbulent. An assessment of the degree to which sport diving damages the reefs is needed for their management. This study showed that recognizable diver damage is generally concentrated in heavily dived areas. This damage and that of unknown cause probably attributable to divers exceeded natural damage on the reefs, despite the normally rough seas. Fishing line discarded in angling areas also caused considerable damage by tangling around branching corals which become algal fouled and die. Heaviest damage was caused in isolated areas by a minor crown-of-thorns outbreak. A linear regression indicated that 10% diver damage occurs at 9000 dives per dive site p. a. Taking uncertainty into account, a precautionary limit of 7000 dives per dive site p. a. was recommended. Further recommendations are that the reefs be zoned in terms of their sensitivity to diver damage, depth and use by divers according to qualification, and a ban be placed on the use of diving gloves to reduce handling of the reefs.
Article
A commercially unfished population of Panulirus argus was studied in Fort Jefferson National Monument at Dry Tortugas, Florida, from April 1971 to July 1975. For 29 months all harvest was prohibited, then an experimental sport harvest (hand caught by recreational divers) was allowed in 50% of the area for a period of 8 months, followed by 16 months of complete protection for assessment of recovery. Data on the size, abundance, and natural history of the lobsters were collected using SCUBA, and commercial trapping techniques. A total of 4,257 lobsters, with a mean carapace length of 101 mm, was tagged and released at Dry Tortugas. The existence of a resident adult P. argus population was demonstrated by the recovery of all recaptured lobsters (7.3%) within 10 km of their respective capture sites up to 104 weeks after release. Immediately following the experimental sport harvest, the population in the sport harvested area showed a 58% reduction in trap catch rate and dispersed to 42% of its pre-harvest lair occupancy density, while the population in the unharvested control area remained essentially unchanged. The catch rate in the sport harvested area recovered to 78% of its pre-harvest level after 1 year of complete protection from harvest, and the lair occupancy rate recovery was 71% after 16 months of post harvest protection. The pre-harvest standing crop was estimated at 58.3 kg/ha, wet weight.
Article
Tropical marine protected areas (MPAs) may promote conditions that are attractive to dive tourists, but a systematic basis for assessing their effectiveness in this regard is currently lacking. We therefore interviewed 195 dive tourists in Jamaica to determine which reef attributes they most preferred to see on dives. Attributes relating to fishes and other large animals (‘big fishes’, ‘other large animals’, ‘variety of fishes’, ‘abundance of fishes’, and ‘unusual fishes’) were more appreciated than those relating to reef structure and benthos (‘reef structure e.g., drop-offs’, ‘variety of corals’, ‘large corals’, ‘coral cover’, ‘unusual corals’, ‘sponges’, ‘unusual algae’, ‘lobsters, crabs etc.’). We then surveyed reef condition with regard to those aspects (abundance and variety of fishes, number of ‘unusual’, and number of ‘large’ fish) at four Caribbean MPAs and reference areas. In two cases, Hol Chan Marine Reserve in Belize and Parque Nacional Punta Frances in Cuba, these fish attributes were more pronounced in the MPAs than in the reference areas. Differences between the Montego Bay Marine Park in Jamaica (MBMP) and adjacent reference areas were mainly restricted to shallow sites (<6m), while at Grand Cayman no differences between fully protected and partially protected areas were detected. Management had not been fully effective in the MBMP in the preceding months, while fishing pressure in the partially protected areas on Grand Cayman was very light. We conclude that, if fishing restrictions are well enforced, western Caribbean MPAs can be expected to be effective in ways appreciated by dive tourists.
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Article
Abstract Establishing permanent ‘no-take’ marine reserves, areas where fishing and all other extractive activities are prohibited, is an attractive but under-utilized tool for fisheries management. Marine reserves could potentially deal with many fishery problems that are not effectively addressed by other traditional management measures; they also offer numerous social, economic, and scientific benefits not directly related to fisheries. Limited but growing research has shown beneficial biological and economic effects of marine reserves on fisheries. More research is needed, especially at larger scales, to determine the ideal marine reserve size, number and location necessary to optimize fisheries productivity and resource conservation. Sufficient evidence is available to justify the expanded use of marine reserves in an adaptive approach to fisheries management.
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Underwater trails are intended as interpretative tools in marine parks, but concentrating divers and snorkelers in defined areas may negatively affect the surrounding environment. We examined spatial and temporal patterns in the effects of use of underwater trails on coral reef fiats in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Changes in benthic assemblages were assessed on two new trails used by snorkelers, two unused (control) trails, and two undisturbed areas. Total percent coral cover, numbers of broken colonies, and living coral fragments were counted 6 months before and 6 months after the new trails began to be used. Spatial patterns of effects around concentrated nodes of use were determined by stratified sampling around and away from the interpretative signs within each trail. Despite comparatively Iow levels of use (approximately 15 snorkelers per trail per week), snorkelers caused significant damage to corals along the trails. Branching corals (non-Acropora branching corals and Millepora spp.) were most affected. More damage occurred near the interpretative signs than elsewhere on the trails. The numbers of broken branches and damaged coral colonies in the snorkeling trails increased rapidly but stabilized within 2 months of the commencement of use. There was no significant change in overall benthic assemblages within the trails after 6 months of use by snorkelers. Although concentrating snorkelers within confined trails caused increased damage to corals, the effects can be mitigated by appropriate design and placement of the trails and by managing the behavior of snorkelers. Interpretative information should warn users about the damage they may cause when swimming along the trails. Managing the behavior of snorkelers in the water is likely to be more effective in reducing damage than simply applying fixed limits to the amount of use the trails receive.
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Ecotourism presents developing countries with growing opportunities for enhancing resource conservation and economic growth, but also raises pressing management and policy challenges. This paper presents a conceptual framework and empirical analysis of the impacts of introducing a differential entrance fee policy at three national parks in Costa Rica. Data are collected using a contingent behavior methodology designed to elicit information on foreign tourists' hypothetical park visitation behaviors at alternative entrance fee levels. Park visitation demand functions and price and income elasticities are estimated. Revenue-maximizing fees are calculated and applications of differential pricing principles to park management are discussed.
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The travel cost method (TCM) has long been used to infer the economic value of nonmarket resources and public goods. More recently, contingent valuation (CVM) survey methods have gained popularity for eliciting these values. Here, CVM survey responses are combined with TCM data on actual market behavior to estimate jointly both the parameters of the underlying utility function and its corresponding ordinary demand function. This is a prototypical empirical example of a new modeling strategy, variants of which should prove useful in many applications, especially where reliance on a single valuation method is undesirable.
Article
 = 1475) traveling with tourism operations of different sizes who traveled to different sites completed surveys. Results indicated that snorkelers who traveled with larger operations (more people and infrastructure) differed from those traveling with smaller operations (few people and little on-site infrastructure) on benefits received and in the way that specific conditions influenced their enjoyment. Benefits related to nature, escape, and family helped to define reef experiences. Conditions related to coral, fish, and operator staff had a positive influence on the enjoyment of most visitors but, number of people on the trip and site infrastructure may have the greatest potential as setting indicators. Data support the potential usefulness of visitor input in applying the LAC concept to a marine environment where tourism and recreational uses are rapidly changing.
Article
In this paper we identify the critical issues which Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries must address in defining their approach to fisheries governance. We suggest practical measures which should be taken in order to deal with these issues. Emphasis is placed on institutional reform which builds a broader institutional base for resource management than has been common in the past. Fisheries administrations need to develop partnerships with nongovernmental organizations, particularly fisherfolk organizations. This includes strengthening the capacity of those organizations to participate in the management process. There is also the need to strengthen regional organizations within the Caribbean, in order that they may better manage shared resources within the region as well as participate in international management initiatives.
Article
Increased participation in marine recreation and tourism has been accompanied by concern for the impacts that these activities have on coral reef environments. We investigated how the topography of coral reef dive sites influences the type and amount of damage done by SCUBA divers to living corals. Independent observations were made on 150 qualified SCUBA divers at six dive sites within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia. Two sites each had reef topographies that were characterised by steep slopes (‘Pinnacles’), gently sloping (40°–60°, ‘Shoulders’), or near-horizontal substrata (‘Gardens’). The number of contacts each diver made with the substratum and the number of times corals were broken were recorded and compared across all six sites and among the three topographic categories. The rate at which divers broke corals varied markedly among dive sites, but was not clearly related to reef topography. Divers broke more corals per 10 min interval (1·8±0·77, mean ± 1 SE) at one of the Shoulder sites than at any of the other five locations (0 to 0·28±0·24). Benthic assemblages at this site contained the largest percentage cover of branching corals of all of the sites used in the study (24%±4%, cf. 0%–10% at the other five sites). All of the breakages that we observed were sustained by corals that had a branching morphology. Our results suggest that the topography of coral reef dive sites is not a useful predictor of the amount of damage done by SCUBA divers. More important is the morphological composition of benthic assemblages at the site. Knowledge of biological influences on the sensitivity of different sites to impacts of SCUBA divers will allow managers to match high-risk activities, such as diver training, with suitably durable locations.
Article
This paper argues that, at present, ecotourism can contribute to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem functions in developing countries, even though meeting the requirements for ecotourism is extremely difficult. A cost-benefit analysis of those ecosystems richest in species diversity, i.e. tropical rainforests, leads to the conclusion that non-use values often outweigh the values of conventional uses (clear-cutting, pasture, etc.), but are hardly considered in development decisions. Therefore, tourism and its high direct use value can play an important role as an incentive for protection. As tourism causes significant emissions, e.g. by flying, the concept of Environmental Damage Costs is introduced and integrated into the calculations. Further, international tourism development is analyzed and related to protection goals. Visitation rates of sensitive areas need to be limited; education, management, and control measures have to be integrated; and the proportion of money captured from tourists has to be increased. In the long run, tourism needs to undergo substantial changes.
Article
This paper reports on a study of valuation of multiple stream quality improvements in an acid-mine degraded watershed in Western Pennsylvania. A technique extensively used in marketing research, conjoint (CJ) analysis, is used in conjunction with a random utility model (RUM) to establish shadow valuations for various combinations of stream quality improvements in two streams. The technique shows promise in the valuation of ecosystems, which provide a complex variety of services. Several variations on respondent choice, binary choice (BC) and intensity of preference (IP) were used, where the latter allowed for an expression of degree of preference between status quo and alternative conditions. The sample constituted a panel data set from which user and non-user valuations were distinguished. In addition, sample respondents were identified by the distances of their residences to the stream sites, permitting the analysis of effects of distance on quality improvement valuations. These valuations suggested that persons living within roughly 50 miles of the evaluated stream segments place some positive value on stream improvements.
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The chief aim of this paper is to examine the economic theory of natural resource utilization as it pertains to the fishing industry. It will appear, I hope, that most of the problems associated with the words “conservation” or “depletion” or “overexploitation” in the fishery are, in reality, manifestations of the fact that the natural resources of the sea yield no economic rent. Fishery resources are unusual in the fact of their common-property nature; but they are not unique, and similar problems are encountered in other cases of common-property resource industries, such as petroleum production, hunting and trapping, etc. Although the theory presented in the following pages is worked out in terms of the fishing industry, it is, I believe, applicable generally to all cases where natural resources are owned in common and exploited under conditions of individualistic competition.
Article
Since 1971 conjoint analysis has been applied to a wide variety of problems in consumer research. This paper discusses various issues involved in implementing conjoint analysis and describes some new technical developments and application areas for the methodology.
Article
This study uses stated-preference (SP) analysis to measure willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce acute episodes of respiratory and cardiovascular ill health. The SP survey employs a modified version of the health state descriptions used in the Quality of Well Being (QWB) Index. The four health state attributes are symptom, episode duration, activity restrictions and cost. Preferences are elicited using two different SP formats: graded-pair and discrete-choice. The different formats cause subjects to focus on different evaluation strategies. Combining two elicitation formats yields more valid and robust estimates than using only one approach. Estimates of indirect utility function parameters are obtained using advanced panel econometrics for each format separately and jointly. Socio-economic differences in health preferences are modelled by allowing the marginal utility of money relative to health attributes to vary across respondents. Because the joint model captures the combined preference information provided by both elicitation formats, these model estimates are used to calculate WTP. The results demonstrate the feasibility of estimating meaningful WTP values for policy-relevant respiratory and cardiac symptoms, even from subjects who never have personally experienced these conditions. Furthermore, because WTP estimates are for individual components of health improvements, estimates can be aggregated in various ways depending upon policy needs. Thus, using generic health attributes facilitates transferring WTP estimates for benefit-cost analysis of a variety of potential health interventions. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Respondents' stated preferences for attributes related to various electricity-generation scenarios are analyzed using a series of pairwise ratings. Multiple observations for each respondent facilitate estimating individual scale parameters. Scale estimates can identify uninformative rating patterns and make it possible to delete such observations or adjust WTP calculations. Cross-section/time-series analysis of the data indicates that nonprice attributes increase in salience during the course of the experiment. Thus later responses may be better indicators of preferences than earlier responses. Comparisons of polychotomous with dichotomous models indicate that most respondents' relative-preference ratings are not simply dichotomous, but discriminate systematically along the rating scale.
Threats to protected areas in the Turks and Caicos Islands and priorities for management interventions
  • F Homer
Homer, F. (2000c) Threats to protected areas in the Turks and Caicos Islands and priorities for management interventions. Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands: Coastal Resources Management Project, Ministry of Natural Resources: 102 pp.