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Typical tourists : Research into the theoretical and methodological foundations of a typology of tourism and recreation experiences

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Typical tourists are recognisable from a distance. They appear out of place with their loud coloured outfits, often sunburned, walking around loaded with cameras and video-equipment and studying city maps. Yet, tourists are not always all the same. Adventurous eco-tourists, with hiking boots and a good quality daypack, clearly search for a different experience than middle-aged cultural tourists do. Typologies have been developed to classify different groups of tourists and recreationists. However, problems have arisen since the various approaches are quite different and the classification schemes used 'arbitrary'. The question remains "which typology should have preference"? This book reports a long-term project to establish a theoretical and useful approach to develop a typology of experiences for tourism and recreation. The theoretical framework used as a starting point was Eric Cohen's (1979) phenomenology of tourist experiences. The research covers different activities (camping, sight seeing by car, hiking) and settings (nature areas, bungalow parks, Costa Rica, the Netherlands, Southeast Asia), while maintaining a degree of comparison with the theoretical framework adopted for this study. A detailed insight into the methodological aspects of the approach is provided to enable researchers and students alike to use and build upon the methodology and results. The approach is also meant to be a source of inspiration for policy development and planning for a diversified tourist environment
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... However, the specific practice of factor-cluster analysis (cluster analysis on factor loadings) is highly criticized (Dolnicar and Grün, 2008). Elands and Lengkeek (2000) as well as Cottrell et al. (2005) avoid this criticism by using PCA analysis directly to create a typology of recreationists. ...
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... Dessa forma, as experiências foram conceituadas de várias maneiras, incluindo abordagens baseadas em motivações para experiências (Elands & Lengkeek, 2000), como os modos de experiência turística de Cohen (1979), ou as categorias de experiência turística baseada na natureza de Vespestad e Lindberg Entre os modelos de experiência, o modelo de economia de experiência de Pine e Gilmore (1998). O modelo conhecido por 4Es (experiências educacionais, estéticas, entretenimento e escapista) se destaca pelo design operacional (Pereira & Limberger, 2020). ...
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