Growth of Belgian and Norwegian children compared to the WHO growth standards: Prevalence below -2 SD and above +2 SD and the effect of breastfeeding

Section for Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway.
Archives of Disease in Childhood (Impact Factor: 2.9). 11/2009; 96(10):916-21. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2009.166157
Source: PubMed


New national growth references have been published in Belgium and Norway. The WHO recommends universal use of their 2006 Child Growth Standards based on data from breastfed children.
To compare the growth of Belgian and Norwegian children with the WHO standards.
6985 children 0-5 years of age from Belgium and Norway.
Proportion of children below -2 SD and above +2 SD of the WHO standards was calculated for length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference. Average SD scores of exclusively breastfed children of non-smoking mothers were compared with national reference data and with the WHO standards.
Generally, the number of Belgian and Norwegian children below -2 SD lines of the WHO standards was lower and above +2 SD higher than expected. The largest differences were for head circumference (0.97% Belgian and 0.18% Norwegian children below -2 SD, 6.55% Belgian and 6.40% Norwegian children above +2 SD) and the smallest for length/height (1.25% Belgian and 1.43% Norwegian children below -2 SD, 3.47% Belgian and 2.81% Norwegian children above +2 SD). The growth pattern of breastfed children of non-smoking mothers was in both countries more alike the local national growth references than the WHO standards.
There are significant deviations in the proportion of children outside normal limits (±2 SD) of the WHO standards. This was true for all children, including those who were exclusively breastfed. Hence, adoption of the WHO growth charts could have consequences for clinical decision-making. These findings advocate the use of national references in Belgium and Norway, also for breastfed children.

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    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / e a r l h u m d e v decisions are often based on data extracted by an often ethnicallyhomogenous native population [10] [11] and may not be applicable to children of non-Caucasian and immigrant parents [12]. For example, Asian infants have less severe hyaline membrane disease but worse retinopathy of prematurity [13]. "
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