Impact of Primary Coronary Angioplasty Delay on Myocardial Salvage, Infarct Size, and Microvascular Damage in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161, Italy.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 12/2009; 54(23):2145-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.08.024
Source: PubMed


We investigated the extent and nature of myocardial damage by using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in relation to different time-to-reperfusion intervals.
Previous studies evaluating the influence of time to reperfusion on infarct size (IS) and myocardial salvage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have yielded conflicting results.
Seventy patients with STEMI successfully treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 h from symptom onset underwent CMR 3 +/- 2 days after hospital admission. Patients were subcategorized into 4 time-to-reperfusion (symptom onset to balloon) quartiles: < or =90 min (group I, n = 19), >90 to 150 min (group II, n = 17), >150 to 360 min (group III, n = 17), and >360 min (group IV, n = 17). T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery and late gadolinium enhancement CMR were used to characterize reversible and irreversible myocardial injury (area at risk and IS, respectively); salvaged myocardium was defined as the normalized difference between extent of T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery and late gadolinium enhancement.
Shorter time-to-reperfusion (group I) was associated with smaller IS and microvascular obstruction and larger salvaged myocardium. Mean IS progressively increased overtime: 8% (group I), 11.7% (group II), 12.7% (group III), and 17.9% (group IV), p = 0.017; similarly, MVO was larger in patients reperfused later (0.5%, 1.5%, 3.7%, and 6.6%, respectively, p = 0.047). Accordingly, salvaged myocardium markedly decreased when reperfusion occurred >90 min of coronary occlusion (8.5%, 3.2%, 2.4%, and 2.1%, respectively, p = 0.004).
In patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, time to reperfusion determines the extent of reversible and irreversible myocardial injury assessed by CMR. In particular, salvaged myocardium is markedly reduced when reperfusion occurs >90 min of coronary occlusion.

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Available from: Massimo Mancone, Mar 04, 2014
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    • "Alternatively, semiautomated analyses using simple image intensity thresholds are also used to improve objectivity and reproducibility. The 5-SD threshold was used widely in recent clinical studies for the definition of myocardial infarction on late CE-CMR [21] [22]. In the present study, early enhancement defined only by the 2-SD threshold correlated with myocardial edema in subendocardial infarction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A recent report demonstrated that early enhancement on contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CE-CMR) correlated with myocardial edema detected by T2-weighted CMR in reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the time at which the enhancement in salvaged myocardium disappears is yet to be determined. We aimed to examine the time course of the enhancement with the use of different quantification techniques and to compare the extent of enhancement with the myocardial edema. Methods and results: CE-CMR was performed at 2-20 min after gadolinium administration in 32 AMI patients. The extent of enhancement (% myocardium) was quantified by manual delineation and the threshold methods of 2-5 SDs above remote myocardium. In subendocardial infarct, the enhancement was greatest at 2 min regardless of the quantification techniques and decreased with time, particularly in the first 6 min. In transmural infarct, the change in the size of enhancement was modest although the time course of enhancement varied according to the quantification techniques. The sizes of enhancement were not significantly different between 15 and 20 min regardless of the techniques and infarct transmurality. The best agreement with myocardial edema was found at 2 min with average differences of 0.5% and -1.2% and limits of agreement of ±20.2% and ±21.2% for the manual and 2-SD techniques, respectively. Conclusions: The optimal timing for delineation of salvaged myocardium on CE-CMR is at 2min when the manual or 2-SD technique was employed. Imaging needs to be completed in a short time (ideally within a minute) because of rapid reduction of enhancement in salvaged myocardium.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Cardiology
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    • "Here, we demonstrate that MVO occurs frequently in all forms of reperfusion therapy for STEMI, but also in those presenting late, receiving no specific reperfusion therapy. Although IS and the extent of MVO appeared to be greatest in those receiving reperfusion late (R-PCI or late PCI]), this difference was not statistically significant when adjusted for TTR, an important determinant of IS [18,19] and prognosis [20] following PPCI. Indeed, there was a similar prevalence and trend towards increased extent of MVO in patients receiving no reperfusion therapy compared with those undergoing timely reperfusion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Microvascular obstruction (MVO) describes suboptimal tissue perfusion despite restoration of infarct-related artery flow. There are scarce data on Infarct Size (IS) and MVO in relation to the mode and timing of reperfusion. We sought to characterise the prevalence and extent of microvascular injury and IS using Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), in relation to the mode of reperfusion following acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Methods CMR infarct characteristics were measured in 94 STEMI patients (age 61.0 ± 13.1 years) at 1.5 T. Seventy-three received reperfusion therapy: primary percutaneous coronary-intervention (PPCI, n = 47); thrombolysis (n = 12); rescue PCI (R-PCI, n = 8), late PCI (n = 6). Twenty-one patients presented late (>12 hours) and did not receive reperfusion therapy. Results IS was smaller in PPCI (19.8 ± 13.2% of LV mass) and thrombolysis (15.2 ± 10.1%) groups compared to patients in the late PCI (40.0 ± 15.6%) and R-PCI (34.2 ± 18.9%) groups, p <0.001. The prevalence of MVO was similar across all groups and was seen at least as frequently in the non-reperfused group (15/21, [76%] v 33/59, [56%], p = 0.21) and to a similar magnitude (1.3 (0.0-2.8) v 0.4 [0.0-2.9]% LV mass, p = 0.36) compared to patients receiving early reperfusion therapy. In the 73 reperfused patients, time to reperfusion, ischaemia area at risk and TIMI grade post-PCI were the strongest independent predictors of IS and MVO. Conclusions In patients with acute STEMI, CMR-measured MVO is not exclusive to reperfusion therapy and is primarily related to ischaemic time. This finding has important implications for clinical trials that use CMR to assess the efficacy of therapies to reduce reperfusion injury in STEMI.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    • "Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) causes 12.8% of all deaths in both developed and developing countries, making it the most prevalent cause of death in these locations [1]. This high mortality percentage is mainly caused by pre-hospital delays in the treatment of patients living in areas without specialized services or nearby interventional cardiology units [2]–[5]. Although Brazil does not have exact estimates of individuals seeking health services after symptoms suggestive of IHD, according to a national healthcare database in 2010 there were 221,898 hospital admissions for IHD, with 99,725 deaths (8.77% of the overall total of deaths in the country), with 37,688 people dying before reaching a hospital [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: High technology in the field of interventional cardiology applied in tertiary hospitals has brought enormous benefits in the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, IHD mortality rates remain high. We analyzed the relationship between IHD mortality rate and the socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic conditions in 399 cities in Parana state, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and evaluated through Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. GeoDa™ was used to analyze 29.351 deaths across 399 cities. We found a positive spatial autocorrelation regarding IHD mortality (I = 0.5913, p = 0.001). There was a significant positive association between each of three socioeconomic and demographic indicators and IHD mortality rate: Population Elderly Index (I = 0.3436), Illiteracy Rate (I = 0.1873) and City Development Index (I = 0.0900). In addition, two indicators presented significant negative association with IHD mortality rate: Adjusted Population Size (I = -0.1216) and Gross Domestic Product (I = -0.0864). We also found a positive association between IHD mortality rates and the geographic distances between patients' city of residence and their corresponding regional referral centers in interventional cardiology (I = 0.3368). Cities located within Regional Health Units with Reference Interventional Cardiology Center presented a significantly lower average specific mortality rate by IHD. The high mortality rate by IHD within the Regional Health Units was not restricted to socioeconomic and demographic variables, but dependent on the distance between each city and their reference interventional cardiology center. We conclude that geographic factors play a significant role in IHD mortality within cities. These findings have important policy implications regarding the geographic distribution of cardiac health care networks in Latin America and in other emerging countries.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
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