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Certification of wild coffee in Ethiopia: experiences and challenges

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Abstract

Coffea arabica originates from montane forests in South and Southwest Ethiopia, part of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot region. Wild coffee refers to coffee that grows and regenerates spontaneously in these forests and that is genetically different from commercial cultivars. Wild coffee is collected as a non-timber forest product both from little disturbed forest as well as from more intensively managed semi-forest coffee systems; in addition coffee is also produced in garden systems and plantations—often using landraces or cultivars. Recently several programmes have started to conserve the coffee forests and the coffee genetic variety. In 2003 an initiative to market forest coffee in Germany as a certified authentic product was developed; this was followed by additional schemes marketing forest coffee as an environmentally friendly and socially responsible product. In order to obtain premium prices, the consumers demand good cup-quality and criteria on the production systems. The well established coffee market already has such quality criteria, but the forest coffee certification criteria may differ from these. In developing the criteria for certification, questions arise as to the precise objective of forest coffee certification: does it concern the certification:• of a product originating in the forest, or• of natural product authenticity, and/or• of a sustainable production practice in biodiverse, organic production systems, and/or• of a socially-responsibly produced and marketed product?Also as to what extent is it efficient and effective to develop different certification schemes and different marketing strategies for forest-based, organically grown, and/or socially responsible produced NTFPs from those of their intensively cultivated equivalents.In order to conserve the unique characteristics of the Ethiopian coffee forests as well as prevent confusion due to the co-existence of different certification schemes, it might be advisable to base certification on an area approach focused on the sustainable management of forested landscapes and involving both forests and environmentally responsibly managed agricultural lands.
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Certification of wild coffee in Ethiopia:
Experiences and challenges
(Article submitted to Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, April 2007)
K.F. Wiersum
1*
, T.W. Gole
2
, F. Gatzweiler
3
, J. Volkmann
4
, E. Bognetteau
5
and Olani
Wirtu
6
1
Forest and Nature Conservation Policy group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
2
Ethiopian Coffee Forest Forum (ECFE), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3
Center for Development Research, Bonn University, Germany
4
Amber Foundation, Freiburg, Germany
5
Sustainable Livelihood Action, Wageningen, the Netherlands
6
NTFP Southwest Ethiopia Research & Development Project, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia
* Corresponding author, E-mail freerk.wiersum@wur.nl
ABSTRACT
Coffea arabica originates from montane forests in South and Southwest Ethiopia, which
form part of Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot region. Wild coffee refers to
coffee that grows and regenerates spontaneously in these forests and that is genetically
different from commercial cultivars. Wild coffee is collected as a non-timber forest
product from little disturbed forest coffee systems as well as more intensively managed
semi-forest coffee systems; in addition coffee is also produced in garden systems and
plantations often using landraces or cultivars. Recently several programmes have started
to conserve the coffee forests and the coffee genetic variety. In 2003 a first initiative was
started to market forest coffee in Germany as a certified authentic product; this initiative
was followed by additional schemes for forest coffee as an environmentally friendly and
socially responsible product. As in the coffee market already well established criteria for
coffee quality exist, the forest coffee certification schemes depart from these existing
criteria. In order to obtain premium prices, it is important to fulfill the consumers demand
for good cup-quality and to use quality criteria regarding production systems as
additional marketing criteria. In developing those additional criteria questions arise as to
the precise objective of forest coffee certification: does it concern the certification of a
product originating in the forest or with natural product authenticity and/or the
certification of a sustainable production practice in biodiverse organic production systems
and/or the certification of a socially-responsibly produced and marketed product. And
also as to what extent it is efficient and effective to develop different certification
schemes and different marketing strategies for forest-based, organically grown, and/or
socially responsible produced NTFPs and their crop equivalents. In order conserve the
unique characteristics of the Ethiopian coffee forests as well as prevent confusion due to
co-existence of different certification schemes, it might be considered to base
certification on an area-based approach focused on the sustainable management of
forested landscapes involving both forests and environmentally responsible agricultural
lands.
Key words: forest coffee, garden coffee, organic production, fair trade, biodiversity,
genetic diversity
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INTRODUCTION
As demonstrated by the certification of timber, certification is increasingly being
accepted as a tool to defining standards for social and environmental performance in
forest management. Certification started in response to consumer demands for
sustainably produced timber, but since the early 2000 it is gradually being extended to
include non-timber forest products (NTFPs) (Shanley et al., 2002). NTFP certification is
more problematic than timber certification, because of several reasons (Shanley et al.,
2002; Karki and Rawat, 2003):
There exists a huge variety in NTFP products ranging from plant to animal products
and including both complete individuals or only specific organisms. Consequently, it
is not possible to set a simple set of criteria on ecological sustainability, but criteria
must be product category-specific.
NTFPs production systems range from extraction from open-access natural forests to
controlled production in managed forests and to cultivation in a variety of (mixed)
plantations and agroforestry systems (Belcher et al., 2005; Ros-Tonen and Wiersum,
2005). In the case of several products there is no clear dividing-line but only a gradual
continuum between nature products or domesticated products.
The quality of many NTFPs depend to a much greater extent than timber on proper
storing, transportation and processing. Consequently, sustainability should not only
be defined in respect ecological sustainability and socially responsible production
methods in respect to the production systems, but may have to be extended to socially
and environmentally responsible manufacturing systems.
Thus, the certification of NTFPs deserves in many cases a wider set of criteria than
considered in timber certification. As a result of the wide variety of production and
manufacturing conditions to be considered in NTFP certification, gradually different
certification schemes have been developed. In similarity to timber certification some
schemes focus primarily on the role of NTFP production in relation to sustainable forest
management, but other schemes approach certification from the perspective of organic
production or from the perspective of socially responsible manufacturing and trade. Four
major types of NTFP certification schemes can be distinguished (Taylor, 2005;
Chowdhury et al., 2005):
Certification based on sustainable forest management criteria
Certification based on organic crop production criteria
Certification based on Fair Trade criteria
Certification based on area-based schemes.
Arabica coffee as example of different approaches to NTFP certification
Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) offers an excellent example of the various challenges
faced in developing a certification system for NTFPs (Chowdhury et al., 2005; Schmitt
and Grote, 2006). The species originates from Southwestern and Southeastern Ethiopia,
where it occurs as a gregarious sub-canopy species in the Afromontane forest at an
altitude between 1,000 and 2,000 meter (Tadesse and Nigatu, 1996). The coffee forest
areas are part of the Eastern Afromomtane Biodiversity Hotspot area, which is one of 34
global biodiversity conservation priority areas in the world. Due to the favorably brewing
3
characteristics of the coffee beans, the species has a long history of use in Ethiopia.
Already in the 8
th
and 9
th
century the species was introduced to Yemen, from where it
was further distributed to Asia and Latin America in the late 17
th
century; at present about
66% of the world coffee production comes from Coffea Arabica (Gole et al., 2000;
Mekuria et al., 2004) The important role which coffee plays in the Ethiopian culture is
illustrated not only by the intricate coffee ceremonies that are still common, but also by
the development of different coffee production systems ranging from forest extraction to
cultivation in commercial plantations (Chekun, 1995; Gole et al., 2000). Although the
species has gradually become domesticated, collection of wild coffee as a non-timber
forest product still remains significant. The term wild coffee is used as referring to coffee
that grows and regenerates spontaneously in its natural (although sometimes
manipulated) forest habitat and is genetically different from known commercial cultivars.
During the last decade, the potential of wild coffee production as a means towards forest
and biodiversity conservation in general and coffee genetic conservation specifically has
received increasing attention (Gole et al., 2000; Gole et al., 2001; Gatzweiler, 2005). The
conservation of the coffee gene pool is essential for future breeding to further enhance
global coffee production, e.g. with respect to resistance to pests and diseases, lower
caffeine contents and increased yields (Hein and Gatzweiler, 2006). Several development
projects
1
have been initiated to preserve the genetic diversity of wild coffee by
developing models for sustainable wild coffee production. These efforts are not only
focusing on improved forest conservation and management, but also on improved
marketing as a means to increase the incomes of smallholder coffee producers in the
remote areas where wild forest coffee still occurs. In this context attention has been given
towards certification of wild forest coffee for either the fair trade, the organic or the
speciality coffee markets (Schmitt and Grote, 2006).As a result of these activities,
Ethiopian wild coffee has attracted trader’s and consumer’s attention in Europe and the
USA, and at present an estimated 100 Mt of wild coffee are traded internationally. These
experiences provide an interesting example of the various approaches and challenges in
developing certification of non-timber forest products. This article reviews these
experiences. The following questions will be addressed:
What type of coffee production systems exist, ranging from natural forests to
commercial plantations?
What coffee certification systems have been suggested and on which principles were
they based?
What are the main experiences gained with the development of wild coffee
certification and which challenges still have to be faced in its further
operationalization?
What lessons can be learned from these experiences regarding the scope for
certification of non-timber forest products?
4
ETHIOPIAN COFFEE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Within Ethiopia a variety of coffee production systems can be found. In its area of origin
such as the Kaffa region (from which the coffee derives its name) coffee is still collected
in natural forests. These coffee forests form an important part of the remnant forest
blocks found in Ethiopia. In several highland areas the production of forest coffee is a
major household activity supplying between 20 and 50% of all household income; this
livelihood activity is supplemented by subsistence agricultural production and collection
of other forest products. The presence of wild coffee and its economic importance for the
local community has contributed to the conservation of the coffee genetic resources and
the forest biodiversity. Nonetheless, due to a variety of reasons, including immigration
and opening up of lands for commercial estates, the conservation of these forests is not
assured. In different areas the coffee forests are considerably fragmented. In the Kaffa
Zone for example, the percentage of forest cover in the wild coffee producing
municipalities (Kebeles) that provide coffee to the Kaffa Forest Coffee Farmers
Cooperative Union ranges from 28 % to 80 % with an average of 59%. In order to assure
that the wild coffee genetic resources are not lost, recently three coffee gene reserves
have been established; these will be managed through a community-based participatory
forest management approach (Gatzweiler, 2005).
Due to the economic importance of coffee, the coffee forests are often consciously
managed to stimulate coffee production through activities such as thinning of overstorey
trees, removal of ground vegetation, stimulating coppice shoots and/or transplanting of
naturally regenerated or artificially raised coffee seedlings (Schmitt, 2006; Senbeta and
Denich, 2006). Depending on intensity of management, level of coffee domestication,
and diversity of shade trees and other plants different forest-based coffee productions are
distinguished:
1) Forest coffee system: collection of natural stands of coffee in open access areas of
little disturbed rainforest.
2) Semi-coffee forest system: limited management interventions in plots with
customary individual access rights, using natural regeneration of coffee plants,
complemented with wild coffee seedlings from the forest. Due to the stimulation
of coffee the overall species richness is lower in these production systems than in
the less disturbed forest coffee systems (Senbeta and Denich, 2006) ,
3) Garden coffee systems with more intensive management: coffee plants are mostly
regenerated from selected wild seedlings or with nursery-raised cultivars. The
original forest species mostly are limited to shade trees and in addition a variety
of other crops, such as fruit trees, tubers, spices and false banana (Enset
ventricosum) are grown ((Teketay and Tegineh, 1991; Tesfaye Abebe et al, 2006).
4) Smallholder and estate plantations.
In general, the forest and semi-forest systems include a high number of tree species, the
number of overstorey trees is generally higher than any other comparable coffee
production system in the world. The productivity of the coffee in these systems is
generally low, mainly due to the low intensity coffee management and limited
interference in forest cover. The estimated average yield from forest, semi-forest, garden
and plantation systems are in the order of 50-150, 100-200, 400-500 and 450-570 kg/ha
5
respectively. From the total Ethiopian coffee production about 10% is obtained from
forest coffee systems, 35% from semi-forest coffee systems, 35% from garden coffee
systems and 20% from plantations (Gole et al., 2000).
This variety in production systems illustrates that it is difficult to establish a clear
dividing-line between wild forest coffee and cultivated coffee. The gradual shift between
wild and cultivated coffee does not only impact on the structure and species richness of
the production systems, but also the genetic diversity of coffee (Gole et al., 2001). As
indicated by recent research (Geletu, 2006) most wild coffee regions possess their own
genotypes with high levels of genetic variety within regions. However, coffee
management practices involve a gradual domestication of the coffee plants, and with
increasing management intensity a gradual decrease in the original genetic diversity
occurs. Whereas in wild forest coffee systems mainly wild genotypes are present, in
semi-forest coffee and garden systems landraces predominate, and in plantations cultivars
(Table 1). Consequently, ideally ‘wild forest coffee’ should be interpreted as referring not
only to a low level of disturbance of forest structure and regeneration, but also to a low
level of human interference with the natural gene flow. However, such a definition is
difficult to apply in coffee certification schemes, as it requires clear and easy to apply
standards on how much human interference is still acceptable in a natural forest
environment as well as on the desired genetic composition of coffee.
Forest coffee
system Semi-forest
coffee
system
Garden
coffee
system
Plantation
Wild
genotypes Very
common Occasionally Not very
common Hardly
present
Landraces Hardly
present Common Common Occasionally
Cultivars Hardly
present Not very
common Common Common
Table 1 Genetic composition of coffee grown in different production systems
FOREST COFFEE CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS
In view of the fact that it is not easy to unequivocally define and identify wild forest
coffee it is not surprising that rather than focusing attention exclusively on schemes to
certify wild forest coffee as a non-timber forest product derived from a natural forest
environment, various other approaches are being experimented to certify coffee from
forest-based production systems.
These started when in 2003 in a cooperative effort of the two German conservation and
development organizations GEO Schützt den Regenwald and the Amber Foundation a
start was made with the import and sale of Ethiopian forest coffee in Germany as a
6
specialty product. The scheme was explicitly presented as concerning wild coffee from
its area of origin and as contributing towards the conservation of original coffee forest by
providing the local smallholder forest owners incomes from their traditional coffee
systems (Klingholz, 2003). Thus, an explicit relation between forest conservation and
livelihood improvement was indicated. The scheme involved cooperation with both
government organisations such as the Kaffa Zone Agricultural and Natural Resources
Development Desk and with unions of coffee farmers cooperative,
This first initiative to establish a market for wild coffee in Germany gained much public
attention. Its success triggered some attempts of fraudulent free riding by some coffee
traders who also claimed to sell Ethiopian wild coffee. But it also stimulated the
development of follow-up development projects (Schmitt and Grote, 2006; Bognetteau et
al., 2007) to further develop this market and to upscale the relatively small-scale initial
effort. As the Forest Stewardship Council has not yet established a base in Ethiopia, these
efforts did not focus on certification of wild forest coffee as deriving from sustainably
managed forests, but rather on schemes for socially responsible and environmentally
friendly production systems. In addition to the fact that such schemes were already
operating in Ethiopia and offered opportunities for certification under short timeframes
and relatively low costs, there was an important additional argument to select schemes
which were primarily market-oriented rather than forest conservation oriented. In order to
be acceptable at the international market good coffee quality and a careful manufacturing
to assure good taste are essential. Consequently, certification aimed at supporting
smallholders to enter either mainstream and specialty markets with good potential for
obtaining premium price, should be cognizant of the fact that not only the origin and
production process of coffee is important, but also quality standards for the product. As
the established coffee trading networks are most familiar with these requirements, it was
decided to work with two internationally-established schemes for marketing responsible
produced coffee, i.e. the Utz Kapeh system for socially and ecologically responsible trade
and the organic production certification system. These schemes are essentially focused on
agricultural coffee production systems rather than forest-based coffee production
systems, and forest conservation is not a specific criteria in these schemes. Nonetheless, it
was considered that the schemes provided a good opportunity for obtaining premium
prices and that the references to the origin of the coffee could serve as an additional
marketing tool enabling the forest coffee to gain a specific market niche. It was
hypothesized that this would assure the Ethiopian forest coffee producers would obtain
increased incomes, and that this would recreate an incentive to conserve the coffee
forests.
The Utz Kapeh certification programme was initiated in 1997. It started as an initiative of
some large Guatemalan coffee producers and the Ahold Coffee Company and later
became an independent NGO with the objective to stimulate further market penetration of
organic and Fair Trade products. It is an example of a voluntary regulatory system for
governing the coffee chain (Muradian and Pelupessy, 2005) and is based on the general
principle that coffee production should be socially responsible, environmentally
sustainable and economically feasible. Traceability and responsibility along the market
chain are key issues in the certification process. The Utz Kapeh Code of conduct has been
7
benchmarked as equivalent to the EurepGap Coffee Reference Standard. Both Estates and
smallholder groups can be certified. Utz Kapeh does not only certify the production
standards, but also facilitates the matching between producers and buyer through a web-
based tracking and tracing system and information on registered producers and buyers.
End buyers include both mainstream and specialty roasters. Premium prices are being
paid to producers, but the precise amount depends on direct negotiation between buyer
and seller. Web-based market information on premiums is provided as a means to
facilitate these negotiations.
The Utz Kapeh certification activities in Ethiopia started in 2004 and in 2005-2006 five
certificates were given for a total area of 12.337 hectares in the SW Ethiopian highlands.
The certified coffee production systems consists of plantations managed by two
companies (15% of the area) and three state-owned plantations (60% of the area), and of
semi-forest management systems of about 1000 smallholders (25% of the area) organized
in two coffee cooperatives.
In addition several Coffee Farmers Unions also market their coffee under the organic
certification system. This certification ensures that products claiming to be organic are
actually produced according to organic farming principles. Principles and criteria for
certification are set by IFOAM (
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements),
in order to achieve
one clear certification system within an extending global market.
The
aim of organic certification is to support and strengthen biological production processes
without use of chemical inputs. Certification also helps producers to access organic
markets and obtain premium prices, but this is highly depending on market dynamics.
The first organic coffee certification in Ethiopia dates from 1999. Although an estimated
90% of the coffee produced in Ethiopia is de facto organic, only a very small fraction
(about 0.1%) of this coffee is certified as such (Mekuria et al., 2004). No official
information is available on the type of production systems involved, but most of this
production is probably produced in garden systems. Only in one case the scheme has
been explicitly used to certify forest coffee production. However, on the basis of
experiences gained with marketing of forest coffee, it has been suggested that organic
certification was almost a must for the specialty coffee market segment and that double
certification under both the responsible trading and organic production approaches could
potentially lead to increased prices.
DIFFICULTIES AND CHALLENGES IN WILD COFFEE CERTIFICATION
Due to its economic importance, within the coffee sector there has been given a lot of
attention to defining coffee quality (Slob and Oldenziel, 2003). According to the
Speciality Coffee Association of America (quoted in Mekuria et al., 2004) overall coffee
quality refers to not only the coffee taste (organoleptic cup-quality), but also to the
quality of life of its producers and the quality of the environment in which the crop is
produced. As demonstrated by the earlier description of the schemes operating in
Ethiopia, the major coffee certification schemes focus specifically on the environmental
and social quality of the production systems, but with the implicit understanding that the
8
cup-quality of coffee has to be maintained. An important question is whether to develop
forest coffee certification within the frameworks of existing marketing schemes for
responsible forest production or under new schemes focused specifically on the need to
conserve the forest environment.
Environmental requirements
Regarding the environmental quality of coffee production, the existing coffee
certification schemes depart from the interpretation that coffee production is an
agricultural activity; consequently regarding production environment attention has mainly
been focused on organic coffee production. Originally, attention was mainly given to
organic production in the sense of not using chemical inputs, but recently in Central
America also efforts are undertaken by FSC and the Rainforest Alliance to certify
biodiversity-friendly production systems in the form of polycultures with a diverse shade
canopy (Gobbi, 2000; Perfecto et al., 2005). However, up till the present no specific
scheme has been developed to stress the uniqueness of wild coffee in its natural forest
environment in respect to biodiversity at genetic level. In view of the relatively small
area of origin of coffee compared to the present area of coffee cultivation, it might be
questioned whether a scheme which focuses specifically biodiversity at genetic diversity
holds much promise or whether this would unduly compete with alternative biodiversity-
friendly production schemes. Hence, it might be more realistic to position wild coffee
production as a special form of biodiversity-friendly production in general rather than as
an original non-timber forest products with unique genetic diversity.
A second important difficulty in defining wild forest coffee in a strict manner, is the fact
that due to the co-existence of several coffee production systems farmers often collect
coffee from different areas with a range of management practices, cultivation intensities
and genetic diversities. They may collect coffee berries from forest coffee systems
consisting of mainly wild coffee specimen, from semi-forest plots with replanted stands
or from home gardens, where the use of landraces and cultivars is common. Thus, the
specific branding of wild coffee as a forest product requires that techniques are developed
for authentication of wild coffee. In this context progress has been made with the
development of a bio-molecular approach for genetic fingerprinting of coffee (Zeltz et al.,
2005; Geletu, 2006), which distinguish the various regional patterns in the genetic make-
up of wild coffee. By using genetic fingerprinting, wild coffee stands could be mainly
defined by the authenticity of genetic patterns. This methodology is at present being
tested for the standardized typecasting of the regional origin of wild coffee. The typecasts
resulting from the genetic fingerprinting can prove the origin of coffee at a regional meso
level. It cannot (as yet) attest whether coffee berries belong to a certain wild genotype or
whether it originates from a particular forest patch or a neighbouring coffee garden. Such
techniques could also be used to prevent fraud, e.g. by farmers growing cultivars in the
forests and presenting those as wild coffee.
Social requirements
Regarding the social quality of coffee production, as illustrated by the earlier description
of the certification schemes in Ethiopia, especially in the fair trade oriented coffee
certification schemes much attention is focused on the stimulation of smallholder
9
systems. This emphasis on proper benefit-sharing by smallholders is much more
pronounced than in the present certification systems for basically timber-based
sustainable forest management. As within Ethiopia smallholder coffee producers are by
law required to sell their products through cooperatives, this has facilitated in setting up
certification schemes. However, for the participatory management of the recently
established coffee forest reserves, formal community-based organisations need to be
established because the customary user-rights to semi-forest coffee plots are not
recognized by the government. The Ethiopian laws define all forest lands as public estate,
and only recently the government has introduced the possibility for participatory
management by officially recognized forest user groups. Hence, the question arises how
best to dovetail the official requirements regarding formation of forest user groups and
regarding coffee cooperatives (Gatzweiler, 2006).
As indicated by the Ethiopian experiences, an important factor influencing effective
benefit-sharing of smallholders in forest coffee production is their ability to meet the
international standards for coffee quality. Within the coffee sector well-developed quality
standards exist which form the basis for effective coffee marketing. The Ethiopian
experiences show that the introduction of certification systems without enhancement of
the quality of the harvesting and post-harvest handling practices will not be successful.
Coffee quality is of paramount importance, and without improvement of the grade and
cup quality of the forest coffee, it is difficult for the smallholder producers to access the
different niche markets and negotiate premium prices. Consequently, certification
organisations should not limit their activities to assessing quality production standards,
but actively assist within a policy of social responsibility towards smallholders by
providing extension and training in order that the intended beneficiaries of certification
can really participate in and profit from the scheme. Certification of wild coffee in itself
will not constitute an effective marketing tool which could motivate local farmers to
sustainably manage the coffee forests and conserve the coffee biodiversity, unless
improved cup quality and an appropriate marketing strategy can substantially increase
premium prices for it.
Another social aspect to consider is that the smallholders living in forest areas are often
involved in multi-enterprise activities. This does not only mean that they may be engaged
in both the extraction of wild product as well as the cultivation of (semi)domesticated
crops of the same product, but also that they may collect different types of forest products
depending on the season and livelihood needs. For instance, in the coffee forest region of
Ethiopia not only wild coffee forms an important NTFP, but also honey. Similarly to
coffee production several honey production systems are present ranging from wild honey
collection to traditional bee management in log-hives which are hung in forest trees and
to modern beehive management in homegardens. In some areas efforts are undertaken to
also certify such local honey production, but these efforts require separate arrangements
than the certification of coffee (Bognetteau et al., 2007). This creates high transaction
costs for the smallholder producers, and it should be considered whether the various
products can be certified under one general scheme.
10
CONCLUSION
As a result of the growing acceptance of certification as a means to assure that timber is
produced in sustainably managed forests, attention is now being given towards the
extension of the certification system towards non-timber forest products. As illustrated by
the experiences in respect of the certification of forest-derived wild coffee the
extrapolation of timber certification to certification of non-timber forest products is
problematic, especially in respect to products which originate in the forests, but which
have already become domesticated due to their high market demands. In such cases, a
diversity of production systems may exist ranging from forest-based systems to
agroforestry systems and plantations. These systems do not only vary in respect to
structure and species composition, but also in respect to use of management inputs
including genetic make-up of artificial regeneration. Under such circumstances it is not
easy to define clear boundaries between forest, garden and agricultural systems and their
respective products. Moreover, producers may mix the products from the various
production systems. In view of the complex and co-existing production systems for
commercially attractive NTFPs, questions arise as to the main objectives of NTFP
certification. Is it the certification of a product originating in the forest or with natural
product authenticity and/or the certification of a sustainable production practice in
biodiverse organic production systems and/or the certification of a socially-responsibly
produced and marketed product? And to what extent will it be efficient and effective to
develop different certification schemes and different marketing strategies for forest-
based, organically grown, and/or socially responsible produced for a specific NTFP and
its crop equivalents.
In deciding upon such questions it should be born in mind that certification is often
conceived of as a market tool, with production characteristics being used to attract
consumer’s attention. For several of the widely cultivated forest-derived crops already
crop-based certification systems for environmentally and socially responsible
certification systems exist. Thus, also the question of whether it is effective to add a
specific forest-oriented certification system becomes relevant. In answering this question
it is important to realize that the production-oriented certification systems are additional
to the basic sector standards for product quality. These product quality standards for
forest-derived products such as coffee are more specific than the quality standards for
timber. The potential premium prices to be paid to producers often depend more on the
product quality and uniqueness (such as cup quality in the case of coffee), with stories on
production systems only serving as an addition to the marketing story. Hence, it is not
realistic to base certification of commercially interesting NTFPs only on standards
regarding forest management conditions. While adding the sustainable forest
management story to the marketing story on product quality requires specialized
marketing skills which are not yet available in several conservation-oriented
organizations working in the field of certification of forest management.
An important reason for developing wild coffee certification in Ethiopia is the idea that it
might contribute towards the conservation of the coffee forests which form part of one of
the world’s biodiversity hotspots. It is hoped that the certification will help in public
11
recognition of the unique characteristics of the Ethiopian Afromontane region. An
intriguing question is to whether this objective can best be met through certification of a
combined product/production system approach or through an area-based approach
focused on the sustainable management of forested landscapes involving both forests and
environmentally responsible agricultural lands. Such a multi-functional landscape
approach would not only solve the problems of having to delineate forest-based and
agricultural-based products, but would also prevent duplications of efforts in the case that
within an area different NTFPs and its domesticated derivates are produced, which under
the present product-based certification system each require their own certification system.
NOTE
1
The four main development programmes are the EU financed ‘Coffee Improvement
Programme Phase 4’, a BMBF (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research)
sponsored collaborative research programme of Ethiopian and German scientists and
organizations on ‘Conservation and use of wild populations of Coffea arabica in the
montane rainforest of Ethiopia’, a PPP (private-public partnership) project on ‘Use and
conservation of wild Coffea arabicafinanced by GTZ, private trade companies and
NGOs, and the mainly EU-financed collaborative project ‘NTFP Southwest Ethiopia
Research and Development project’ implemented by Ethiopian, British and Dutch
scientists and organizations.
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... Ethiopia is the birth place of the Arabica coffee tree (MOT, 2012) as it originated from montane forests in south and southwest Ethiopia which form part of Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot region (Wiersum 2007). Coffee is vital to the cultural and socio trimethylxanthine), a nervous system of organic compounds It is naturally present in coffee and is alcoholic beverages. ...
... Coffee beans contain between 0.8 and 2.8% caffeine, depending on species and origin, and it contributes to 10 to 30% of the bitter taste of coffee brews . (2010) reported coffee bean, from which coffee is brewed as the world's Ethiopia is the birth place of the Arabica coffee tree (MOT, 2012) as it originated from montane forests in west Ethiopia which form part of Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot region (Wiersum et al., 2007). Coffee is vital to the cultural and socio-economic life as it sustains the livelihood for over 15 million people; provides considerable income from cas poor rural people and contributes more than 25% of the country's foreign exchange earnings (MOT, 2012). ...
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Coffee prepared from mixture of coffee leaf and spices (practiced commonly in the south western part of the southern nations, nationalities and peoples region (Kaffa, Sheka and Bench-Maji zones) in Ethiopia. One purpose of drinking CCLS, as believed by the people in the region, is for the sake of central nervous system stimulation. This study was intended to determine the caffeine content of the drink prepared by three different processes (Roasted, Raw and Mejengir types) in the specified spectrophotometry using water and chloroform as solvents for extraction evaluated the amount of caffeine intake from this drink by the indigenous people in the region The caffeine content was found to be in the range between 1030.76 ± 61.29 to 1459.10 ± 29.55 and 1157.28 ± 34.96 to 1566.16 ± 35.02 mg/L used for extraction. The caffeine content value of the Roasted type was difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) with that of the Mejengir type in both solvents. This study results could therefore justify the perception of the society in using the drink for stimulatory purposes. However, the CCLS consumption and therby the caffeine intake custom in the region brought the caffeine content > 340 amount that would affect the health condition of the people in the region.
... Garden coffee systems have intensive management: coffee plants are mostly regenerated from selected wild seedlings or nursery-raised cultivars. The original forest species are mostly limited to shade trees, grown in addition to a variety of other crops, such as fruit trees, tubers, spices and false banana (Enset ventricosum) (Wiersum et al., 2008Abebe et al., 2013. ...
... For example, a recent study by Mitiku, Nyssen and Maertens, (2018) using household and plot-survey data from Southwest Ethiopia finds that intensified garden coffee plots bring higher yields (858 kg per ha) than less intensified semi-forest coffee plots (531 kgs per ha). Similarly, a comparison by Wiersum et al. in 2008 showed that coffee yields were higher for garden coffee (450kg per ha) compared to semi-forest coffee (150 kg per ha). On average from the various sources, coffee yield are higher for garden coffee (approximately 542 kgs per ha) compared to semi-forest coffee (377 kgs per ha). ...
Technical Report
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Agriculture remains the most significant sector in the African economy as it contributes around 15% to its total Gross Domestic Product on an average (GDP; OECD/FAO, 2016). It provides employment to around 60% of the workforce and is able to feed half of the population with the remaining half of the food demand met by imports. Growing demand for food due to the increasing population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is one of the key challenges for agriculture. It is estimated that global population numbers will rise to about 9.7 billion by 2050 and about 1.3 billion will add to the existing African population. This will put enormous pressure on agriculture and food systems to respond in order to meet the food demand, reduce food imports and protect natural resources. At the same time, it provides an opportunity for African agriculture to respond more cohesively and improve value generated by this sector to society, the environment and the economy. This can help achieve self- sufficiency in food, increased employment to meet the needs of the growing workforce, and the protection of natural resources while contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A comprehensive action plan with carefully developed policies is required to achieve these outcomes. It is recognised that the global agriculture and food systems cause damages to the environment and human health. However, these are not captured by the current economic system, leading to perverse and pervasive outcomes for society and the environment. Therefore, this report aims to consider all social and environmental externalities – both negative and positive, in sub-Saharan African agriculture and food systems. Its goal is to reflect these in the economic system by evaluating comprehensive costs and benefits through an innovative, universal, and inclusive framework, the ‘TEEBAgriFood’ framework. This assessment intends to stimulate appropriate policy responses for sustainable agriculture and food systems to be developed and ensure food and nutritional security as well as economic prosperity for all in Africa. The report provides a regional analysis and narrative on the economics of the agriculture and food sector by focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the key positive and negative externalities it generates and the national and international policy context. These externalities are assessed with the TEEBAgriFood Evaluation Framework in three case studies: agroforestry (coffee/cocoa) in Ethiopia and Ghana, livestock in Tanzania, and rice in Senegal. Cocoa (Ghana) and coffee (Ethiopia) in Agroforestry systems This study quantifies the biophysical and social impacts and dependencies along the cocoa and coffee value chains in Ghana and Ethiopia, respectively (ICRAF, 2019). Its aim is to assess key negative and positive impacts to health, ecosystems and the economy of the processes associated with the value chains of the two commodity crops. This is achieved by applying the TEEB for agriculture and food (TEEBAgriFood) framework (TEEB, 2018). Following this framework, several invisible and visible benefits and costs within these value chains are identified, quantified, monetised and /or described. Most of these benefits and costs are represented in monetary values except for biodiversity, vegetative diversity and aquatic life diversity which were measured using diversity indices such as the Shannon-H index, the Simpsons index, the species richness index, or the Alpha index. Secondary data sourced from viii a variety of sources including peer reviewed journal articles and technical reports was used in the analysis. Livestock systems in Tanzania This study quantifies socio-economic and ecological externalities of value chain activities related to three livestock sectors in Tanzania using the TEEBAgriFood evaluation framework: the Pastoralist cattle system, the Backyard poultry system, and the Smallholder dairy system. The livestock described here has local value chains which are also examined in each case. Different actors exist in the pastoralists’ cattle value chain in the Arusha region. The major actors in the chain are producers (farmers), middlemen, traders, abattoirs, butchers, supermarkets, hotels and individual consumers (final consumers). However, middlemen dominate the market and are reported to be the major means of market information. Backyard poultry production in Tanzania is a traditional sector at the smallholder level and has an important position in the rural household economy, supplying high quality meat and eggs, as well as increasing income for rural farmers. Most of the milk produced originates from the traditional small holder dairy system, comprised of over 90% of the cattle population, and is consumed at household level. Only about 3% of the milk is filtered through to the formal market. Rice in Senegal The rice sector in Senegal is facing the strong imperative of increasing the domestic production and processing of rice. Several substantial donors have suggested that investment should be made in the rice sector. However, there are a number of alternative pathways leading towards that goal. For example, increasing rice production through conventional high- input methods could ramp up yields, but there are rising costs related to increased fertilizer, pesticide and water use. Large-scale rice value chain projects may propose equally large rice mills, but the opportunity to process rice in smaller units may enable greater use of rice by- products such as livestock feed and promote greater equity through community ownership. Different pathways have different implications for employment in the agriculture and food sector. By using a holistic framework to review the possible pathways, many diverse aspects can be brought into focus at the same time, looking at impacts on not just economic or produced capital but also social, human and natural capital. The application of the TEEBAgriFood framework and system modelling has shown that alternative systems based on FAO’s principles of agroecology can guide the further development of rice policies in Senegal and provide insights into policy opportunities and recommendations for capturing externalities into decision-making for better livelihood outcomes. Three case studies clearly examine the key aspects of the value chains of coffee, cocoa, livestock, and rice. This analysis also recommends alternative systems and scenarios for policy makers to consider in their respective countries. For example, shaded coffee and cocoa systems promote several public benefits and can be incentivised through markets and by government-provided subsidies. Livestock systems in Tanzania provide food for millions of rural dwellers and need further support through training and quality inputs in order to realise their full potential. Rice in Senegal can be produced by using the principles of agroecology, thereby saving inputs cost. These savings can then be provided directly to farmers and the ix R&D sector to support these multi-dimensional farming systems. Such approaches can lead to the development of self-sufficient systems in these countries. Further analysis is required at the continental scale, including key cereal crops that are essential for food security in SSA, in order to generate evidence to shift agriculture and food policies towards long term sustainability, the achievement of the SDGs and well-being for all. Recommendations Based on the analysis presented in earlier sections, some recommendations are suggested below. • Subsidies for inputs can be carefully investigated to target desired outcomes for society rather than the narrow focus of per hectare productivity. • FDI can be further channelled to invest in infrastructure required to support the agriculture sector such as roads, ports, storage, transport, finance, processing, and regulated markets. • Extension services can be further improved by including training about the multidimensional aspects of farming and the move away from per ha productivity. • There is a need to improve HDI by investing in education, children and women’s health, and environmental sustainability for society to be healthy, better educated and capable of making informed decisions about food. • The R&D sector needs investment and reforms. The current global agriculture system is geared towards a single, narrow focus that has to change. This research should trickle down to the African continent and SSA regions to transform agriculture and food systems. • Agriculture is vital for 9 out of 17 SDGs and is a prominent sector in Africa’s Agenda 2063. It therefore needs further attention from policy makers in terms of investment and national and regional policies. • There is a need to: o Identify change agents to bring this transformation. o Increase production in a more sustainable manner while absorbing a growing labour force. o Promote diversification based on high quality processed products. o Promote efficient and more equitable value chains. o Make farms and agricultural systems more resilient. o Develop regional markets and control international integration. o Design and implement structural policies and instruments. o Reform development aid aimed at facilitating the structural reform process. o Clearly articulate the objective and a shared vision.
... The income from coffee exports accounts for 10% of the annual government revenue, because of the large share the industry is given very high priority in Ethiopia. [3] There are more than 1,000 known genetic varieties of coffee in Ethiopia [4]. This number is staggering especially considering the closest country in terms of variety is Colombia with about 30 known varieties. ...
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Investors and other business persons have a desire to know about the future market price because, if the investors know about the future price of a certain commodity or stock it will help them to make appropriate business decisions and they can also get profit out of their investment. There are many previous researches that has been done on stock market predictions but there is no related research that has been done on Ethiopia commodity exchange (ECX). Performing future price prediction with better accuracy and performing comparative analysis between the algorithms for two of Ethiopia commodity exchange (ECX) items which are Coffee and Sesame as the research key objectives. Three different types of prediction algorithms to predict the future price, such as Linear Regression (LR), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) was utilized. There are limited researches worked on price prediction of ECX items specifically, the idea of the price prediction on different Stock markets like New York stock market Exchange and other commodity market items prediction in order to develop our research in ECX was presented. The study apart from predicting the future price, comparative analysis was implemented between the prediction algorithms that we used based on their performance. Two different datasets from ECX: coffee and sesame were used. The reason for the utilization of these datasets is, the commodity items are the largest export items in Ethiopia which makes them very important for Ethiopian economy, and the different datasets helps us to get the advantage of evaluating the algorithms with different number of datasets, since sesame dataset has 7205 instances and coffee dataset has 1540 instances and both of them has 11 attributes. We build an android application in order two implement our algorithms on mobile applications and see if it is possible to implement the prediction algorithms on mobile platforms and make it easy and accessible to users. We call this mobile application Ethiopia Coffee Prices Predictor (ECPP). This application will be used to display the prediction result of Ethiopia Coffee price for short period and it is designed in the way to be user friendly. The programming environment used to implement the prediction algorithms is python, java programming language to design our android application and we used PHP to implement the API, and finally we used MySQL database in order to store information’s online and make them accessible everywhere.
... Therefore, developing a special certification type for these areas, including mammal diversity among the criteria, could be important for better conservation of the habitat and the biodiversity in coffeegrowing areas. Wiersum et al. (2008) suggested an "area-based" certification approach for Ethiopia focusing on the sustainable management of overall landscapes that can operate at a scale most conducive to certification of a large number of smallholder farmers. It is, however, important to recognize that these coffee systems cannot fully replace the natural forests as a habitat, particularly for more specialized mammals like African buffaloes and leopards. ...
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Ethiopian shade coffee plantations are well documented to be bird-friendly and act as refuges for disappearing tree species. The extent to which these plantations support mammal conservation, as well as mammal sensitivity to coffee intensification, remain little studied. We studied the distribution and diversity of mammals under three coffee management systems of differing intensities (i.e., semi-forest, semi-plantation, and plantation) and in nearby natural forests in Belete-Gera Forest Priority Area, southwestern Ethiopia. We detected mammals using 30 infrared camera traps at 90 stations for a total of 4142 camera days. We used the Shannon-Wiener diversity index for diversity analysis, generalized linear mixed model for comparison of independent detection, and non-metric multidimensional scaling to show the mammalian community composition. We recorded 8815 digital videos and a total of 23 mammal species. The overall species richness, diversity, and detection of mammals did not differ between the two traditional shade coffee management systems and the natural forest but was lower in the plantation coffee system. The mammal community composition also shows variation in resilience to coffee management intensity, with primates appearing to be generally more tolerant to management intensification. We ultimately show that traditionally managed Ethiopian shade coffee farms shelter diverse mammal communities, comparable to those in nearby natural forests. Therefore, supporting traditional coffee management practices and certifying them as mammal-friendly should be implemented as strategies for the conservation of mammals, as natural forests continue to decline in Ethiopia.
... In all its forms, biomass currently provides about 1250 million TOE (Tons of Oil Equivalence) which is about 14% of the world's annual energy consumption. Biomass is a major source of energy in developing countries, where it provides 35% of all the energy requirements (Strehler & Stuetzle, 1987;Gemechu, 2009;Wiersum, Gole, Gatzweiler, Volkmann, Bognetteau, & Wirtu, 2008). The worldwide concern about CO 2 emissions and the reduction in the use of coal fuels have increased the interest in using biomass fuel for electricity production, because there is no net increase in CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion (Pandey, Soccol, Nigan, Brand, Mohan, & Rovossos, 2000). ...
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Nowadays our energy needs have grown exponentially corresponding with human population growth and technological advancement. Energy consumption linked to non-renewable resources contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and enhances resource depletion. Most of the researchers were proven that the worldwide concern about CO 2 emissions and the reduction in the use of coal fuels have increased the interest in using biomass fuel for electricity production, because there is no net increase in CO 2 emissions from biomass (agricultural residues such as straw, bagasse, coffee husk, and rice husks) combustion. Furthermore, coffee husk which has high energy potential was not taken into account for the generation of energy. However, this paper investigates the energy generation in coffee husk, and suggests coffee husk is an energy source. The datum was collected from the south western region of Ethiopia (Taipei town), and its equipment was selected. Coffee husk was tested experimentally in Addis Ababa University with Eager 300 software for running the equipment, storing the data and analyzing. The results obtained that calorific values were 18.98 MJ/kg. Overall the result demonstrates that the proposed coffee husk has high energy potential for the generation of energy.
... Coffee is proved to be one of an important engine of sustainable development in order to boost farmers above subsistence agriculture and then contribute to sustainable life style. So far there are four coffee production systems in the country notably: wild forest coffee, semi-forest coffee, garden coffee and plantation coffee production systems (Wirtu, 2007). Wild coffee is defined as coffee that grows and regenerates spontaneously in its natural habitat and is genetically different from known cultivars (Volkmann, 2008). ...
Ethiopia is believed to be the center of origin of Arabica coffee which accounts for nearly two-thirds of the world coffee market. The country ranks fifth in the world coffee production and nearly 15 million people support their livelihood in the coffee sector. However, coffee is prone to several diseases that attack its different parts and reduce its yield. Coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease which was considered a negligible disease is now becoming a major threat to coffee production in Ethiopia. A recent study indicates an upsurge in disease with an average incidence of CLR is 35.3%. Moreover, the disease spread to mid and highland coffee-growing areas, which were previously limited to lowland areas. Several disease management strategies have been implemented to manage the disease including cultural control, the use of biocontrol agents and host resistance. Moreover, the availability of wide germplasm for the selection of CLR disease resistance was reported in Ethiopia. However, only a few varieties were released for lowland coffee production system 30 years ago. This review discusses the status of CLR disease in Ethiopia. It also focuses on the impact of climate change on CLR epidemics and suggests possible schemes and strategies for managing the disease.
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Ethiopian Arabica coffee is produced in different agroforestry systems which differ in forest management intensity. In forest coffee systems (FC), coffee shrubs grow naturally in the understory of Afromontane forests with little human intervention, whereas in semi-forest coffee systems (SFC) thinning of the canopy and removal of the understory is applied. Coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease is a growing concern for coffee agroforestry, but to what extent infection pressure is affected by management intensity is poorly known. Here we assessed CLR infection through time across FC and SFC systems in SW-Ethiopia. CLR infection was significantly higher for SFC, with a gradual reduction of this difference during the beginning of dry season (November) through main rainy season of (July). Our findings also demonstrated that CLR infections were significantly lower in the FC system as compared to SFC system in both years 2015/16 and 2020/21. The higher CLR infection was partly explained by lower crown cover and higher human impact. We expect that reduced wind speed and droplet penetration under closed canopies and reduced human-facilitated spore dispersal are the dominating mechanisms behind lower CLR infection in FC systems, yet lower coffee density in FC may also play a role. Overall, our results indicate that although higher management intensity still generally results in higher total yields per hectare, proportionally larger losses due to CLR infection can be expected. Therefore, introducing more coffee genetic diversity, screening resistant coffee varieties and increasing canopy cover in the SFC will mitigate the CLR disease pressure and guarantee the sustainability of higher yields of the system in the future. Also, lower yields in the FC will be rewarded through providing price premiums so that farmers instantly get a higher price for their lower yield, guaranteeing livelihoods.
Article
Abstract Ethiopian shade coffee plantations are well documented to be bird-friendly and act as refuges for disappearing tree species. The extent to which these plantations support mammal conservation, as well as mammal sensitivity to coffee intensification, remain little studied. We studied the distribution and diversity of mammals under three coffee management systems of differing intensities (i.e., semi-forest, semi-plantation, and plantation) and in nearby natural forests in Belete-Gera Forest Priority Area, southwestern Ethiopia. We detected mammals using 30 infrared camera traps at 90 stations for a total of 4142 camera days. We used the Shannon-Wiener diversity index for diversity analysis, generalized linear mixed model for comparison of independent detection, and non-metric multidimensional scaling to show the mammalian community composition. We recorded 8815 digital videos and a total of 23 mammal species. The overall species richness, diversity, and detection of mammals did not differ between the two traditional shade coffee management systems and the natural forest but was lower in the plantation coffee system. The mammal community composition also shows variation in resilience to coffee management intensity, with primates appearing to be generally more tolerant to management intensification. We ultimately show that traditionally managed Ethiopian shade coffee farms shelter diverse mammal communities, comparable to those in nearby natural forests. Therefore, supporting traditional coffee management practices and certifying them as mammal-friendly should be implemented as strategies for the conservation of mammals, as natural forests continue to decline in Ethiopia.
Technical Report
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This study quantifies and qualifies the biophysical impacts and dependencies along the agroforestry cocoa and coffee value chains in Ghana and Ethiopia respectively. It also describes and, when possible estimates the value of negative and positive impacts to ecosystems and human health of the processes associated with the value chains of the two commodity crops. This was achieved by applying “The Economics for Ecosystem and Biodiversity for Agriculture and Food (TEEBAgriFood)” framework due to Obst and Sharma (2018). The Framework highlights the social, economic, and environmental elements as well inputs and outputs throughout the value chain.
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The ecology of “wild” or spontaneous Coffea arabica L. found in the Harenna forest, Bale, Ethiopia, is studied. In total, 61 species of trees and shrubs, 48 species of herbs and 19 species of climbers and stragglers were found in association with arabica coffee in the 45 sampled plots. Species richness was noted at altitudes between 1550 m and 1650 m. Of the exchangeable cations Ca ions are the most prevalent in the coffee stands and some relationships between availability of cations and coffee plants were noted. The coffee trees are slender, attaining a maximum circumference of only 40 cm. The population structure is suggestive of a young community also indicating that it represents “recent” introduction in the Harenna forest. Maximum development of the coffee plants was noted between 1390 m and 1450 m, and 1550 m to 1560 m. From ethnobotanical studies a number of issues emerged with the most thought-provoking being the dwindling number in the indigenous selectionists and conservationists in the coffee growing districts in Ethiopia.
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The Ethiopian rainforests are internationally renowned for their high biodiversity and their wild coffee (Coffea arabica) populations, but are severely threatened by deforestation. The remaining rainforests are used for wild coffee production. This study quantifies wild coffee yields from local management systems without artificial inputs, and analyses the impact of wild coffee management on the natural forest vegetation. Subsequently, the role of coffee certification for forest conservation is evaluated. The results show that wild coffee yields from undisturbed forest with low management intensity are extremely small. Intensive management in semi-forest coffee systems removes 30 % of the canopy trees and most undergrowth vegetation. This stimulates wild coffee growth and almost triples coffee yields, while jeopardizing forest biodiversity. Premium prices for wild coffee through certification are seen as one possibility to halt the deforestation process by adding economic value to the natural coffee forests. Particular certification criteria for wild coffee, however, do not exist yet. This study reviews currently present coffee certification schemes under, e.g., Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Rainforest Alliance and Utz Kapeh, and explores to what extent they can promote sustainable use and conservation of the Ethiopian coffee forests.
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The control of the origin of raw materials gains more and more in importance for the food industry, especially regarding traceability. Furthermore, protection of high quality products against food debasement or product piracy is demanded. In this article we introduce the use of a novel molecular biology method for the identification of wild coffee obtained from the Bonga forest, Ethiopia. The method establishes unambiguous patterns at the species or regional level, without requiring knowledge of the exact genomic sequences or in-between variances of the different samples analyzed. Based on this technique, safeguarding of high-value raw materials can be assured. Due to its robust nature, the method can feasibly be adapted to all kinds of biological materials and, for the first time therefore, allow area-wide species monitoring within food analysis.
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The predominant notion on institutionalising biodiversity conservation is that as a result of the features and functions of biodiversity as well as the attributes of the actors, institutional diversity and multi-level governance are required. Institutional diversity per se, however, is not a panacea for successful biodiversity conservation and even less useful for identifying starting points for action. The Ethiopian case demonstrates what happens when—according to theory—the government "steps aside" and the "market works its wonders". After recognising the importance of institutional diversity, the challenge is to shape its context-specific patterns by identifying starting points for action. This requires guidance, mediation, and facilitation. The attempt to conserve Ethiopian coffee forests illustrates that the government, NGOs, local communities as well as private companies have their individual interests but also share a common vision to conserve forests. Well coordinated collective action is identified as a necessary consequence of institutional diversity.
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A preliminary survey of seven coffee producing Awrajas (Provinces) in eastern Ethiopia revealed that there is a traditional tree crop based agroforestry system being practised by the farmers. Coffee (C. arabica) was found to grow under the shade of several trees, 16 species, usually intercropped by one or several, a total of 15, important grain, fruit, vegetable, stimulant, oil-seed and spice crops. The majority of the trees, 69%, is leguminous and Ficus spp. The system is characterized by the integration of crops, livestock and sometimes apiculture. Recommendations are made for future studies.
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Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The valuation is based on an assessment of the potential benefits and costs of the use of C. arabica genetic information in breeding programs for enhanced coffee cultivars. The study considers the breeding for three types of enhanced cultivars: increased pest and disease resistance, low caffeine contents and increased yields. Costs and benefits are compared for a 30 years discounting period, and result in a net present value of coffee genetic resources of 1458 and 420 million US$, at discount rates of 5% and 10%, respectively. The value estimate is prone to considerable uncertainty, with major sources of uncertainty being the length of breeding programs required to transfer valuable genetic information into new coffee cultivars, and the potential adoption rate of such enhanced cultivars. Nevertheless, the study demonstrates the high economic value of genetic resources, and it underlines the need for urgent action to halt the currently ongoing, rapid deforestation of Ethiopian highland forests.